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Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 28(10): 1299-1308, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313427


PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether an association study using information contained in clinical notes could identify known and potentially novel risk factors for nonadherence to antihypertensive medications. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective concept-wide association study (CWAS) using clinical notes to identify potential risk factors for medication nonadherence, adjusting for age, sex, race, baseline blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and a combined comorbidity score. Participants included Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older receiving care at the Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates network from 2010-2012 and enrolled in a Medicare Advantage program. Concepts were extracted from clinical notes in the year prior to the index prescription date for each patient. We tested associations with the outcome for 5013 concepts extracted from clinical notes in a derivation cohort (4382 patients) and accounted for multiple hypothesis testing by using a false discovery rate threshold of less than 5% (q < .05). We then confirmed the associations in a validation cohort (3836 patients). Medication nonadherence was defined using a proportion of days covered (PDC) threshold less than 0.8 using pharmacy claims data. RESULTS: We found 415 concepts associated with nonadherence, which we organized into 11 clusters using a hierarchical clustering approach. Volume depletion and overload, assessment of needs at the point of discharge, mood disorders, neurological disorders, complex coordination of care, and documentation of noncompliance were some of the factors associated with nonadherence. CONCLUSIONS: This approach was successful in identifying previously described and potentially new risk factors for antihypertensive nonadherence using the clinical narrative.

Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 105(4): 857-866, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610746


Efficacy trials, designed to gain regulatory marketing approval, evaluate drugs in optimally selected patients under advantageous conditions for relatively short time periods. Effectiveness trials, designed to evaluate use in usual practice, assess treatments among more typical patients in real-world conditions with longer follow-up periods. In "efficacy-to-effectiveness (E2E) trials," if the initial efficacy trial component is positive, the trial seamlessly transitions to an effectiveness trial component to efficiently yield both types of evidence. Yet more time could be saved by simultaneously addressing efficacy and effectiveness in an "efficacy and effectiveness too (EE2) trial." Additionally, hybrids of the E2E and EE2 approaches with differing degrees of overlap of the two components could allow flexibility for specific drug development needs. In planning EE2 trials, each stakeholder's current and future needs, incentives, and perspective must be considered. Although challenging, the ultimate benefits to stakeholders, the health system, and the public should justify this effort.

Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Aprovação de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Projetos de Pesquisa/legislação & jurisprudência , Análise Custo-Benefício/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Seleção de Pacientes , Resultado do Tratamento
Am Heart J ; 197: 153-162, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29447776


BACKGROUND: Healthcare providers are increasingly encouraged to improve their patients' adherence to chronic disease medications. Prediction of adherence can identify patients in need of intervention, but most prediction efforts have focused on claims data, which may be unavailable to providers. Electronic health records (EHR) are readily available and may provide richer information with which to predict adherence than is currently available through claims. METHODS: In a linked database of complete Medicare Advantage claims and comprehensive EHR from a multi-specialty outpatient practice, we identified patients who filled a prescription for a statin, antihypertensive, or oral antidiabetic during 2011 to 2012. We followed patients to identify subsequent medication filling patterns and used group-based trajectory models to assign patients to adherence trajectories. We then identified potential predictors from both claims and EHR data and fit a series of models to evaluate the accuracy of each data source in predicting medication adherence. RESULTS: Claims were highly predictive of patients in the worst adherence trajectory (C=0.78), but EHR data also provided good predictions (C=0.72). Among claims predictors, presence of a prior gap in filling of at least 6 days was by far the most influential predictor. In contrast, good predictions from EHR data required complex models with many variables. CONCLUSION: EHR data can provide good predictions of adherence trajectory and therefore may be useful for providers seeking to deploy resource-intensive interventions. However, prior adherence information derived from claims is most predictive, and can supplement EHR data when it is available.

Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 25(4): W279-82, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16757489


Drug class reviews are blunt tools for medical decision making. The practice of evidence-based medicine is far more than simply systematic reviews: The patient and doctor are integral. Here we highlight areas of evidence-based coverage decision making where greater balance and transparency could serve to improve the current process, and we recommend elements of a more positive approach that could optimize patient outcomes under resource constraints.

Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Análise Custo-Benefício , Tomada de Decisões , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Eficiência Organizacional , Formulários Farmacêuticos como Assunto , Coalizão em Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos