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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358905

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS)-a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 22-is associated with an elevated risk of psychosis and other developmental brain disorders. Prior single-site diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have reported altered white matter (WM) microstructure in 22q11DS, but small samples and variable methods have led to contradictory results. Here we present the largest study ever conducted of dMRI-derived measures of WM microstructure in 22q11DS (334 22q11.2 deletion carriers and 260 healthy age- and sex-matched controls; age range 6-52 years). Using harmonization protocols developed by the ENIGMA-DTI working group, we identified widespread reductions in mean, axial and radial diffusivities in 22q11DS, most pronounced in regions with major cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic fibers: the corona radiata, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiations, and sagittal stratum (Cohen's d's ranging from -0.9 to -1.3). Only the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), comprised primarily of corticofugal fibers, showed higher axial diffusivity in 22q11DS. 22q11DS patients showed higher mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in callosal and projection fibers (IC and corona radiata) relative to controls, but lower FA than controls in regions with predominantly association fibers. Psychotic illness in 22q11DS was associated with more substantial diffusivity reductions in multiple regions. Overall, these findings indicate large effects of the 22q11.2 deletion on WM microstructure, especially in major cortico-cortical connections. Taken together with findings from animal models, this pattern of abnormalities may reflect disrupted neurogenesis of projection neurons in outer cortical layers.

2.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 28(3): 984-999, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330115

RESUMO

Purpose Speech and language disorders are hallmark features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS). Learning disabilities, cognitive deficits, palate abnormalities, velopharyngeal dysfunction, behavioral differences, and various medical and psychiatric conditions are also major features of this syndrome. The goal of this document is to summarize the state of the art of current clinical and scientific knowledge regarding 22qDS for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and provide recommendations for clinical management. Method Best practices for management of individuals with 22qDS were developed by consensus of an expert international group of SLPs and researchers with expertise in 22qDS. These care recommendations are based on the authors' research, clinical experience, and literature review. Results This document describes the features of 22qDS as well as evaluation procedures, treatment protocols, and associated management recommendations for SLPs for the often complex communication disorders present in this population. Conclusion Early diagnosis and appropriate management of speech-language disorders in 22qDS is essential to optimize outcomes and to minimize the long-term effects of communication impairments. Knowledge of this diagnosis also allows anticipatory care and guidance regarding associated features for families, health care, and educational professionals.

3.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(13): 888-905, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222980

RESUMO

Over 50% of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) have a conotruncal or related cardiac defect (CTRD). We hypothesized that similar genetic variants, developmental pathways and biological functions, contribute to disease risk for CTRD in patients without a 22q11.2 deletion (ND-CTRD) and with a 22q11.2 deletion (DS-CTRD). To test this hypothesis, we performed rare CNV (rCNV)-based analyses on 630 ND-CTRD cases and 602 DS-CTRD cases with comparable cardiac lesions separately and jointly. First, we detected a collection of heart development related pathways from Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology analysis. We then constructed gene regulation networks using unique genes collected from the rCNVs found in the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts. These gene networks were clustered and their predicted functions were examined. We further investigated expression patterns of those unique genes using publicly available mouse embryo microarray expression data from single-cell embryos to fully developed hearts. By these bioinformatics approaches, we identified a commonly shared gene expression pattern in both the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts. Computational analysis of gene functions characterized with this expression pattern revealed a collection of significantly enriched terms related to cardiovascular development. By our combined analysis of rCNVs in the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts, a group of statistically significant shared pathways, biological functions, and gene expression patterns were identified that can be tested in future studies for their biological relevance.

