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1.
Int J Bipolar Disord ; 9(1): 13, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Stanley Foundation Bipolar Treatment Outcome Network (SFBN) recruited more than 900 outpatients from 1995 to 2002 from 4 sites in the United States (US) and 3 in the Netherlands and Germany (abbreviated as Europe). When funding was discontinued, the international group of investigators continued to work together as the Bipolar Collaborative Network (BCN), publishing so far 87 peer-reviewed manuscripts. On the 25th year anniversary of its founding, publication of a brief summary of some of the major findings appeared appropriate. Important insights into the course and treatment of adult outpatients with bipolar disorder were revealed and some methodological issues and lessons learned will be discussed. RESULTS: The illness is recurrent and pernicious and difficult to bring to a long-term remission. Virtually all aspects of the illness were more prevalent in the US compared to Europe. This included vastly more patients with early onset illness and those with more psychosocial adversity in childhood; more genetic vulnerability; more anxiety and substance abuse comorbidity; more episodes and rapid cycling; and more treatment non-responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide a road map for a new round of much needed clinical treatment research studies. They also emphasize the need for the formation of a new network focusing on child and youth onset of mood disorders with a goal to achieve early precision diagnostics for intervention and prevention in attempting to make the course of bipolar illness more benign.

3.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the feasibility, safety, and potential efficacy of lisdexamfetamine (LDX) as a treatment for adults with bulimia nervosa (BN). METHOD: An open-label 8-week feasibility study was conducted in participants with BN. Enrollment rate, dropout rate, safety outcomes, and eating disorder symptom change were examined. RESULTS: Eighteen of 23 participants completed the study per protocol. There was no participant-initiated dropout due to adverse drug reactions and no severe and unexpected adverse drug reactions. An average increase in heart rate of 12.1 beats/min was observed. There was a mean weight reduction of 2.1 kg and one participant was withdrawn for clinically significant weight loss. In the intent-to-treat sample, there were reductions in objective binge episodes and compensatory behaviors from Baseline to Post/End-of-Treatment (mean difference = -29.83, 95% confidence interval: -43.38 to -16.27; and mean difference = -33.78, 95% confidence interval: -48.74 to -18.82, respectively). DISCUSSION: Results of this study indicate that a randomized controlled trial would be feasible with close monitoring of certain safety parameters (especially over a longer time period as long-term safety is unknown). However, the results should not be used as evidence for clinicians to prescribe LDX to individuals with BN before its efficacy and safety are properly tested. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03397446.

4.
Bipolar Disord ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548063

RESUMO

AIMS: Long-term lithium therapy (LTLT) has been associated with kidney insufficiency in bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to investigate the risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) development and progression among BD patients receiving LTLT. METHODS: We included adult patients with BD on LTLT (≥1 year) who were enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank, Rochester, Minnesota. We reviewed electronic medical records to extract information related to lithium therapy and kidney-related data to assess changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). CKD severity was assessed based on eGFR. RESULTS: Among 154 patients who received LTLT, 41 patients (27%) developed CKD, of whom 20 (49%) patients continued lithium (continuers) and 19 (46%) discontinued it (discontinuers). The median time to stage 3 CKD development was 21.7 years from the start of Li treatment. Type-2 diabetes mellitus and benzodiazepine use were independent predictors for CKD development in the survival analysis, after controlling for age. The subsequent CKD progression rate did not differ between continuers and discontinuers (mean GFR 48.6 vs. 44.1, p = 0.13) at the end of follow-up duration (mean duration: 3.5 ± 4.4 years for continuers and 4.9 ± 5.3 years for discontinuers). CONCLUSION: CKD was observed in one fourth of patients with BD receiving LTLT. There was no significant difference in the progression of CKD among Li continuers versus discontinuers, at the mean follow-up duration of 4.2 years, after the CKD diagnosis. Progression of CKD could be influenced by existing comorbidities and may not necessarily be due to lithium alone.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 637-643, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between cardiometabolic markers and bipolar disorder (BD), examining the impact of sex and cardiometabolic medication use, from a large case-control biorepository of more than 1300 participants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Recruited from July 2009 through September 2017, cardiometabolic markers were harvested from electronic health records (EHR) of participants (n=661) from the Mayo Clinic Individualized Medicine Biobank for Bipolar Disorder and Mayo Clinic Biobank age-sex-matched controls (n=706). Markers were compared between cases and controls using logistic regression, stratified by sex, adjusting for cardiometabolic medications and current smoking status. We studied the effect of psychotropics in case-only analyses. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 52.5 ± 11.6 years and 55% were female. BD patients had higher rates of smoking, but lower utilization of lipid-lowering medication compared with controls. After adjustment, BD was associated with obesity [Odds ratio (CI) 1.62 (1.22-2.15)], elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) [2.18 (1.55-3.06)] and elevated triglycerides [1.58 (1.13-2.2)]. When stratified by sex, obesity [1.8 (1.23-2.66)] and systolic blood pressure [2.32 (1.46-3.7)] were associated with BD females compared to female controls; however, only systolic blood pressure [2.04 (1.23-3.42)] was associated with male bipolars compared to male controls. Psychotropics were marginally associated with mean BMI, abnormal triglycerides, and HbA1c. LIMITATIONS: EHR cross-sectional data CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the largest case controlled study to date to explore the association between cardiometabolic markers and bipolar disorder adjusting for utilization of cardiometabolic medication. Identification of significant, non-laboratory based cardiometabolic markers that are associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular adverse events in patients with bipolar disorder, underscores, both the utility and importance of risk monitoring that can be easily done in community mental health centers.

6.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depressive episodes and symptoms of bipolar I disorder are commonly misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD) in primary care. The novel and pragmatic Rapid Mood Screener (RMS) was developed to screen for manic symptoms and bipolar I disorder features (e.g., age of depression onset) to address this unmet clinical need. METHODS: A targeted literature search was conducted to select concepts thought to differentiate bipolar I from MDD and screener tool items were drafted. Items were tested and refined in cognitive debriefing interviews with individuals with self-reported bipolar I or MDD (N = 12). An observational study was conducted to evaluate predictive validity. Participants with clinical interview-confirmed bipolar I or MDD diagnoses (N = 139) completed a draft 10-item screening tool and other questionnaires. Data were analyzed to identify the smallest possible subset of items with optimized sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Adults with confirmed bipolar I (n = 67) or MDD (n = 72) participated in the observational study. Ten draft screening tool items were reduced to 6 final RMS items based on item-level analysis. When 4 or more items of the RMS were endorsed ("yes"), sensitivity was 0.88 and specificity was 0.80; positive and negative predictive values were 0.80 and 0.88, respectively. These properties were an improvement over the Mood Disorder Questionnaire in the same analysis sample while using 60% fewer items. CONCLUSION: The pragmatic 6-item RMS differentiates bipolar I disorder from MDD in patients with depressive symptoms, providing real-world guidance to primary care practitioners on whether more comprehensive assessment for bipolar I disorder is warranted.

7.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(5)2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder; however, few evidence-based treatments are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dasotraline, a novel dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in adults with BED. METHODS: Patients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of BED (intent-to-treat sample, N = 315) were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with once-daily, flexible doses (4, 6, or 8 mg/d) of dasotraline or placebo. Primary endpoint was change in diary-based assessment of number of binge-eating days per week at week 12. Key secondary endpoints included changes from baseline in Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S) and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Binge-Eating (YBOCS-BE) and percentage of subjects with cessation of binge eating in the final 4 weeks. RESULTS: Treatment with dasotraline was associated with a significantly greater reduction in binge-eating days per week at study endpoint (vs placebo; least squares mean [SE] difference score, -0.99 [0.17]; P < .0001; effect size [ES], 0.74). Significant endpoint improvement was observed for the 3 key secondary measures, CGI-S (P < .0001; ES, 0.95), YBOCS-BE (P < .0001; ES, 0.96), and 4-week cessation of binge eating (46.5% vs 20.6%; P < .0001). The most common adverse events in the dasotraline vs placebo groups were insomnia (44.6% vs 8.1%), dry mouth (27.4% vs 5.0%), decreased appetite (19.7% vs 6.9%), and anxiety (17.8% vs 2.5%). Discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in 11.3% of patients on dasotraline vs 2.5% on placebo. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this placebo-controlled, double-blind study found dasotraline to be an efficacious, safe, and generally well-tolerated treatment for BED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02564588.


Assuntos
1-Naftilamina/análogos & derivados , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , 1-Naftilamina/administração & dosagem , 1-Naftilamina/efeitos adversos , 1-Naftilamina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 314, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948743

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) has high clinical heterogeneity, frequent psychiatric comorbidities, and elevated suicide risk. To determine genetic differences between common clinical sub-phenotypes of BD, we performed a systematic polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis using multiple PRSs from a range of psychiatric, personality, and lifestyle traits to dissect differences in BD sub-phenotypes in two BD cohorts: the Mayo Clinic BD Biobank (N = 968) and Genetic Association Information Network (N = 1001). Participants were assessed for history of psychosis, early-onset BD, rapid cycling (defined as four or more episodes in a year), and suicide attempts using questionnaires and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. In a combined sample of 1969 bipolar cases (45.5% male), those with psychosis had higher PRS for SCZ (OR = 1.3 per S.D.; p = 3e-5) but lower PRSs for anhedonia (OR = 0.87; p = 0.003) and BMI (OR = 0.87; p = 0.003). Rapid cycling cases had higher PRS for ADHD (OR = 1.23; p = 7e-5) and MDD (OR = 1.23; p = 4e-5) and lower BD PRS (OR = 0.8; p = 0.004). Cases with a suicide attempt had higher PRS for MDD (OR = 1.26; p = 1e-6) and anhedonia (OR = 1.22; p = 2e-5) as well as lower PRS for educational attainment (OR = 0.87; p = 0.003). The observed novel PRS associations with sub-phenotypes align with clinical observations such as rapid cycling BD patients having a greater lifetime prevalence of ADHD. Our findings confirm that genetic heterogeneity contributes to clinical heterogeneity of BD and consideration of genetic contribution to psychopathologic components of psychiatric disorders may improve genetic prediction of complex psychiatric disorders.

9.
Psychiatry Res ; 292: 113274, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is emerging that early onset bipolar disorder and the duration of the delay to first treatment are both risk factors for poor treatment outcome. We report on the incidence and implications of these two risk factors in patients from the United States (US) versus Europe. METHODS: Age of onset and age at first treatment for depression or mania was assessed in 967 outpatients with bipolar disorder who gave informed consent for participation and filling out a detailed questionnaire. Age at onset and treatment delay were compared in the 675 patients from the US and 292 from the Netherlands and Germany (abbreviated as Europe). Both were then graphed and analyzed. RESULTS: Age of onset of bipolar disorder was earlier in the US than in Europeans by an average of 6-7 years with similar results in those with first onsets of depression or of mania. Delay to first treatment was strongly inversely related to age of onset and was twice as long in the US than in Europe, and especially different for mania in adolescents. The longer delay to treatment in the US was not solely due to earlier age of onset. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment delay is a remedial risk factor and could be shortened with better recognition of the higher incidence of early onset bipolar disorder in the US, which also associated with more genetic and environmental vulnerability factors compared to Europe. New treatment and research initiatives are needed to address these liabilities so that children with bipolar achieve more positive long-term outcomes.

10.
Int J Bipolar Disord ; 8(1): 23, 2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) is commonly applied as a multimodal therapy based on decision algorithms that lack an integrative understanding of molecular mechanisms or a biomarker associated clinical outcome measure. Pharmacogenetics/genomics study the individual genetic variation associated with drug response. This selective review of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenomic testing (PGT) in BD will focus on candidate genes and genome wide association studies of pharmacokinetic drug metabolism and pharmacodynamic drug response/adverse event, and the potential role of decision support tools that incorporate multiple genotype/phenotype drug recommendations. MAIN BODY: We searched PubMed from January 2013 to May 2019, to identify studies reporting on BD and pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics and PGT. Studies were selected considering their contribution to the field. We summarize our findings in: targeted candidate genes of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways, genome-wide association studies and, PGT platforms, related to BD treatment. This field has grown from studies of metabolizing enzymes (i.e., pharmacokinetics) and drug transporters (i.e., pharmacodynamics), to untargeted investigations across the entire genome with the potential to merge genomic data with additional biological information. CONCLUSIONS: The complexity of BD genetics and, the heterogeneity in BD drug-related phenotypes, are important considerations for the design and interpretation of BD PGT. The clinical applicability of PGT in psychiatry is in its infancy and is far from reaching the robust impact it has in other medical disciplines. Nonetheless, promising findings are discovered with increasing frequency with remarkable relevance in neuroscience, pharmacology and biology.

11.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(6): 1233-1242, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627186

RESUMO

Several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder (BD), but not all BD patients respond to these AED mood stabilizers (AED-MSs). To identify genetic polymorphisms that contribute to the variability in AED-MS response, we performed a discovery genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 199 BD patients from the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank. Most of these patients had been treated with the AED-MS valproate/divalproex and/or lamotrigine. AED-MS response was assessed using the Alda scale, which quantifies clinical improvement while accounting for potential confounding factors. We identified two genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) signals that mapped to the THSD7A (rs78835388, P = 7.1E-09) and SLC35F3 (rs114872993, P = 3.2E-08) genes. We also identified two genes with statistically significant gene-level associations: ABCC1 (P = 6.7E-07; top SNP rs875740, P = 2.0E-6), and DISP1 (P = 8.9E-07; top SNP rs34701716, P = 8.9E-07). THSD7A SNPs were previously found to be associated with risk for several psychiatric disorders, including BD. Both THSD7A and SLC35F3 are expressed in excitatory/glutamatergic and inhibitory/γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons, which are targets of AED-MSs. ABCC1 is involved in the transport of valproate and lamotrigine metabolites, and the SNPs in ABCC1 and DISP1 with the strongest evidence of association in our GWAS are strong splicing quantitative trait loci in the human gut, suggesting a possible influence on drug absorption. In conclusion, our pharmacogenomic study identified novel genetic loci that appear to contribute to AED-MS treatment response, and may facilitate precision medicine in BD.

12.
Depress Anxiety ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjunctive antidepressants are frequently used for bipolar depression but their clinical efficacy has been studied in few trials and little is known about how co-occurring manic symptoms affect treatment response. METHODS: Bipolar Clinical Health Outcomes Initiative in Comparative Effectiveness (N = 482) and Lithium Treatment Moderate-Dose Use Study (N = 281) were similar comparative effectiveness trials on outpatients with bipolar disorder comparing four different randomized treatment arms with adjunctive personalized guideline-based treatment for 24 weeks. Adjunctive antidepressant treatment could be used if clinically indicated and was assessed at every study visit. Adjusted mixed effects linear regression analyses compared users of antidepressants to nonusers overall and in different subcohorts. RESULTS: Of the 763 patients, 282 (37.0%) used antidepressant drugs during the study. Antidepressant users had less improvement compared to nonusers on the Clinical Global Impression Scale for Bipolar Disorder and on measures of depression. This was particularly true among patients with co-occurring manic symptoms. Exclusion of individuals begun on antidepressants late in the study (potentially due to overall worse response) resulted in no differences between users and nonusers. We found no differences in treatment effects on mania scales. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of outpatients with bipolar disorder, clinically indicated and guideline-based adjunctive antidepressant treatment was not associated with lower depressive symptoms or higher mania symptoms. The treatment-by-indication confounding due to the nonrandomized design of the trials complicates causal interpretations, but no analyses indicated better treatment effects of adjunctive antidepressants.

13.
Bipolar Disord ; 22(5): 440-460, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The association of bipolar disorder with early and excessive cardiovascular disease was identified over a century ago. Nonetheless, the vascular-bipolar link remains underrecognized, particularly with regard to how this link can contribute to our understanding of pathogenesis and treatment. METHODS: An international group of experts completed a selective review of the literature, distilling core themes, identifying limitations and gaps in the literature, and highlighting future directions to bridge these gaps. RESULTS: The association between bipolar disorder and vascular disease is large in magnitude, consistent across studies, and independent of confounding variables where assessed. The vascular-bipolar link is multifactorial and is difficult to study given the latency between the onset of bipolar disorder, often in adolescence or early adulthood, and subsequent vascular disease, which usually occurs decades later. As a result, studies have often focused on risk factors for vascular disease or intermediate phenotypes, such as structural and functional vascular imaging measures. There is interest in identifying the most relevant mediators of this relationship, including lifestyle (eg, smoking, diet, exercise), medications, and systemic biological mediators (eg, inflammation). Nonetheless, there is a paucity of treatment studies that deliberately engage these mediators, and thus far no treatment studies have focused on engaging vascular imaging targets. CONCLUSIONS: Further research focused on the vascular-bipolar link holds promise for gleaning insights regarding the underlying causes of bipolar disorder, identifying novel treatment approaches, and mitigating disparities in cardiovascular outcomes for people with bipolar disorder.

14.
CNS Spectr ; : 1-10, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE.: The aim of this fixed-dose study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dasotraline in the treatment of patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). METHODS.: Patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria for BED were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with fixed doses of dasotraline (4 and 6 mg/d), or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in number of binge-eating (BE) days per week at week 12. Secondary efficacy endpoints included week 12 change on the BE CGI-Severity Scale (BE-CGI-S) and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BE (YBOCS-BE). RESULTS.: At week 12, treatment with dasotraline was associated with significant improvement in number of BE days per week on the dose of 6 mg/d (N = 162) vs placebo (N = 162; -3.47 vs -2.92; P = .0045), but not 4 mg/d (N = 161; -3.21). Improvement vs placebo was observed for dasotraline 6 and 4 mg/d, respectively, on the BE-CGI-S (effect size [ES]: 0.37 and 0.27) and on the YBOCS-BE total score (ES: 0.43 and 0.29). The most common adverse events on dasotraline were insomnia, dry mouth, headache, decreased appetite, nausea, and anxiety. Changes in blood pressure and pulse were minimal. CONCLUSION.: Treatment with dasotraline 6 mg/d (but not 4 mg/d) was associated with significantly greater reduction in BE days per week. Both doses of dasotraline were generally safe and well-tolerated and resulted in global improvement on the BE-CGI-S, as well as improvement in BE related obsessional thoughts and compulsive behaviors on the YBOCS-BE. These results confirm the findings of a previous flexible dose study.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237290

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether physical dependence developed during lisdexamfetamine dimesylate treatment, as evidenced by presence of withdrawal symptoms after treatment cessation in adults with binge-eating disorder (BED) treated for up to 38 weeks. Methods: Three studies enrolled adults with DSM-IV-TR-defined BED. In two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies conducted from November 2012 to September 2013, participants were treated with placebo or dose-optimized lisdexamfetamine (50 or 70 mg). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized-withdrawal maintenance-of-efficacy study conducted from January 2014 to April 2015, participants categorized as responders after 12 weeks of open-label lisdexamfetamine (50 or 70 mg) were randomized to continued lisdexamfetamine or placebo for 26 weeks. The Amphetamine Cessation Symptom Assessment (ACSA), a 16-item self-report instrument (total score: 0-64), assessed withdrawal experiences. Mean ± SD ACSA scores and medians are presented for study completers. Results: In the short-term efficacy studies, mean ± SD ACSA aggregate scores for placebo and lisdexamfetamine (pooled data) were 7.0 ± 7.60 (n = 275) and 4.9 ± 6.41 (n = 271), respectively, on the day of the last dose at week 12/early termination (ET) and 4.8 ± 6.82 (n = 234) and 5.5 ± 7.50 (n = 221) on day 7 after the last dose. In the maintenance-of-efficacy study, mean ± SD ACSA aggregate scores for placebo and lisdexamfetamine were 4.8 ± 6.67 (n = 44) and 4.7 ± 7.78 (n = 85) on the day of the last dose at week 38/ET and 3.9 ± 5.75 (n = 37) and 5.2 ± 7.93 (n = 71) on day 7 after the last dose. Conclusions: Study results suggest that abrupt lisdexamfetamine termination was not associated with amphetamine withdrawal symptoms at the exposure durations and therapeutic doses analyzed. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: NCT01718483, NCT01718509, and NCT02009163.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 556-562, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate evening chronotype, a proxy marker of circadian system dysfunction, as a clinical subphenotype in bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 773 BD participants and 146 control subjects were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a set of questionnaires. Chronotype was determined using item-5 from the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Univariate analyses and regression models were used to compare evening and non-evening chronotype in BD and chronotype association with clinical variables. RESULTS: Overall, 205 (27%) of BD patients reported an evening chronotype. Evening chronotype was higher in a matched sub-sample of BD patients (n = 150) than in controls (24% and 5% respectively, OR=5.4, p<0.01). Compared to those with non-evening chronotypes, BD patients with an evening chronotype were younger, had an earlier age of onset of BD, and had more prior depressive and manic episodes, higher rates of rapid cycling, past suicide attempts, more comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders. Multivariate regression showed age, prior suicide attempts, and co-occurring substance use disorder were associated with evening chronotype (OR range of 0.97 to1.59). Hypertension, migraine, asthma, and obstructive sleep apnea were significantly associated with evening chronotype (OR range of 1.56 to 2.0). LIMITATION: Limitations include a cross-sectional study design that precludes establishing causality. Analyses did not control for medication use. Younger participant age may prevent evaluation of associations with late-life illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Evening chronotype may be a discrete clinical subphenotype in BD and circadian dysfunction a shared pathophysiological mechanism between psychopathology and medical morbidity.

17.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; 21(3): 230-237, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749403

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the effect of sample handling on inflammatory cytokines in serum and highlight challenges with using samples pre-collected from biobanks for biomarker research.Methods: Cytokine concentrations (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα, and IFNγ) were measured in serum samples of 205 patients with bipoldar disorder (BD) from the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank and 205 non-psychiatric controls from the Mayo Clinic Biobank. As cytokine concentrations varied by recruitment site, post-hoc models were used to test the effect of clinical variables and pre-processing time on cytokines. To evaluate the effect of pre-processing time experimentally, cytokines were assayed in serum and plasma from 6 healthy volunteers processed at different time points.Results: Cytokine levels were significantly higher in the BD group. However, both cytokine levels and pre-processing times differed by recruitment site, and post-hoc analyses revealed that pre-processing time was significantly associated with several cytokines. An experiment using samples from healthy volunteers confirmed that concentrations for most cytokines increased with longer pre-processing times.Conclusions: Delays in processing influence cytokine concentrations in blood samples. Given the increasing use of biobanks in research, this study highlights the need to carefully evaluate sample collection and handling methods when designing biomarker studies.

18.
Bipolar Disord ; 22(2): 109-120, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dopaminergic-enhancing agent modafinil/armodafinil (MoArm) as adjunctive treatment for bipolar depression. METHODS: A comprehensive search of major electronic databases was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adjunctive MoArm that included patients with bipolar I (BP-I) or bipolar II (BP-II) depression. Data for response/remission and all-cause discontinuation were analyzed. Effect size was summarized by relative risk (RR) using a random effect model. RESULTS: Of 58 studies, five RCTs (N = 795 drug, N = 792 placebo) met inclusion criteria. Four armodafinil studies included only BP-I patients and one modafinil study included both bipolar subtypes with limited heterogeneity (I2  = 34%, P = .19; I2  = 18%, P = .30). Compared to placebo, augmentation with MoArm was associated with significantly greater rates of treatment response (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.37; P = .03) and remission (RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.10-1.73; P = .005). All-cause discontinuation was not different than placebo (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.30; P = .45) with no evidence of increased risk of mood switch or suicide attempts with MoArm (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.39-2.5; P = .98; RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.37-2.85; P = .97). CONCLUSION: This narrower scope meta-analysis of one drug for one disease suggests that adjunctive MoArm may represent a novel therapeutic intervention. Further studies delineating the subtypes of bipolar depression responsive to these novel dopaminergic-enhancing agents are encouraged.

19.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 270(2): 237-245, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099616

RESUMO

The effect of assortative mating on offspring is often not considered. Here, we present data on illness in the spouse and the parents of patients with bipolar disorder as they affect illness in the offspring. A history of psychiatric illness (depression, bipolar disorder, suicide attempt, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and "other" illness) was elicited for the parents, spouse, and the offspring of 968 patients with bipolar disorder (540 of whom had children) who gave informed consent for participation in a treatment outcome network. Assortative mating for a mood disorder in the spouse and parents in those from the United States (US) was compared to those from the Netherlands and Germany and related to illnesses in the offspring. There was more illness and assortative mating for a mood disorder in both the spouse and patient's parents from the US compared to Europe. In the parents of the US patients, assortative mating for a mood disorder was associated with more depression, bipolar disorder, alcohol, and "other" illness in the offspring. Compared to the Europeans, there was more assortative mating for mood and other disorders in two generations of those from the US. This bilineal positivity for a parental mood disorder was related to more depression a second generation later in the patients' offspring. In clinical assessment of risk of illness in the offspring, the history of psychiatric illness in the spouse and patient's parents might provide additional information.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Pais , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Crianças Adultas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Clin Transl Sci ; 13(1): 88-97, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386273

RESUMO

As with other psychiatric disorders, development of drugs to treat binge-eating disorder (BED) has been hampered by high placebo response and dropout rates in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Although not approved for use in BED, several RCTs have suggested that topiramate is efficacious for BED in obese individuals. Using data from a positive investigator-initiated RCT of topiramate in 61 obese individuals with BED, the objective of the present study is (i) to develop a quantitative disease-drug-trial framework to inform future BED clinical trial designs, and (ii) to determine the optimal topiramate dose to achieve therapeutic efficacy. Disease-drug-trial models were developed separately for the two efficacy measures, namely, longitudinal normalized weekly binge-eating episode frequency (BEF) and binge day frequency (BDF). Model building consisted of (i) developing a placebo effect model that describes response from the placebo group, (ii) adding a drug effect to the placebo model to describe dose-response relationships, and (iii) developing a parametric time to event model to characterize patient dropout patterns. The placebo effect on normalized BEF and BDF over time demonstrated a maximum decrease of ~ 57% by 5 weeks. Participants had a higher dropout probability if no weight loss occurred during the trial period. The identified dose-response relationship demonstrated a daily dose of 125 mg was needed to exhibit a marked reduction in weekly BEF. The developed comprehensive disease-drug-trial model will be utilized to simulate different clinical trial designs to increase the success for future BED drug development programs.

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