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1.
Can J Urol ; 26(5S2): 52-53, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629434

RESUMO

Germline genetic testing for prostate cancer is helping to inform risk stratification and staging of prostate cancer and also screening for men with family history of prostate cancer. Genetic counseling is an important piece of germline genetic testing; however there can be limitations of access to genetic counselors and other genetic professionals. It is important to integrate genetic counseling with urology and primary care practices.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1543-1546, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207089

RESUMO

1p36 deletion syndrome is a well-described condition with a recognizable phenotype, including cognitive impairment, seizures, and structural brain anomalies such as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). In a large series of these individuals by Battaglia et al., "birth history was notable in 50% of the cases for varying degrees of perinatal distress." Given the potential for perinatal distress, seizures and PVL, we questioned if this disorder has clinical overlap with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We reviewed the medical records of 69 individuals with 1p36 deletion to clarify the perinatal phenotype of this disorder and determine if there is evidence of perinatal distress and/or hypoxic injury. Our data provides evidence that these babies have signs of perinatal distress. The majority (59% term; 75% preterm) needed resuscitation and approximately 18% had cardiac arrest. Most had abnormal brain imaging (84% term; 73% preterm) with abnormal white matter findings in over half of patients. PVL or suggestion of "hypoxic insult" was present in 18% of term and 45% of preterm patients. In conclusion, individuals with 1p36 deletion have evidence of perinatal distress, white matter changes, and seizures, which can mimic HIE but are likely related to their underlying chromosome disorder.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1442-1450, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111620

RESUMO

Muenke syndrome (MIM #602849), the most common syndromic craniosynostosis, results from the recurrent pathogenic p.P250R variant in FGFR3. Affected patients exhibit wide phenotypic variability. Common features include coronal craniosynostosis, hearing loss, carpal and tarsal anomalies, and developmental/behavioral issues. Our study examined the phenotypic findings, medical management, and surgical outcomes in a cohort of 26 probands with Muenke syndrome identified at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. All probands had craniosynostosis; 69.7% had bicoronal synostosis only, or bicoronal and additional suture synostosis. Three male patients had autism spectrum disorder. Recurrent ear infections were the most common comorbidity, and myringotomy tube placement the most common extracranial surgical procedure. Most patients (76%) required only one fronto-orbital advancement. de novo mutations were confirmed in 33% of the families in which proband and both parents were genetically tested, while in the remaining 66% one of the parents was a mutation carrier. In affected parents, 40% had craniosynostosis, including 71% of mothers and 13% of fathers. We additionally analyzed the medical resource utilization of probands with Muenke syndrome. To our knowledge, these data represent the first comprehensive examination of long-term management in a large cohort of patients with Muenke syndrome. Our study adds valuable information regarding neuropsychiatric and medical comorbidities, and highlights findings in affected relatives.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(4): 542-551, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719864

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features and intellectual disability caused by haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been observed, with major anomalies seen more frequently in patients with 5q35 deletions than those with point mutations in NSD1. Though endocrine features have rarely been described, transient hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HI) of the neonatal period has been reported as an uncommon presentation of Sotos syndrome. Eight cases of 5q35 deletions and one patient with an intragenic NSD1 mutation with transient HI have been reported. Here, we describe seven individuals with HI caused by NSD1 gene mutations with three having persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. These patients with persistent HI and Sotos syndrome caused by NSD1 mutations, further dispel the hypothesis that HI is due to the deletion of other genes in the deleted 5q35 region. These patients emphasize that NSD1 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to cause HI, and suggest that Sotos syndrome should be considered in patients presenting with neonatal HI. Lastly, these patients help extend the phenotypic spectrum of Sotos syndrome to include HI as a significant feature.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2203-2214, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244528

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) is the most frequent copy number variant (CNV) affecting ~1/1,000 fetuses and ~1/2,000-4,000 children, resulting in recognizable but variable findings across multiple organ systems. Patients with atypical features should prompt consideration of coexisting diagnoses due to additional genome-wide mutations, CNVs, or mutations/CNVs on the other allele, unmasking autosomal recessive conditions. Importantly, a dual diagnosis compounds symptoms and impacts management. We previously reported seven patients with 22q11.2DS and: SCID, Trisomy 8 mosaicism, Bernard-Soulier, and CEDNIK syndromes. Here we present six additional unreported patients with 22q11.2DS and concurrent diagnoses. Records on 1,422 patients with 22q11.2DS, identified via FISH, microarray, or MLPA, followed in our 22q and You Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) were reviewed to identify a dual diagnosis. In addition to our seven previously reported cases, we identified an additional six with 22q11.2DS and another coexisting condition identified via: molecular/cytogenetic studies, newborn screening, coagulation factor studies, or enzyme testing; these include CHARGE syndrome (CHD7 mutation), cystic fibrosis, a maternally inherited 17q12 deletion, G6PD deficiency, von Willebrand disease, and 1q21.1 deletion, resulting in an incidence of dual diagnoses at our center of 0.9%. The range of dual diagnoses identified in our cohort is notable, medically actionable, and may alter long-term outcome and recurrence risk counseling. Thus, our findings may support testing patients with 22q11.2DS using a combination of microarray, mutational analysis of the other allele/WES, to ensure appropriate personalized care, as formulating medical management decisions hinges on establishing the correct diagnoses in their entirety.

7.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190611

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by a highly variable clinical presentation, but almost all NF1-affected adults present with cutaneous and/or subcutaneous neurofibromas. Exceptions are individuals heterozygous for the NF1 in-frame deletion, c.2970_2972del (p.Met992del), associated with a mild phenotype without any externally visible tumors. METHODS: A total of 135 individuals from 103 unrelated families, all carrying the constitutional NF1 p.Met992del pathogenic variant and clinically assessed using the same standardized phenotypic checklist form, were included in this study. RESULTS: None of the individuals had externally visible plexiform or histopathologically confirmed cutaneous or subcutaneous neurofibromas. We did not identify any complications, such as symptomatic optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) or symptomatic spinal neurofibromas; however, 4.8% of individuals had nonoptic brain tumors, mostly low-grade and asymptomatic, and 38.8% had cognitive impairment/learning disabilities. In an individual with the NF1 constitutional c.2970_2972del and three astrocytomas, we provided proof that all were NF1-associated tumors given loss of heterozygosity at three intragenic NF1 microsatellite markers and c.2970_2972del. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that individuals with the NF1 p.Met992del pathogenic variant have a mild NF1 phenotype lacking clinically suspected plexiform, cutaneous, or subcutaneous neurofibromas. However, learning difficulties are clearly part of the phenotypic presentation in these individuals and will require specialized care.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1890-1896, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152016

RESUMO

Xia-Gibbs syndrome (XGS) is a recently described neurodevelopmental disorder due to heterozygous loss-of-function AHDC1 mutations. XGS is characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and sleep abnormalities. Here we report the clinical phenotype of five of six individuals with XGS identified prospectively at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, a tertiary children's hospital in the USA. Although all five patients demonstrated common clinical features characterized by developmental delay and characteristic facial features, each of our patients showed unique clinical manifestations. Patient one had craniosynostosis; patient two had sensorineural hearing loss and bicuspid aortic valve; patient three had cutis aplasia; patient four had soft, loose skin; and patient five had a lipoma. Differential diagnoses considered for each patient were quite broad, and included craniosynostosis syndromes, connective tissue disorders, and mitochondrial disorders. Exome sequencing identified a heterozygous, de novo AHDC1 loss-of-function mutation in four of five patients; the remaining patient has a 357kb interstitial deletion of 1p36.11p35.3 including AHDC1. Although it remains unknown whether these unique clinical manifestations are rare symptoms of XGS, our findings indicate that the diagnosis of XGS should be considered even in individuals with additional non-neurological symptoms, as the clinical spectrum of XGS may involve such non-neurological manifestations. Adding to the growing literature on XGS, continued cohort studies are warranted in order to both characterize the clinical spectrum of XGS as well as determine standard of care for patients with this diagnosis.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 305-316, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057029

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing combined with international data sharing has enormously facilitated identification of new disease-associated genes and mutations. This is particularly true for genetically extremely heterogeneous entities such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Through exome sequencing and world-wide collaborations, we identified and assembled 20 individuals with de novo variants in FBXO11. They present with mild to severe developmental delay associated with a range of features including short (4/20) or tall (2/20) stature, obesity (5/20), microcephaly (4/19) or macrocephaly (2/19), behavioral problems (17/20), seizures (5/20), cleft lip or palate or bifid uvula (3/20), and minor skeletal anomalies. FBXO11 encodes a member of the F-Box protein family, constituting a subunit of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex. This complex is involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus in controlling critical biological processes by regulating protein turnover. The identified de novo aberrations comprise two large deletions, ten likely gene disrupting variants, and eight missense variants distributed throughout FBXO11. Structural modeling for missense variants located in the CASH or the Zinc-finger UBR domains suggests destabilization of the protein. This, in combination with the observed spectrum and localization of identified variants and the lack of apparent genotype-phenotype correlations, is compatible with loss of function or haploinsufficiency as an underlying mechanism. We implicate de novo missense and likely gene disrupting variants in FBXO11 in a neurodevelopmental disorder with variable intellectual disability and various other features.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 69-87, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290338

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder with a birth incidence of 1:2,000-3,000, is characterized by a highly variable clinical presentation. To date, only two clinically relevant intragenic genotype-phenotype correlations have been reported for NF1 missense mutations affecting p.Arg1809 and a single amino acid deletion p.Met922del. Both variants predispose to a distinct mild NF1 phenotype with neither externally visible cutaneous/plexiform neurofibromas nor other tumors. Here, we report 162 individuals (129 unrelated probands and 33 affected relatives) heterozygous for a constitutional missense mutation affecting one of five neighboring NF1 codons-Leu844, Cys845, Ala846, Leu847, and Gly848-located in the cysteine-serine-rich domain (CSRD). Collectively, these recurrent missense mutations affect ∼0.8% of unrelated NF1 mutation-positive probands in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) cohort. Major superficial plexiform neurofibromas and symptomatic spinal neurofibromas were more prevalent in these individuals compared with classic NF1-affected cohorts (both p < 0.0001). Nearly half of the individuals had symptomatic or asymptomatic optic pathway gliomas and/or skeletal abnormalities. Additionally, variants in this region seem to confer a high predisposition to develop malignancies compared with the general NF1-affected population (p = 0.0061). Our results demonstrate that these NF1 missense mutations, although located outside the GAP-related domain, may be an important risk factor for a severe presentation. A genotype-phenotype correlation at the NF1 region 844-848 exists and will be valuable in the management and genetic counseling of a significant number of individuals.

11.
J Med Genet ; 54(7): 479-488, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28119487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cohesinopathies are rare neurodevelopmental disorders arising from a dysfunction in the cohesin pathway, which enables chromosome segregation and regulates gene transcription. So far, eight genes from this pathway have been reported in human disease. STAG1 belongs to the STAG subunit of the core cohesin complex, along with five other subunits. This work aimed to identify the phenotype ascribed to STAG1 mutations. METHODS: Among patients referred for intellectual disability (ID) in genetics departments worldwide, array-comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH), gene panel, whole-exome sequencing or whole-genome sequencing were performed following the local diagnostic standards. RESULTS: A mutation in STAG1 was identified in 17 individuals from 16 families, 9 males and 8 females aged 2-33 years. Four individuals harboured a small microdeletion encompassing STAG1; three individuals from two families had an intragenic STAG1 deletion. Six deletions were identified by array-CGH, one by whole-exome sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing found de novo heterozygous missense or frameshift STAG1 variants in eight patients, a panel of genes involved in ID identified a missense and a frameshift variant in two individuals. The 17 patients shared common facial features, with wide mouth and deep-set eyes. Four individuals had mild microcephaly, seven had epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: We report an international series of 17 individuals from 16 families presenting with syndromic unspecific ID that could be attributed to a STAG1 deletion or point mutation. This first series reporting the phenotype ascribed to mutation in STAG1 highlights the importance of data sharing in the field of rare disorders.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Síndrome , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
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