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2.
World Neurosurg ; 137: e343-e346, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ARUBA trial (A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations) was the first randomized control trial to investigate unruptured cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cAVM) treatments and concluded that medical management was superior to interventional therapy for the treatment of unruptured cAVMs. This conclusion generated considerable controversy and was followed by rebuttals and meta-analyses of the ARUBA methodology and results. We sought to determine whether the ARUBA results altered treatment trends of cAVMs within the United States. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample, the largest all-payer inpatient care database within the United States, we isolated patients who were admitted on an elective basis for cAVM treatment and determined the treatment modality undergone by these patients. The cohort was dichotomized separately at 2 ARUBA time points: the European Stroke Conference presentation in May 2013, and The Lancet publication in February 2014. RESULTS: We found that the overall treatment rate of unruptured cAVMs decreased after both time points. However, the rate of surgical excision alone, relative to other modalities, was significantly increased, and endovascular intervention demonstrated a nonsignificant decrease. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the ARUBA trial has influenced unruptured cAVM treatment patterns within the United States. Although the overall treatment rate has decreased, unruptured cAVMs, when treated post-ARUBA, are most commonly approached with surgical excision alone.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa/cirurgia , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Microcirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Stroke ; 50(3): 595-601, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776998

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Predicting long-term functional outcomes after intracranial aneurysmal rupture can be challenging. We developed and validated a scoring system-the Southwestern Aneurysm Severity Index-that would predict functional outcomes at 1 year after clipping of ruptured aneurysms. Methods- Ruptured aneurysms treated microsurgically between 2000 and 2014 were included. Outcome was defined as Glasgow Outcome Score (ranging from 1, death, to 5, good recovery) at 1 year. The Southwestern Aneurysm Severity Index is composed of multiple prospectively recorded patient demographic, clinical, radiographic, and aneurysm-specific variables. Multivariable analyses were used to construct the best predictive models for patient outcomes in a random 50% of the cohort and validated in the remaining 50%. A scoring system was created using the best model. Results- We identified 527 eligible patients. The Glasgow Outcome Score at 1 year was 4 to 5 in 375 patients (71.2%). In the multivariable logistic regression, the best predictive model for unfavorable outcome included intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio [OR], 2.53; 95% CI, 1.55-4.13), aneurysmal size ≥20 mm (OR, 6.07; 95% CI, 1.92-19.2), intraventricular hemorrhage (OR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.15-5.67), age >64 (OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.70-7.35), location (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.10-3.03), and hydrocephalus (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.07-5.35). The Southwestern Aneurysm Severity Index predicts Glasgow Outcome Score at 1 year with good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, derivation: 0.816, 95% CI, 0.759-0.873; validation: 0.803, 95% CI, 0.746-0.861) and accurate calibration ( R2=0.939). Conclusions- The Southwestern Aneurysm Severity Index has been internally validated to predict 1 year Glasgow Outcome Scores at initial presentation, thus optimizing patient or family counseling and possibly guiding therapeutic efforts.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Roto/mortalidade , Ventrículos Cerebrais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/complicações , Hidrocefalia/mortalidade , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Neurosurg ; 132(2): 388-399, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular embolization has been established as an adjuvant treatment strategy for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). A growing body of literature has discussed curative embolization for select lesions. The transition of endovascular embolization from an adjunctive to a definitive treatment modality remains controversial. Here, the authors reviewed the literature to assess the lesional characteristics, technical factors, and angiographic and clinical outcomes of endovascular embolization of AVMs with intent to cure. METHODS: Electronic databases-Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and PubMed-were searched for studies in which there was evidence of AVMs treated using endovascular embolization with intent to cure. The primary outcomes of interest were angiographic obliteration immediately postembolization and at follow-up. The secondary outcomes of interest were complication rates. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate rates and means. RESULTS: Fifteen studies with 597 patients and 598 AVMs treated with intent-to-cure embolization were included in this analysis. Thirty-four percent of AVMs were Spetzler-Martin grade III. Complete obliteration immediately postembolization was reported in 58.3% of AVMs that had complete treatment and in 45.8% of AVMs in the entire patient cohort. The overall clinical complication rate was 24.1%. The most common complication was hemorrhage, occurring in 9.7% of patients. Procedure-related mortality was 1.5%. CONCLUSIONS: While endovascular embolization with intent to cure can be an option for select AVMs, the reported complication rates appear to be increased compared with those in studies in which adjunctive embolization was the goal. Given the high complication rate related to a primary embolization approach, the risks and benefits of such a treatment strategy should be discussed among a multidisciplinary team. Curative embolization of AVMs should be considered an unanticipated benefit of such therapy rather than a goal.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Intenção , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/terapia , Fístula Arteriovenosa/diagnóstico , Embolização Terapêutica/tendências , Procedimentos Endovasculares/tendências , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 17(2): 149-156, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dolichoectasia is defined as elongation and dilatation of a blood vessel. In the intracranial circulation, the basilar artery is affected in 80% of cases. These are challenging lesions with an aggressive natural history, and treatment carries a relatively high rate of morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of multimodal treatment including endovascular, open microsurgical, and endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for management. OBJECTIVE: To describe the technical nuance of the addition of the EEA for management of posterior circulation dolichoectasia. METHODS: A 44-yr-old Hispanic woman with a 2-mo history of progressive headaches, gait disturbance, and lower cranial nerve dysfunction presented with acute neurologic decline. MRI demonstrated a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar system with a giant 4.5-cm fusiform basilar aneurysm. RESULTS: She underwent concomitant endovascular bilateral vertebral artery sacrifice with suction decompression and trapping by clip ligation distal to the lesion. Postoperatively, she developed symptomatic pontine compression. She was then taken for a transclival EEA for intra-aneurysmal thrombectomy. Thereafter, she made a significant functional recovery. CONCLUSION: The addition of endoscopic reconstruction to the treatment of a dolichoectatic basilar aneurysm is an operative nuance that can be employed in treating these highly morbid lesions. This case describing a multimodal treatment paradigm including EEA reconstruction can serve as an example for the future of treatment select cases of dolichoectasia of the vertebrobasilar complex.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Microcirurgia/métodos , Neuroendoscopia/métodos , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Neurosurg ; 130(3): 999-1005, 2018 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The role of venous sinus stenting (VSS) for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is not well understood. The aim of this systematic review is to attempt to identify subsets of patients with IIH who will benefit from VSS based on the pressure gradients of their venous sinus stenosis. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed was searched for studies reporting venous pressure gradients across the stenotic segment of the venous sinus, pre- and post-stent pressure gradients, and clinical outcomes after VSS. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. RESULTS: From 32 eligible studies, a total of 186 patients were included in the analysis. Patients who had favorable outcomes had higher mean pressure gradients (22.8 ± 11.5 mm Hg vs 17.4 ± 8.0 mm Hg, p = 0.033) and higher changes in pressure gradients after stent placement (19.4 ± 10.0 mm Hg vs 12.0 ± 6.0 mm Hg, p = 0.006) compared with those with unfavorable outcomes. The post-stent pressure gradients between the 2 groups were not significantly different (2.8 ± 4.0 mm Hg vs 2.7 ± 2.0 mm Hg, p = 0.934). In a multivariate stepwise logistic regression controlling for age, sex, body mass index, CSF opening pressure, pre-stent pressure gradient, and post-stent pressure gradient, the change in pressure gradient with stent placement was found to be an independent predictor of favorable outcome (p = 0.028). Using a pressure gradient of 21 as a cutoff, 81/86 (94.2%) of patients with a gradient > 21 achieved favorable outcomes, compared with 82/100 (82.0%) of patients with a gradient ≤ 21 (p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be a relationship between the pressure gradient of venous sinus stenosis and the success of VSS in IIH. A randomized controlled trial would help elucidate this relationship and potentially guide patient selection.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Cavidades Cranianas/fisiopatologia , Pseudotumor Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Pseudotumor Cerebral/cirurgia , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 10(3): 297-300, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Flow diversion is a relatively new strategy used to treat complex cerebral aneurysms. The optimal method for radiographic follow-up of patients treated with flow diverters has not been established. The rate and clinical implications of in-stent stenosis for these devices is unclear. We evaluate the use of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) for follow-up of in-stent stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 28 patients treated with the Pipeline embolization device (PED) over the course of 42 months from January 2009 to June 2012. Standard conventional cerebral angiograms were performed in all patients. TCD studies were available in 23 patients. RESULTS: Angiographic and TCD results were compared and found to correlate well. CONCLUSIONS: TCD is a potentially useful adjunct for evaluating in-stent stenosis after flow diversion.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Stents , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Neurosurg ; 128(4): 999-1005, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Despite a hemorrhagic presentation, many patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) do not require emergency resection. The timing of definitive management is not standardized in the cerebrovascular community. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of delaying AVM treatment in clinically stable patients with a new hemorrhagic presentation. The authors examined the rate of rehemorrhage or neurological decline in a cohort of patients with ruptured brain AVMs during a period of time posthemorrhage. METHODS Patients presenting to the authors' institution from January 2000 to December 2015 with ruptured brain AVMs treated at least 4 weeks posthemorrhage were included in this analysis. Exclusion criteria were ruptured AVMs that required emergency surgery involving resection of the AVM, prior treatment of AVM at another institution, or treatment of lesions within 4 weeks for other reasons (subacute surgery). The primary outcome measure was time from initial hemorrhage to treatment failure (defined as rehemorrhage or neurological decline as a direct result of the AVM). Patient-days were calculated from the day of initial rupture until the day AVM treatment was initiated or treatment failed. RESULTS Of 102 ruptured AVMs in 102 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 7 (6.9%) failed the treatment paradigm. Six patients (5.8%) had a new hemorrhage within a median of 248 days (interquartile range 33-1364 days). The total "at risk" period was 18,740 patient-days, yielding a rehemorrhage rate of 11.5% per patient-year, or 0.96% per patient-month. Twelve (11.8%) of 102 patients were found to have an associated aneurysm. In this group there was a single (8.3%) new hemorrhage during a total at-risk period of 263 patient-days until the aneurysm was secured, yielding a rehemorrhage risk of 11.4% per patient-month. CONCLUSIONS It is the authors' practice to rehabilitate patients after brain AVM rupture with a plan for elective treatment of the AVM. The present data are useful in that the findings quantify the risk of the authors' treatment strategy. These findings indicate that delaying intervention for at least 4 weeks after the initial hemorrhage subjects the patient to a low (< 1%) risk of rehemorrhage. The authors modified the treatment paradigm when a high-risk feature, such as an associated intracranial aneurysm, was identified.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/cirurgia , Conduta Expectante , Adulto , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/complicações , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Recidiva , Ruptura/epidemiologia , Ruptura/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Stroke ; 48(5): 1420-1423, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28325846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is an important risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage. Current therapies are associated with high morbidities. Excessive vascular endothelial growth factor has been implicated in bAVM pathophysiology. Because soluble FLT1 binds to vascular endothelial growth factor with high affinity, we tested intravenous delivery of an adeno-associated viral vector serotype-9 expressing soluble FLT1 (AAV9-sFLT1) to alleviate the bAVM phenotype. METHODS: Two mouse models were used. In model 1, bAVM was induced in R26CreER;Eng2f/2f mice through global Eng gene deletion and brain focal angiogenic stimulation; AAV2-sFLT02 (an AAV expressing a shorter form of sFLT1) was injected into the brain at the time of model induction, and AAV9-sFLT1, intravenously injected 8 weeks after. In model 2, SM22αCre;Eng2f/2f mice had a 90% occurrence of spontaneous bAVM at 5 weeks of age and 50% mortality at 6 weeks; AAV9-sFLT1 was intravenously delivered into 4- to 5-week-old mice. Tissue samples were collected 4 weeks after AAV9-sFLT1 delivery. RESULTS: AAV2-sFLT02 inhibited bAVM formation, and AAV9-sFLT1 reduced abnormal vessels in model 1 (GFP versus sFLT1: 3.66±1.58/200 vessels versus 1.98±1.29, P<0.05). AAV9-sFLT1 reduced the occurrence of bAVM (GFP versus sFLT1: 100% versus 36%) and mortality (GFP versus sFLT1: 57% [12/22 mice] versus 24% [4/19 mice], P<0.05) in model 2. Kidney and liver function did not change significantly. Minor liver inflammation was found in 56% of AAV9-sFLT1-treated model 1 mice. CONCLUSIONS: By applying a regulated mechanism to restrict sFLT1 expression to bAVM, AAV9-sFLT1 can potentially be developed into a safer therapy to reduce the bAVM severity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese , Fístula Arteriovenosa/terapia , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/terapia , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Animais , Dependovirus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Camundongos
10.
J Neurosurg ; 124(5): 1275-86, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26566199

RESUMO

OBJECT Intracranial-to-intracranial (IC-IC) bypasses are alternatives to traditional extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypasses to reanastomose parent arteries, reimplant efferent branches, revascularize branches with in situ donor arteries, and reconstruct bifurcations with interposition grafts that are entirely intracranial. These bypasses represent an evolution in bypass surgery from using scalp arteries and remote donor sites toward a more local and reconstructive approach. IC-IC bypass can be utilized preferentially when revascularization is needed in the management of complex aneurysms. Experiences using IC-IC bypass, as applied to posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms in 35 patients, were reviewed. METHODS Patients with PICA aneurysms and vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms involving the PICA's origin were identified from a prospectively maintained database of the Vascular Neurosurgery Service, and patients who underwent bypass procedures for PICA revascularization were included. RESULTS During a 17-year period in which 129 PICA aneurysms in 125 patients were treated microsurgically, 35 IC-IC bypasses were performed as part of PICA aneurysm management, including in situ p3-p3 PICA-PICA bypass in 11 patients (31%), PICA reimplantation in 9 patients (26%), reanastomosis in 14 patients (40%), and 1 V3 VA-to-PICA bypass with an interposition graft (3%). All aneurysms were completely or nearly completely obliterated, 94% of bypasses were patent, 77% of patients were improved or unchanged after treatment, and good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale ≤ 2) were observed in 76% of patients. Two patients died expectantly. Ischemic complications were limited to 2 patients in whom the bypasses occluded, and permanent lower cranial nerve morbidity was limited to 3 patients and did not compromise independent function in any of the patients. CONCLUSIONS PICA aneurysms receive the application of IC-IC bypass better than any other aneurysm, with nearly one-quarter of all PICA aneurysms treated microsurgically at our center requiring bypass without a single EC-IC bypass. The selection of PICA bypass is almost algorithmic: trapped aneurysms at the PICA origin or p1 segment are revascularized with a PICA-PICA bypass, with PICA reimplantation as an alternative; trapped p2 segment aneurysms are reanastomosed, bypassed in situ, or reimplanted; distal p3 segment aneurysms are reanastomosed or revascularized with a PICA-PICA bypass; and aneurysms of the p4 segment that are too distal for PICA-PICA bypass are reanastomosed. Interposition grafts are reserved for when these 3 primary options are unsuitable. A constructive approach that preserves the PICA with direct clipping or replaces flow with a bypass when sacrificed should remain an alternative to deconstructive PICA occlusion and endovascular coiling when complete aneurysm occlusion is unlikely.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/irrigação sanguínea , Revascularização Cerebral/métodos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Artéria Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/cirurgia , Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Transl Stroke Res ; 5(3): 316-29, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24723256

RESUMO

Patients harboring brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) are at life-threatening risk of rupture and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The pathogenesis of bAVM has not been completely understood. Current treatment options are invasive, and ≈ 20 % of patients are not offered interventional therapy because of excessive treatment risk. There are no specific medical therapies to treat bAVMs. The lack of validated animal models has been an obstacle for testing hypotheses of bAVM pathogenesis and testing new therapies. In this review, we summarize bAVM model development and bAVM pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets that have been identified during model development.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa/etiologia , Fístula Arteriovenosa/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/etiologia , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/terapia , Camundongos , Animais , Fístula Arteriovenosa/metabolismo , Fístula Arteriovenosa/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/metabolismo , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/patologia
15.
Neurosurgery ; 71(1 Suppl Operative): 182-4; discussion 185, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22257953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Carotid body tumors are a technically challenging surgical problem. One of the primary goals of surgery and often one of the most difficult aspects of management involves preservation of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA). We report a small case series with challenging aspects to ICA preservation that were successfully treated with covered stenting and review the literature to date on this topic. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Two patients with carotid body tumors were selected for covered ICA stenting, the first because of bilateral disease and the second because of failure of test occlusion. The patients were initially loaded with antiplatelet agents, and the stents were deployed transfemorally. The patients were kept on dual therapy (acetylsalicylic acid and Plavix) for 6 weeks, followed by acetylsalicylic acid alone, which was discontinued 1 week before surgery. The patients were admitted 3 days before surgery, and intravenous heparin was started and then stopped 6 hours preoperatively. Both tumors were completely resected with minimal blood loss, and the ipsilateral ICA was successfully preserved in both cases. CONCLUSION: The covered ICA stent offers a significant adjunct for preserving the ICA in carotid body tumor resection.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/cirurgia , Tumor do Corpo Carotídeo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/instrumentação , Adulto , Angiografia Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Stents
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