4.
Med Hypotheses ; 127: 57-62, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088649

RESUMO

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), defined as a lateral deviation of the spine of at least ten degrees, is a classic enigma in orthopaedics and affects 1-4% of the general population. Despite (over) a century of intensive research, the etiology is still largely unknown. One of the major problems in all existing AIS research is the fact that most patients come to medical attention after onset of the curve. Therefore, it is impossible to know whether current investigated parameters are causative, or an effect of the scoliosis. Moreover, up until now there is no known animal model that captures the core features of AIS. In order to identify causal pathways leading to AIS we propose another approach, which has been of great value in other medical disciplines: To use a subset of the population, with a higher risk for a certain disease as a "model" for the general population. Such a "model" may allow the identification of causative mechanisms that might be applicable to the general population. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and occurs in ∼1:3000-6000 children and 1:1000 pregnancies. Nearly half of the population of patients with 22q11.2DS develop a scoliosis that in most cases resembles AIS as far as age at onset and curve pattern. We postulate that within 22q11.2DS certain causal pathways leading to scoliosis can be identified and that these are applicable to the general population.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1442-1450, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111620

RESUMO

Muenke syndrome (MIM #602849), the most common syndromic craniosynostosis, results from the recurrent pathogenic p.P250R variant in FGFR3. Affected patients exhibit wide phenotypic variability. Common features include coronal craniosynostosis, hearing loss, carpal and tarsal anomalies, and developmental/behavioral issues. Our study examined the phenotypic findings, medical management, and surgical outcomes in a cohort of 26 probands with Muenke syndrome identified at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. All probands had craniosynostosis; 69.7% had bicoronal synostosis only, or bicoronal and additional suture synostosis. Three male patients had autism spectrum disorder. Recurrent ear infections were the most common comorbidity, and myringotomy tube placement the most common extracranial surgical procedure. Most patients (76%) required only one fronto-orbital advancement. de novo mutations were confirmed in 33% of the families in which proband and both parents were genetically tested, while in the remaining 66% one of the parents was a mutation carrier. In affected parents, 40% had craniosynostosis, including 71% of mothers and 13% of fathers. We additionally analyzed the medical resource utilization of probands with Muenke syndrome. To our knowledge, these data represent the first comprehensive examination of long-term management in a large cohort of patients with Muenke syndrome. Our study adds valuable information regarding neuropsychiatric and medical comorbidities, and highlights findings in affected relatives.

6.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 116: 43-48, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine demographics and practice patterns of surgeons treating velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). METHODS: An anonymous electronic survey study was administered to the surgical membership of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association and the Society for Ear Nose and Throat Advances in Children. The survey queried surgeon demographics and differences in management practices for submucous cleft palate (SMCP), pharyngoplasty algorithms, and self-reported complications for nonsyndromic versus 22q11.2DS patients. RESULTS: 126 surveys were returned from 9 international regions with the majority from the United States (73%), followed by Western Europe (9.5%) and Canada (7.9%). Plastic surgery was the most common specialty (61.9%), followed by otolaryngology (27.8%). 88.1% reported fellowship training, and 33% completed multiple fellowships. Prior to proceeding with pharyngoplasty in 22q11.2DS patients, surgeons required the following assessments: speech evaluation (79.4%), velopharyngeal imaging (51.6%), cardiac evaluation (50.0%), carotid artery MRI (29.4%), and cervical spine x-rays (11.1%). Nasoendoscopy was the most common modality used for imaging the velopharynx. Overall, providers managed patients with 22q11.2DS similarly to nonsyndromic patients, with several significant exceptions including that they were more likely to perform SMCP repair alone as a first approach in nonsyndromic patients (p = 0.031) and posterior pharyngeal flap without SMCP repair in those with 22q11.2DS (p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Practice patterns for the management of VPD in patients with 22q11.2DS vary across providers. Further collaborative studies are needed to develop optimal treatment paradigms for VPD in patients with 22q11.2 DS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Autorrelato , Cirurgiões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/etiologia
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 381-385, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582277

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) involves multiple organ systems with variable phenotypic expression. Genitourinary tract abnormalities have been noted to be present in up to 30-40% of patients. At our institution, an internationally recognized, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary 22q11.2DS care center has been providing care to these children. We sought to report on the incidence of genitourinary tract anomalies in this large cohort and, therefore, retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent a complete evaluation from 1992 to March 2017. We identified all children with any genital or urinary tract anomaly. For all children with a diagnosis of hydronephrosis, the underlying etiology was determined, when possible. Overall, 1,073 of 1,267 children with 22q11.2DS underwent renal evaluations at our institution. Hundered Sixty-Two (15.1%) children had structural abnormalities of their kidneys/urinary tracts. The majority of children with hydronephrosis (63%) had isolated upper tract dilation without any additional diagnoses. Boys were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a genital abnormality than girls (7.7 vs. 0.5%, p < 0.001). Of the 649 boys in the entire cohort, 24 (3.7%) had cryptorchidism and 24 (3.7%) had hypospadias, which was noted to be mild in all except one boy. Overall, findings of hydronephrosis, unilateral renal agenesis, and multicystic dysplastic kidney occur at higher rates than expected in the general population. Given these findings, in addition to routine physical examination, we believe that all patients with 22q11.2DS warrant screening RBUS at time of diagnosis.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2167-2171, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380188

RESUMO

Hypocalcemia has been reported in ~50% of patients 22q11.2DS and calcium regulation is known to play a role in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Because calcium ions play a role in neuronal function and development, we hypothesized that hypocalcemia would be associated with adverse effects on full scale IQ index (FSIQ) in patients with 22q11.2DS. A retrospective chart review cataloguing the presence or absence of hypocalcemia in 1073 subjects with a laboratory confirmed chromosome 22q11.2 deletion evaluated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was conducted. 852/1073 patients had an endocrinology evaluation with laboratory confirmed calcium levels. 466/852 (54.7%) had a diagnosis of hypocalcemia. 265/1073 subjects ranging from 0 to 51 years of age had both calcium levels measured and a neuropsychological evaluation yielding a FSIQ. The mean FSIQ for 146/265 patients with hypocalcemia was 77.09 (SD = 13.56) and the mean FSIQ for 119/265 patients with normocalcemia was 77.27 (SD = 14.25). The distribution of patients with intellectual disability (ID) (FSIQ<69), borderline IQ (FSIQ 70-79), and average IQ (FSIQ>80) between the hypocalcemic and normocalcemic groups was not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.2676, p = 0.8748). Neonatal hypocalcemic seizures were not found to be associated with ID. We found no difference in FSIQ between the hypocalcemic and non-hypocalcemic patients with 22q11.2DS. As our findings differ from a previous report in adult subjects, we speculate that this may reflect a potential benefit from early treatment of hypocalcemia and may support early 22q11.2 deletion detection in order to offer prompt diagnosis and subsequent treatment of hypocalcemia.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2135-2139, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380189

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) occurs in ~1:3,000-6,000 individuals. Features less typically associated with 22q11.2DS, such as orthopedic manifestations, may be overlooked or may not lead to appropriate diagnostic testing. Club foot has a general population prevalence of ~1:1,000 and has been occasionally described in association with 22q11.2DS. Our hypothesis is that the prevalence of club foot is higher in patients with 22q11.2DS. We performed a retrospective review in two specialized 22q11.2DS centers to determine the prevalence of club foot. "True club foot" requires treatment (either conservative or surgical), therefore we only included those patients with proof of treatment. We investigated whether congenital heart disease (CHD) and/or cleft palate were associated with the presence of club foot within 22q11.2DS. The records of 1,466 patients were reviewed. Of these, 48 (3.3%) had confirmation of club foot (95% Confidence Interval: 2.4-4.3): 22 (46%) had a bilateral, 12 (25%) left, and 14 (29%) right club foot. Within our study, neither a CHD and/or a cleft palate were associated with a club foot. The prevalence of club foot in 22q11.2DS is 30 times higher than that observed in the general population. This suggests the diagnosis of club foot, especially in the face of other typically associated abnormalities of 22q11.2DS, should provoke consideration of 22q11.2DS as an underlying diagnosis, particularly in the neonatal setting.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2058-2069, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380191

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a disorder caused by recurrent, chromosome-specific, low copy repeat (LCR)-mediated copy-number losses of chromosome 22q11. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia has been involved in the clinical care of individuals with what is now known as 22q11.2DS since our initial report of the association with DiGeorge syndrome in 1982. We reviewed the medical records on our continuously growing longitudinal cohort of 1,421 patients with molecularly confirmed 22q11.2DS from 1992 to 2018. Most individuals are Caucasian and older than 8 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 3.9 years. The majority of patients (85%) had typical LCR22A-LCR22D deletions, and only 7% of these typical deletions were inherited from a parent harboring the deletion constitutionally. However, 6% of individuals harbored other nested deletions that would not be identified by traditional 22q11.2 FISH, thus requiring an orthogonal technology to diagnose. Major medical problems included immune dysfunction or allergies (77%), palatal abnormalities (67%), congenital heart disease (64%), gastrointestinal difficulties (65%), endocrine dysfunction (>50%), scoliosis (50%), renal anomalies (16%), and airway abnormalities. Median full-scale intelligence quotient was 76, with no significant difference between individuals with and without congenital heart disease or hypocalcemia. Characteristic dysmorphic facial features were present in most individuals, but dermatoglyphic patterns of our cohort are similar to normal controls. This is the largest longitudinal study of patients with 22q11.2DS, helping to further describe the condition and aid in diagnosis and management. Further surveillance will likely elucidate additional clinically relevant findings as they age.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2055-2057, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380195
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2070-2081, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380194

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a congenital malformation and neuropsychiatric disorder caused by meiotic chromosome rearrangements. One of the goals of this review is to summarize the current state of basic research studies of 22q11.2DS. It highlights efforts to understand the mechanisms responsible for the 22q11.2 deletion that occurs in meiosis. This mechanism involves the four sets of low copy repeats (LCR22) that are dispersed in the 22q11.2 region and the deletion is mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination events. This review also highlights selected genes mapping to the 22q11.2 region that may contribute to the typical clinical findings associated with the disorder and explain that mutations in genes on the remaining allele can uncover rare recessive conditions. Another important aspect of 22q11.2DS is the existence of phenotypic heterogeneity. While some patients are mildly affected, others have severe medical, cognitive, and/or psychiatric challenges. Variability may be due in part to the presence of genetic modifiers. This review discusses current genome-wide efforts to identify such modifiers that could shed light on molecular pathways required for normal human development, cognition or behavior.

13.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(8): 765-773, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444066

RESUMO

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with impairment in multiple domains of cognition and risk for several psychiatric disorders. Musical auditory processing is highly heritable, and is impaired in individuals with schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders, but has never been studied in 22q11DS, notwithstanding anecdotal evidence of its sparing. We aimed to characterize musical auditory processing in 22q11DS and explore potential relationships with other cognitive domains, musical engagement, and psychiatric disorders. The Distorted Tunes Task and Global Musical Sophistication Index were used to assess pitch discrimination and general musical engagement in 58 individuals with 22q11DS aged 8-29 years. Psychopathology was assessed with sections from the modified Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children and the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. The Penn computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) examined four domains of cognition (executive functioning, episodic memory, complex cognition, and social cognition). Significant musical auditory processing impairment and reduced musical engagement were found in individuals with 22q11DS. However, deficits in musical auditory processing were not associated with reduced musical engagement. After covarying for age and sex, episodic memory and overall CNB performance accuracy were significantly related to performance in musical auditory processing. There were no relationships between musical auditory processing and presence of any psychiatric diagnoses. Individuals with 22q11DS experience significant deficits in musical auditory processing and reduced musical engagement. Pitch discrimination is associated with overall cognitive ability, but appears to be largely independent of psychiatric illness.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2140-2145, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365873

RESUMO

Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome often come to medical attention due to signs and symptoms of neurologic dysfunction. It is imperative to understand the expected neurologic development of patients with this diagnosis in order to be alert for the potential neurologic complications, including cortical malformations, tethered cord, epilepsy, and movement disorders. We present an update of brain imaging findings from the CHOP 22q and You Center, a review of the current literature, and our current management practices for neurological issues.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2099-2103, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277015

RESUMO

Hypocalcemia is one of the cardinal features of the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common cause of DiGeorge syndrome. Hypocalcemia and other features of 22q11.2DS including congenital heart disease (CHD) are primarily ascribed to problems with morphogenesis and function of the pharyngeal arch system derivatives including the parathyroid glands, the aortic arch, and the cardiac outflow tract. In light of the aforementioned embryology, we hypothesized that hypocalcemia would be identified more frequently in those patients with 22q11.2DS and CHD. We conducted a retrospective IRB approved chart review on 1,300 subjects with 22q11.2DS evaluated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. χ2 test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in hypocalcemia between the two groups. Eight hundred fifty-two patients had calcium levels available for review. Of these, 466 (54.69%) had a history of hypocalcemia and 550 (64.55%) had CHD. Of those with CHD, 343 (62.36%) had a history of hypocalcemia, and of those without CHD, only 123 (40.73%) had a history of hypocalcemia. Thus, the frequency of diagnosed hypocalcemia was greater in patients with 22q11.2DS and CHD as compared to those without CHD (p < .001). We also analyzed age of onset of hypocalcemia and found that 66.47% of CHD/hypocalcemia group had neonatal/infantile hypocalcemia versus 43.09% in the non-CHD/hypocalcemia group. In our large cohort of patients with 22q11.2DS, the prevalence of diagnosed hypocalcemia is elevated among patients with CHD, in whom it is more likely to be diagnosed during the neonatal/infancy period.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2172-2181, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289625

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is caused by non-allelic homologous recombination events during meiosis between low copy repeats (LCR22) termed A, B, C, and D. Most patients have a typical LCR22A-D (AD) deletion of 3 million base pairs (Mb). In this report, we evaluated IQ scores in 1,478 subjects with 22q11.2DS. The mean of full scale IQ, verbal IQ, and performance IQ scores in our cohort were 72.41 (standard deviation-SD of 13.72), 75.91(SD of 14.46), and 73.01(SD of 13.71), respectively. To investigate whether IQ scores are associated with deletion size, we examined individuals with the 3 Mb, AD (n = 1,353) and nested 1.5 Mb, AB (n = 74) deletions, since they comprised the largest subgroups. We found that full scale IQ was decreased by 6.25 points (p = .002), verbal IQ was decreased by 8.17 points (p = .0002) and performance IQ was decreased by 4.03 points (p = .028) in subjects with the AD versus AB deletion. Thus, individuals with the smaller, 1.5 Mb AB deletion have modestly higher IQ scores than those with the larger, 3 Mb AD deletion. Overall, the deletion of genes in the AB region largely explains the observed low IQ in the 22q11.2DS population. However, our results also indicate that haploinsufficiency of genes in the LCR22B-D region (BD) exert an additional negative impact on IQ. Furthermore, we did not find evidence of a confounding effect of severe congenital heart disease on IQ scores in our cohort.

17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2203-2214, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244528

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) is the most frequent copy number variant (CNV) affecting ~1/1,000 fetuses and ~1/2,000-4,000 children, resulting in recognizable but variable findings across multiple organ systems. Patients with atypical features should prompt consideration of coexisting diagnoses due to additional genome-wide mutations, CNVs, or mutations/CNVs on the other allele, unmasking autosomal recessive conditions. Importantly, a dual diagnosis compounds symptoms and impacts management. We previously reported seven patients with 22q11.2DS and: SCID, Trisomy 8 mosaicism, Bernard-Soulier, and CEDNIK syndromes. Here we present six additional unreported patients with 22q11.2DS and concurrent diagnoses. Records on 1,422 patients with 22q11.2DS, identified via FISH, microarray, or MLPA, followed in our 22q and You Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) were reviewed to identify a dual diagnosis. In addition to our seven previously reported cases, we identified an additional six with 22q11.2DS and another coexisting condition identified via: molecular/cytogenetic studies, newborn screening, coagulation factor studies, or enzyme testing; these include CHARGE syndrome (CHD7 mutation), cystic fibrosis, a maternally inherited 17q12 deletion, G6PD deficiency, von Willebrand disease, and 1q21.1 deletion, resulting in an incidence of dual diagnoses at our center of 0.9%. The range of dual diagnoses identified in our cohort is notable, medically actionable, and may alter long-term outcome and recurrence risk counseling. Thus, our findings may support testing patients with 22q11.2DS using a combination of microarray, mutational analysis of the other allele/WES, to ensure appropriate personalized care, as formulating medical management decisions hinges on establishing the correct diagnoses in their entirety.

19.
Schizophr Res ; 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093352

RESUMO

Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at substantially heightened risk for psychosis. Thus, prevention and early intervention strategies that target the antecedents of psychosis in this high-risk group are a clinical priority. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children with 22q11.2DS, particularly the inattentive subtype. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ADHD inattention symptoms predict later psychotic symptoms and/or psychotic disorder in those with 22q11.2DS. 250 children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS without psychotic symptoms at baseline took part in a longitudinal study. Assessments were performed using well-validated structured diagnostic instruments at two time points (T1 (mean age = 11.2, SD = 3.1) and T2 (mean age = 14.3, SD = 3.6)). Inattention symptoms at T1 were associated with development of psychotic symptoms at T2 (OR:1.2, p = 0.01) but weak associations were found with development of psychotic disorder (OR:1.2, p = 0.15). ADHD diagnosis at T1 was strongly associated with development of psychotic symptoms at T2 (OR:4.5, p < 0.001) and psychotic disorder (OR:5.9, p = 0.02). Our findings that inattention symptoms and the diagnosis of ADHD are associated with subsequent psychotic outcomes in 22q11.2DS have important clinical implications. Future studies examining the effects of stimulant and other ADHD treatments on individuals with 22q11.2DS are warranted.

20.
Schizophr Res ; 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007867

RESUMO

Olfactory functioning is a promising biomarker for psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) but has not been well studied to date. This is a pilot effort to evaluate the potential for tests of olfactory functioning to contribute to risk and resilience prediction in 22q11DS, and is the first study to evaluate relationships among olfactory deficits, cognition and psychosis-spectrum symptoms. Odor identification and discrimination were evaluated in 32 individuals with 22q11DS and 110 healthy comparison subjects (HC). Individuals with 22q11DS also underwent cognitive testing with the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery, which evaluates executive functioning, episodic memory, complex cognition, and social cognition. Positive, negative, disorganized and general psychosis-spectrum symptoms were rated according to the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms. Age-normalized scores were calculated for odor identification and discrimination based on normative data. Both odor identification (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = -2.15, 95% CI [-2.62, -1.68]) and discrimination (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = -1.81, 95% CI [-2.26, -1.35]) were significantly impaired in 22q11DS relative to HC. There were no sex differences in either group. Neither odor identification nor discrimination was correlated with overall cognition or any specific cognitive domain in 22q11DS. Impairment in odor discrimination was correlated with higher negative and overall psychosis-spectrum symptoms. There was no significant effect of catechol-O-methyltransferase Val(158)Met genotype or presence of velopharyngeal insufficiency on olfactory functioning. Olfactory deficits, particularly olfactory discrimination, are robust in 22q11DS and appear to be independent of cognitive deficits. They are also clinically relevant and related to psychosis-spectrum symptoms. Olfactory functioning appears to be a promising biomarker for psychosis in 22q11DS.

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