Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 117
Filtrar
1.
Cardiol J ; 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ST2 is a circulating biomarker that is well established for predicting outcome in heart failure (HF). This is the first study to look at ST2 concentrations in optimally treated patients with stable but significant left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) compared to patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS: Two cohorts were retrospectively studied: 94 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe AS (63 with normal ejection fraction [EF] and 31 with reduced EF), and 50 patients with severe LVSD from non-valvular causes. ST2 pre-procedural samples were taken, and repeated again at 3 and 6 months. Patients were followed-up for 2 years. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: Baseline concentrations of soluble ST2 did not differ significantly between the HF group and AS group with normal EF (EF ≥ 50%). However, in the AS group with a low EF (EF < 50%) ST2 concentrations were significantly higher that the HF group (p = 0.009). New York Heart Association class IV HF, baseline N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and gender were all independent predictors of soluble ST2 (sST2) baseline concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Raised ST2 concentrations in the context of severe AS may be a marker for subclinical or clinical left ventricular dysfunction. More research is required to assess its use for assessment of prognosis and response to treatment.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132222

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the proportion of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who are eligible for sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) based on the European Medicines Agency/Food and Drug Administration (EMA/FDA) label, the PARADIGM-HF trial and the 2016 ESC guidelines, and the association between eligibility and outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Outpatients with HFrEF in the ESC-EORP-HFA Long-Term Heart Failure (HF-LT) Registry between March 2011 and November 2013 were considered. Criteria for LCZ696 based on EMA/FDA label, PARADIGM-HF and ESC guidelines were applied. Of 5443 patients, 2197 and 2373 had complete information for trial and guideline eligibility assessment, and 84%, 12% and 12% met EMA/FDA label, PARADIGM-HF and guideline criteria, respectively. Absent PARADIGM-HF criteria were low natriuretic peptides (21%), hyperkalemia (4%), hypotension (7%) and sub-optimal pharmacotherapy (74%); absent Guidelines criteria were LVEF>35% (23%), insufficient NP levels (30%) and sub-optimal pharmacotherapy (82%); absent label criteria were absence of symptoms (New York Heart Association class I). When a daily requirement of ACEi/ARB ≥ 10 mg enalapril (instead of ≥ 20 mg) was used, eligibility rose from 12% to 28% based on both PARADIGM-HF and guidelines. One-year heart failure hospitalization was higher (12% and 17% vs. 12%) and all-cause mortality lower (5.3% and 6.5% vs. 7.7%) in registry eligible patients compared to the enalapril arm of PARADIGM-HF. CONCLUSIONS: Among outpatients with HFrEF in the ESC-EORP-HFA HF-LT Registry, 84% met label criteria, while only 12% and 28% met PARADIGM-HF and guideline criteria for LCZ696 if requiring ≥ 20 mg and ≥ 10 mg enalapril, respectively. Registry patients eligible for LCZ696 had greater heart failure hospitalization but lower mortality rates than the PARADIGM-HF enalapril group.

3.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129923

RESUMO

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has published a series of guidelines on heart failure (HF) over the last 25 years, most recently in 2016. Given the amount of new information that has become available since then, the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC recognized the need to review and summarise recent developments in a consensus document. Here we report from the HFA workshop that was held in January 2019 in Frankfurt, Germany. This expert consensus report is neither a guideline update nor a position statement, but rather a summary and consensus view in the form of consensus recommendations. The report describes how these guidance statements are supported by evidence, it makes some practical comments, and it highlights new research areas and how progress might change the clinical management of HF. We have avoided re-interpretation of information already considered in the 2016 ESC/HFA guidelines. Specific new recommendations have been made based on the evidence from major trials published since 2016, including sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, MitraClip for functional mitral regurgitation, atrial fibrillation ablation in HF, tafamidis in cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis, rivaroxaban in HF, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in non-ischaemic HF, and telemedicine for HF. In addition, new trial evidence from smaller trials and updated meta-analyses have given us the chance to provide refined recommendations in selected other areas. Further, new trial evidence is due in many of these areas and others over the next 2 years, in time for the planned 2021 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure.

4.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 33(4): 461-470, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PIROUETTE (PIRfenidOne in patients with heart failUre and preserved lEfT venTricular Ejection fraction) trial is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the anti-fibrotic pirfenidone in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and myocardial fibrosis. HFpEF is a diverse syndrome associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Myocardial fibrosis is a key pathophysiological mechanism of HFpEF and myocardial fibrotic burden is strongly and independently associated with adverse outcome. Pirfenidone is an oral anti-fibrotic agent, without haemodynamic effect, that leads to regression of myocardial fibrosis in preclinical models. It has proven clinical effectiveness in pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: The PIROUETTE trial is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of 52 weeks of treatment with pirfenidone in patients with chronic HFpEF (symptoms and signs of heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 45%, elevated natriuretic peptides [BNP ≥ 100 pg/ml or NT-proBNP ≥ 300 pg/ml; or BNP ≥ 300 pg/ml or NT-proBNP ≥ 900 pg/ml if in atrial fibrillation]) and myocardial fibrosis (extracellular matrix (ECM) volume ≥ 27% measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance). The primary outcome measure is change in myocardial ECM volume. A sub-study will investigate the relationship between myocardial fibrosis and myocardial energetics, and the impact of pirfenidone, using 31phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. DISCUSSION: PIROUETTE will determine whether pirfenidone is superior to placebo in relation to regression of myocardial fibrosis and improvement in myocardial energetics in patients with HFpEF and myocardial fibrosis (NCT02932566). CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02932566) https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02932566.

5.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). The presence of AF is associated with adverse prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) but little is known about its impact in AHF. METHODS: Data were collected between April 2007 and March 2013 across 185 (> 95%) hospitals in England and Wales from patients with a primary death or a discharge diagnosis of AHF. We investigated the association between the presence of AF and all-cause mortality during the index hospital admission, at 30 days and 1 year post-discharge. RESULTS: Of 96,593 patients admitted with AHF, 44,642 (46%) were in sinus rhythm (SR) and 51,951 (54%) in AF. Patients with AF were older (mean age 79.8 (79.7-80) versus 74.7 (74.5-74.7) years; p < 0.001), than those in SR. In a multivariable analysis, AF was independently associated with mortality at all time points, in hospital (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, p < 0.0001), 30 days (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.19, p < 0.0001), and 1 year (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.12, p < 0.0001). In subgroup analyses, AF was independently associated with worse 30-day outcome irrespective of sex, ventricular phenotype and in all age groups except in those aged between 55 and 74 years. CONCLUSION: AF is independently associated with adverse prognosis in AHF during admission and up to 1 year post-discharge. As the clinical burden of concomitant AF and AHF increases, further refinement in the detection, treatment and prevention of AF-related complications may have a role in improving patient outcomes.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 285: 40-46, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most trials of patients hospitalized for heart failure focus on breathlessness (alveolar pulmonary oedema) but worsening peripheral oedema is also an important presentation. We investigated the relationship between the severity of peripheral oedema on admission and outcome amongst patients with a primary discharge death or diagnosis of heart failure. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that severity of peripheral oedema is associated with length of hospital stay and mortality. METHODS: Patient variables reported to the National Heart Failure Audit for England & Wales between April 2008 and March 2013 were included in this analysis. Peripheral oedema was classified as 'none', 'mild', 'moderate' or 'severe'. Length of stay, mortality during the index admission and for up to three years after discharge are reported. RESULTS: Of 121,214 patients, peripheral oedema on admission was absent in 24%, mild in 24%, moderate in 33% and severe in 18%. Median length of stay was, respectively, 6, 7, 9 and 12 days (P- < 0.001), index admission mortality was 7%, 8%, 10% and 16% (P- < 0.001) and mortality at a median follow-up of 344 (IQR 94-766) days was 39%, 46%, 52% and 59%. In an adjusted multi-variable Cox model, the hazard ratio for death was 1.51 for severe (P- < 0.001, CI 1.50-1.53), 1.21 for moderate (P- < 0.001, CI 1.20-1.22) and 1.04 (P- < 0.001, CI 1.02-1.05) for mild peripheral oedema compared to patients without peripheral oedema at presentation. CONCLUSION: Length of hospital stay and mortality during index admission and after discharge increased progressively with increasing severity of peripheral oedema at admission.

7.
Circulation ; 139(21): 2386-2398, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron repletion augments exercise capacity in chronic heart failure (HF), but there is a lack of mechanistic data explaining how iron could augment exercise performance despite minimal changes in hemoglobin (Hb). Besides Hb, iron is an obligate component of mitochondrial enzymes that generate cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine (PCr). Dynamic phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive tool that quantifies in vivo muscle energetics by measuring the kinetics of PCr recovery after exertion. We tested the hypothesis that intravenous iron repletion in chronic HF enhances skeletal muscle energetics as reflected by shorter PCr recovery half-times (PCr t1/2) on phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: We enrolled 40 patients (50% anemic) with chronic HF, New York Heart Association class ≥II, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%, and iron deficiency (ferritin<100 µg/L or 100-300 µg/L with transferrin saturation <20%). Subjects underwent stratified (anemic versus nonanemic) randomization (1:1) to a single, double-blinded, total dose infusion of iron isomaltoside or saline placebo with end points reassessed early at 2 weeks posttreatment to minimize confounding from exercise adaptation. The primary end point was PCr t1/2 at 2 weeks. Secondary end points included ADP recovery half-time (ADP t1/2; energetic marker), iron status, symptoms, Hb, exercise capacity, and safety. RESULTS: In the total population, treatment groups were similar at baseline. At 2 weeks, iron isomaltoside improved PCr t1/2 (adjusted difference, -6.8 s; 95% CI, 11.5 to -2.1; P=0.006), ADP t1/2 (-5.3 s; 95% CI, -9.7 to -0.9; P=0.02), ferritin (304 ng/mL; 95% CI, 217-391; P<0.0001), transferrin saturation (6.8%; 95% CI, 2.7-10.8; P=0.002), New York Heart Association class (-0.23; 95% CI, -0.46 to -0.01; P=0.04), resting respiratory rate (-0.7 breaths/min; 95% CI, -1.2 to -0.2; P=0.009), and postexercise Borg dyspnea score (-2.0; 95% CI, -3.7 to -0.3; P=0.04), but not Hb (2.4 g/L; 95% CI, -3.5 to 8.4; P=0.41). Adverse events were similar between groups. In subgroup analyses, iron isomaltoside improved PCr t1/2 in anemic (-8.4 s; 95% CI, -16.7 to -0.2; P=0.04) and nonanemic (-5.2 s; 95% CI, -10.6 to 0.2; P=0.06) cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic HF and iron deficiency, a total repletion dose of iron isomaltoside given at a single sitting is well tolerated and associated with faster skeletal muscle PCr t1/2 at 2 weeks, implying better mitochondrial function. Augmented skeletal muscle energetics might therefore be an important mechanism via which iron repletion confers benefits in chronic HF despite minimal Hb changes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2012-005592-13/GB . Unique identifier: EudraCT 2012-005592-13.

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311713

RESUMO

Iron deficiency is common in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and is associated with reduced exercise performance, impaired health-related quality of life and an increased risk of mortality, irrespective of whether or not anaemia is present. Iron deficiency is a serious but treatable condition. Several randomized controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of intravenous (IV) iron, primarily IV ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), to correct iron deficiency in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), resulting in improvements in exercise performance, CHF symptoms and health-related quality of life. The importance of addressing the issue of iron deficiency in patients with CHF is reflected in the 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) heart failure guidelines, which recognize iron deficiency as an important co-morbidity, independent of anaemia. These guidelines recommend that all newly diagnosed heart failure patients are routinely tested for iron deficiency and that IV FCM should be considered as a treatment option in symptomatic patients with HFrEF and iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 100 µg/L, or ferritin 100-299 µg/L and transferrin saturation < 20%). Despite these specific recommendations, there is still a lack of practical, easy-to-follow advice on how to diagnose and treat iron deficiency in clinical practice. This article is intended to complement the current 2016 ESC heart failure guidelines by providing practical guidance to all health care professionals relating to the procedures for screening, diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency in patients with CHF.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 122(12): 2075-2079, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309625

RESUMO

Plasma N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NTproBNP) is known to increase with age, however, the performance of this biomaker is unclear in patients >80. This study sought to define the diagnostic accuracy of plasma NTproBNP in patients >80 in a large unselected population of heart failure (HF) patients admitted to a Tertiary Hospital in the United Kingdom. 1,995 consecutive patients over a 12 month period were screened for HF through our NTproBNP led HF service. 413 patients had their first presentation of HF and 36.1% of these patients were >80. There was a reduction in accuracy of NTproBNP with age according to the area under the curve, with an area under the curve for all HF patients of 0.734 and a 7.5% reduction in receiver operating characteristic curve area for patients >80 years compared with those under 60 to 79 years of age. The lowest NTproBNP recorded for patients with HF >80 years of age was 466 pg/ml. In HF patients >80, 40.6% patients were diagnosed with HFrEF, 31.1% with HFpEF and 28.2% with HFmrEF. Overall NTproBNP is less accurate at identifying HF in patients >80 years of age and the lowest NTproBNP recorded for a HF patient was 466 pg/ml suggesting that the NTproBNP threshold for ruling out HF in patients >80 years of age should be modified.

11.
Open Heart ; 5(2): e000811, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228905

RESUMO

Objective: Mortality amongst patients hospitalised for heart failure (HHF) in Western and Asian countries may differ, but this has not been investigated using individual patient-level data (IPLD). We sought to remedy this through rigorous statistical analysis of HHF registries and variable selection from a systematic literature review. Methods and results: IPLD from registries of HHF in Japan (n=3781) and the UK (n=894) were obtained. A systematic literature review identified 23 models for predicting outcome of HHF. Five variables appearing in 10 or more reports were strongly related to prognosis (systolic blood pressure, serum sodium concentration, age, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine). To compare mortality in the UK and Japan, variables were imputed in a propensity model using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) and IPTW with logistic regression (doubly robust IPTW). Overall, patients in the UK were sicker and in-patient and post-discharge mortalities were greater, suggesting that the threshold for hospital admission was higher. Covariate-adjusted in-hospital mortality was similar in the UK and Japan (IPTW OR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.86), but 180-day postdischarge mortality was substantially higher in the UK (doubly robust IPTW OR: 2.33, 95% CI 1.58 to 3.43). Conclusions: Despite robust methods to adjust for differences in patient characteristics and disease severity, HHF patients in the UK have roughly twice the mortality at 180 days compared with those in Japan. Similar analyses should be done using other data sets and in other countries to determine the consistency of these findings and identify factors that might inform healthcare policy and improve outcomes.

12.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 21: 1-6, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202782

RESUMO

Background: The new category of heart failure (HF), Heart Failure with mid range Ejection Fraction (HFmrEF) has recently been proposed with recent publications reporting that HFmrEF represents a transitional phase. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with HFmrEF and to establish what proportion of patients transitioned to other types of HF, and how this affected clinical outcomes. Methods and results: Patients were diagnosed with HF according to the 2016 ESC guidelines. Clinical outcomes and variables were recorded for all consecutive in-patients referred to the heart failure service. In total, 677 patients with new HF were identified; 25.6% with HFpEF, 21% with HFmrEF and 53.5% with HFrEF. While clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of HFmrEF were intermediate between HFrEF and HFpEF, HFmrEF patients had the best outcome, with higher mortality in the HFrEF population (p 0.02) and higher HF rehospitalisation rates in the HFpEF population (p < 0.01).38.7% of the HFmrEF patients transitioned (56.4% to HFpEF and 43.6% to HFrEF) with fewest deaths in the patients that transitioned to HFpEF (p 0.04), and fewest HF readmissions in the patients that remained as HFmrEF (<0.01). Conclusion: HFmrEF patients had the best outcomes, compared to high rates of mortality seen in patients with HFrEF and high rates of HF readmissions seen in patients with HFpEF. Only 1/3 of HFmrEF patients transitioned during follow up, with the lowest mortality seen in patients transitioning to HFpEF.

13.
Syst Rev ; 7(1): 112, 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We estimated the effectiveness of serial B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) blood testing to guide up-titration of medication compared with symptom-guided up-titration of medication in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We searched: MEDLINE (Ovid) 1950 to 9/06/2016; Embase (Ovid), 1980 to 2016 week 23; the Cochrane Library; ISI Web of Science (Citations Index and Conference Proceedings). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality; secondary outcomes were death related to HF, cardiovascular death, all-cause hospital admission, hospital admission for HF, adverse events, and quality of life. IPD were sought from all RCTs identified. Random-effects meta-analyses (two-stage) were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CIs) across RCTs, including HR estimates from published reports of studies that did not provide IPD. We estimated treatment-by-covariate interactions for age, gender, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, HF type; diabetes status and baseline BNP subgroups. Dichotomous outcomes were analysed using random-effects odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. RESULTS: We identified 14 eligible RCTs, five providing IPD. BNP-guided therapy reduced the hazard of hospital admission for HF by 19% (13 RCTs, HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.98) but not all-cause mortality (13 RCTs; HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.01) or cardiovascular mortality (5 RCTs; OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.16). For all-cause mortality, there was a significant interaction between treatment strategy and age (p = 0.034, 11 RCTs; HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.92, patients < 75 years old and HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.84-1.37, patients ≥ 75 years old); ejection fraction (p = 0.026, 11 RCTs; HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-0.99, patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); and HR 1.33, 95% CI 0.83-2.11, patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)). Adverse events were significantly more frequent with BNP-guided therapy vs. symptom-guided therapy (5 RCTs; OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.60). CONCLUSION: BNP-guided therapy did not reduce mortality but reduced HF hospitalisation. The overall quality of the evidence varied from low to very low. The relevance of these findings to unselected patients, particularly those managed by community generalists, are unclear. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42013005335.

14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(11): 1505-1535, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806100

RESUMO

This article updates the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2007 classification of advanced heart failure and describes new diagnostic and treatment options for these patients. Recognizing the patient with advanced heart failure is critical to facilitate timely referral to advanced heart failure centres. Unplanned visits for heart failure decompensation, malignant arrhythmias, co-morbidities, and the 2016 ESC guidelines criteria for the diagnosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are included in this updated definition. Standard treatment is, by definition, insufficient in these patients. Inotropic therapy may be used as a bridge strategy, but it is only a palliative measure when used on its own, because of the lack of outcomes data. Major progress has occurred with short-term mechanical circulatory support devices for immediate management of cardiogenic shock and long-term mechanical circulatory support for either a bridge to transplantation or as destination therapy. Heart transplantation remains the treatment of choice for patients without contraindications. Some patients will not be candidates for advanced heart failure therapies. For these patients, who are often elderly with multiple co-morbidities, management of advanced heart failure to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life should be emphasized. Robust evidence from prospective studies is lacking for most therapies for advanced heart failure. There is an urgent need to develop evidence-based treatment algorithms to prolong life when possible and in accordance with patient preferences, increase life quality, and reduce the burden of hospitalization in this vulnerable patient population.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(8): 1179-1190, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846026

RESUMO

AIMS: Prognostic models for hospitalized heart failure (HHF) were developed predominantly for patients of European origin in the United States of America; it is unclear whether they perform similarly in other health care systems or for different ethnicities. We sought to validate published prediction models for HHF in the United Kingdom (UK) and Japan. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients in the UK (n =894) and Japan (n =3158) were prospectively enrolled and were similar in terms of sex (∼60% men) and median age (∼77 years). Models predicted that British patients would have a higher mortality than Japanese, which was indeed true both for in-hospital (4.8% vs. 2.5%) and 180-day (20.7% vs. 9.5%) mortality. The model c-statistics for the published/derivation (range 0.70-0.76) and Japanese (range 0.75-0.77) cohorts were similar and higher than for the UK (0.62-0.75) but models consistently overestimated mortality in Japan. For in-hospital mortality, the OPTIMIZE-HF model performed best, providing similar discrimination in published/derivation, UK and Japanese cohorts [c-indices: 0.75 (0.74-0.77); 0.75 (0.68-0.81); and 0.77 (0.70-0.83), respectively], and least overestimated mortality in Japan. For 180-day mortality, the c-statistics for the ASCEND-HF model were similar in published/derivation (0.70) and UK [0.69 (0.64-0.74)] cohorts but higher in Japan [0.75 (0.71-0.79)]; calibration was good in the UK but again overestimated mortality in Japan. CONCLUSION: Calibration of published prediction models appears moderately accurate and unbiased when applied to British patients but consistently overestimates mortality in Japan. Identifying the reason why patients in Japan have a better than predicted prognosis is of great interest.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(5): 853-872, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520964

RESUMO

The coexistence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF), either with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is frequent (30-40% of patients) and associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization, all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The most important causes of HF in T2DM are coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension and a direct detrimental effect of T2DM on the myocardium. T2DM is often unrecognized in HF patients, and vice versa, which emphasizes the importance of an active search for both disorders in the clinical practice. There are no specific limitations to HF treatment in T2DM. Subanalyses of trials addressing HF treatment in the general population have shown that all HF therapies are similarly effective regardless of T2DM. Concerning T2DM treatment in HF patients, most guidelines currently recommend metformin as the first-line choice. Sulphonylureas and insulin have been the traditional second- and third-line therapies although their safety in HF is equivocal. Neither glucagon-like preptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, nor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors reduce the risk for HF hospitalization. Indeed, a DPP4 inhibitor, saxagliptin, has been associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization. Thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) are contraindicated in patients with (or at risk of) HF. In recent trials, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, empagliflozin and canagliflozin, have both shown a significant reduction in HF hospitalization in patients with established CV disease or at risk of CV disease. Several ongoing trials should provide an insight into the effectiveness of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with HFrEF and HFpEF in the absence of T2DM.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 257: 131-136, 2018 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506684

RESUMO

AIMS: The 2014 National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on the management of acute heart failure recommended using a plasma NT-proBNP threshold of 300pg/ml to assist in ruling out the diagnosis of heart failure (HF), updating previous guidelines recommending using a threshold of 400pg/ml. NICE based their recommendations on 6 studies performed in other countries. This study sought to determine the diagnostic and economic implications of using these thresholds in a large unselected UK population. METHODS: Patient and clinical demographics were recorded for all consecutive suspected HF patients over 12months, as well as clinical outcomes including time to HF hospitalisation and time to death (follow up 15.8months). RESULTS: Of 1995 unselected patients admitted with clinically suspected HF, 1683 (84%) had a NTproBNP over the current NICE recommended threshold, of which 35% received a final diagnosis of HF. Lowering the threshold from 400 to 300pg/ml would have involved screening an additional 61 patients and only would have identified one new patient with HF (sensitivity 0.985, NPV 0.976, area under the curve (AUC) at 300pg/ml 0.67; sensitivity 0.983, NPV 0.977, AUC 0.65 at 400pg/ml). The economic implications of lowering the threshold would have involved additional costs of £42,842.04 (£702.33 per patient screened, or £ 42,824.04 per new HF patient). CONCLUSION: Applying the recent updated NICE guidelines to an unselected real world population increases the AUC but would have a significant economic impact and only identified one new patient with heart failure.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/economia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/economia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Padrões de Referência
19.
ESC Heart Fail ; 5(1): 9-18, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385659

RESUMO

Outcome measures used for the clinical evaluation of patients with acute heart failure differ between studies and may neither adequately address the characteristic presenting symptoms and signs nor reflect the pathophysiological processes involved. In-hospital worsening of heart failure (WHF) is associated with poor outcomes and thus a potential endpoint conveying clinically meaningful prognostic information. Current definitions of WHF are based on the combination of worsening symptoms and signs and the intensification of treatment during admission. Definitions vary across studies and do not fully account for baseline therapy or circumstances in which there is failure to respond to treatment. Further, there are limited data to inform healthcare professionals as to which patients are most at risk of developing in-hospital WHF. In this opinion piece, we review the definitions for WHF used in recent and ongoing clinical trials and propose a novel definition, which captures failure to respond to treatment as well as clinical worsening (deterioration of symptoms and signs) of the patient's condition. Such a definition, applied consistently across studies, would help clarify the characteristics of patients likely to develop in-hospital WHF, allow comparative assessments of the effectiveness of interventions, and help guide appropriate patient management in order to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Pacientes Internados , Doença Aguda , Progressão da Doença , Saúde Global , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Prognóstico
20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(3): 474-480, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serial measurement of natriuretic peptides may guide management in heart failure (HF) patients. In previous trials, natriuretic peptides were infrequently monitored, which may undervalue the benefit of this approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: HOME was an adaptive three-arm randomized clinical study to test whether home monitoring of BNP could reduce HF-related death, hospitalization due to acute decompensated HF (ADHF), and ADHF treated with intravenous diuretics in the emergency department or outpatient setting. Enrolment was terminated early because of slow enrolment, low event rates, and the belief that an algorithm for assessing BNP trends was needed. Justification for pooling data from all study arms was made and analysis as a single observational study was performed. The analysis resulted in 107 patients who were monitored for a median of 172 days with BNP measures on a median of 74% of days. BNP values were highly variable within a patient. Dispersion between serial BNPs was calculated to be 39.3%, 57.7%, and 73.6% for 1, 60, and 120 days between measures, respectively. A moving average filter (fBNP) was calculated to reduce day-to-day fluctuations and track changes from week to week. There were 27 primary events in 17 362 patient days of monitoring; the hazard ratio for time-varying fBNP was 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.48-3.34) per unit natural log (corresponding to a 2.72-fold change in fBNP level). CONCLUSION: The HOME HF study demonstrates the feasibility of home BNP measurement and shows the potential value of fBNP as an index of emerging clinical deterioration. Assessment of the clinical value of this is required.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA