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1.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(5): e008505, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The resistive reserve ratio (RRR) expresses the ratio between basal and hyperemic microvascular resistance. RRR measures the vasodilatory capacity of the microcirculation. We compared RRR, index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), and coronary flow reserve (CFR) for predicting microvascular obstruction (MVO), myocardial hemorrhage, infarct size, and clinical outcomes, after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. METHODS: In the T-TIME trial (Trial of Low-Dose Adjunctive Alteplase During Primary PCI), 440 patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction from 11 UK hospitals were prospectively enrolled. In a subset of 144 patients, IMR, CFR, and RRR were measured post-primary percutaneous coronary intervention. MVO extent (% left ventricular mass) was determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 2 to 7 days. Infarct size was determined at 3 months. One-year major adverse cardiac events, heart failure hospitalizations, and all-cause death/heart failure hospitalizations were assessed. RESULTS: In these 144 patients (mean age, 59±11 years, 80% male), median IMR was 29.5 (interquartile range: 17.0-55.0), CFR was 1.4 (1.1-2.0), and RRR was 1.7 (1.3-2.3). MVO occurred in 41% of patients. IMR>40 was multivariably associated with more MVO (coefficient, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.05-1.02]; P=0.031), myocardial hemorrhage presence (odds ratio [OR], 3.20 [95% CI, 1.25-8.24]; P=0.016), and infarct size (coefficient, 5.05 [95% CI, 0.84-9.26]; P=0.019), independently of CFR≤2.0, RRR≤1.7, myocardial perfusion grade≤1, and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction frame count. RRR was multivariably associated with MVO extent (coefficient, -0.60 [95% CI, -0.97 to -0.23]; P=0.002), myocardial hemorrhage presence (OR, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.15-0.75]; P=0.008), and infarct size (coefficient, -3.41 [95% CI, -6.76 to -0.06]; P=0.046). IMR>40 was associated with heart failure hospitalization (OR, 5.34 [95% CI, 1.80-15.81] P=0.002), major adverse cardiac events (OR, 4.46 [95% CI, 1.70-11.70] P=0.002), and all-cause death/ heart failure hospitalization (OR, 4.08 [95% CI, 1.55-10.79] P=0.005). RRR was associated with heart failure hospitalization (OR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.19-0.99] P=0.047). CFR was not associated with infarct characteristics or clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In acute ST-segment-elevationl infarction, IMR and RRR, but not CFR, were associated with MVO, myocardial hemorrhage, infarct size, and clinical outcomes. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02257294.

3.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122822

RESUMO

AIMS: Novel parameters that detect failed microvascular reperfusion might better identify the patients likely to benefit from adjunctive treatments during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We hypothesised that a novel invasive parameter, the thermodilution-derived temperature recovery time (TRT), would be associated with microvascular obstruction (MVO) and prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: TRT was derived and validated in two independent ST-elevation myocardial infarction populations and was measured immediately post-PCI. TRT was defined as the duration (seconds) from the nadir of the hyperaemic thermodilution curve to 20% from baseline body temperature. MVO extent (% left ventricular mass) was assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 2-7 days. In the retrospective derivation cohort (n=271, mean age 60±12 years, 72% male), higher TRT was associated with more MVO (coefficient: 4.24 [95% CI: 2.26-6.22) p<0.001), independently of IMR>32, CFR≤2, hyperaemic Tmn>median, thermodilution waveform, age and ischaemic time. At 5-years, higher TRT was multivariably associated with all-cause death/ heart failure hospitalisation (OR: 4.14 [95% CI: 2.08-8.25] p<0.001) and major adverse cardiac events (OR: 4.05 [95% CI: 2.00-8.21] p<0.001). In the validation population (n=144, mean age 60±11 years, 80% male), the findings were confirmed prospectively. CONCLUSIONS: TRT represents a novel diagnostic advance for predicting MVO and prognosis.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(12): 1406-1421, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microvascular obstruction affects one-half of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and confers an adverse prognosis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether the efficacy and safety of a therapeutic strategy involving low-dose intracoronary alteplase infused early after coronary reperfusion associates with ischemic time. METHODS: This study was conducted in a prospective, multicenter, parallel group, 1:1:1 randomized, dose-ranging trial in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Ischemic time, defined as the time from symptom onset to coronary reperfusion, was a pre-specified subgroup of interest. Between March 17, 2016, and December 21, 2017, 440 patients, presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction within 6 h of symptom onset (<2 h, n = 107; ≥2 h but <4 h, n = 235; ≥4 h to 6 h, n = 98), were enrolled at 11 U.K. hospitals. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo (n = 151), alteplase 10 mg (n = 144), or alteplase 20 mg (n = 145). The primary outcome was the amount of microvascular obstruction (MVO) (percentage of left ventricular mass) quantified by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 2 to 7 days (available for 396 of 440). RESULTS: Overall, there was no association between alteplase dose and the extent of MVO (p for trend = 0.128). However, in patients with an ischemic time ≥4 to 6 h, alteplase increased the mean extent of MVO compared with placebo: 1.14% (placebo) versus 3.11% (10 mg) versus 5.20% (20 mg); p = 0.009 for the trend. The interaction between ischemic time and alteplase dose was statistically significant (p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: In patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and an ischemic time ≥4 to 6 h, adjunctive treatment with low-dose intracoronary alteplase during primary percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with increased MVO. Intracoronary alteplase may be harmful for this subgroup. (A Trial of Low-Dose Adjunctive Alteplase During Primary PCI [T-TIME]; NCT02257294).

5.
Heart ; 106(10): 758-764, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114516

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is conflicting evidence regarding the benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with grey zone fractional flow reserve (GZFFR artery) values (0.75-0.80). The prevalence of ischaemia is unknown. We wished to define the prevalence of ischaemia in GZFFR artery and assess whether PCI is superior to optimal medical therapy (OMT) for angina control. METHODS: We enrolled 104 patients with angina with 1:1 randomisation to PCI or OMT. The artery was interrogated with a Doppler flow/pressure wire. Patients underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with follow-up at 3 and 12 months. The primary outcome was angina status at 3 months using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). RESULTS: 104 patients (age 60±9 years), 79 (76%) males and 79 (76%) Left Anterior Descending (LAD) stenoses were randomised. