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BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 22(1): 9, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509280


BACKGROUND: Emodin, a natural anthraquinone, has shown potential as an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of many diseases including cancer. However, its clinical development is hindered by uncertainties surrounding its potential toxicity. The primary purpose of this study was to uncover any potential toxic properties of emodin in mice at doses that have been shown to have efficacy in our cancer studies. In addition, we sought to assess the time course of emodin clearance when administered both intraperitoneally (I.P.) and orally (P.O.) in order to begin to establish effective dosing intervals. METHODS: We performed a subchronic (12 week) toxicity study using 3 different doses of emodin (~ 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg) infused into the AIN-76A diet of male and female C57BL/6 mice (n = 5/group/sex). Body weight and composition were assessed following the 12-week feeding regime. Tissues were harvested and assessed for gross pathological changes and blood was collected for a complete blood count and evaluation of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatinine. For the pharmacokinetic study, emodin was delivered intraperitoneally I.P. or P.O. at 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg doses to male and female mice (n = 4/group/sex/time-point) and circulating levels of emodin were determined at 1, 4 and 12 h following administration via liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. RESULTS: We found that 12 weeks of low (20 mg/kg), medium (40 mg/kg), or high (80 mg/kg) emodin feeding did not cause pathophysiological perturbations in major organs. We also found that glucuronidated emodin peaks at 1 h for both I.P. and P.O. administered emodin and is eliminated by 12 h. Interestingly, female mice appear to metabolize emodin at a faster rate than male mice as evidenced by greater levels of glucuronidated emodin at the 1 h time-point (40 mg/kg for both I.P. and P.O. and 20 mg/kg I.P.) and the 4-h time-point (20 mg/kg I.P.). CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our studies establish that 1) emodin is safe for use in both male and female mice when given at 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg doses for 12 weeks and 2) sex differences should be considered when establishing dosing intervals for emodin treatment.

J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 129(4): 909-919, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853106


Weight fluctuations are common among individuals with obesity and are associated with increased morbidity. We examined adipose tissue immune and inflammatory markers in mice following weight loss and partial weight regain. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into four groups (n = 8-10/group): low-fat diet for 32 wk (LFD), high-fat diet for 32 wk (HFD), LFD for 28 wk and then changed to a HFD for 4 wk (LFD→H), and HFD for 21 wk and then changed to LFD for 7 wk and then changed to HFD for 4 wk (HFD→L→H). LFD→H and HFD→L→H mice did not differ in body weight, fat mass, or fat percentage; however, these parameters were greater than in LFD (P < 0.05) but lower than in HFD (P < 0.05). HFD→L→H mice had smaller adipocytes than HFD and LFD→H (P < 0.05) but not LFD mice. Expressions of CD11c and CD8a genes were elevated in epididymal fat of HFD→L→H compared with LFD→H and LFD (P < 0.05)mice. However, CD11c was lower in HFD→L→H than in HFD mice (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in CD8a between these groups. TNFα and IFNγ expressions were increased in HFD→L→H compared with LFD and LFD→H mice (P < 0.05), although HFD→L→H had lower expression of these cytokines than HFD (P < 0.05). IL-1ß was greater in HFD→L→H compared with LFD (P < 0.05) but was not different from LFD→H or HFD mice. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was lower (P < 0.05) in HFD→L→H than in LFD→H. These data reinforce the importance of maintaining a body weight in the range that is recommended for optimal health to reduce immune and inflammatory perturbations associated with obesity.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined the immune and inflammatory status of adipose tissue in mice after they underwent weight loss followed by partial weight regain. We show an increase in selected immune cells and inflammatory mediators, in high-fat diet-fed mice that had prior exposure to a high-fat diet. Although weight fluctuations appear to exacerbate immune cell abundance and inflammation in adipose tissue, severity is less than in mice that were exposed to sustained high-fat diet feedings.

Nature ; 571(7764): 211-218, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207603


Exhausted CD8+ T (Tex) cells in chronic infections and cancer have limited effector function, high co-expression of inhibitory receptors and extensive transcriptional changes compared with effector (Teff) or memory (Tmem) CD8+ T cells. Tex cells are important clinical targets of checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapies. Epigenetically, Tex cells are a distinct immune subset, with a unique chromatin landscape compared with Teff and Tmem cells. However, the mechanisms that govern the transcriptional and epigenetic development of Tex cells remain unknown. Here we identify the HMG-box transcription factor TOX as a central regulator of Tex cells in mice. TOX is largely dispensable for the formation of Teff and Tmem cells, but it is critical for exhaustion: in the absence of TOX, Tex cells do not form. TOX is induced by calcineurin and NFAT2, and operates in a feed-forward loop in which it becomes calcineurin-independent and sustained in Tex cells. Robust expression of TOX therefore results in commitment to Tex cells by translating persistent stimulation into a distinct Tex cell transcriptional and epigenetic developmental program.

Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Epistasia Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral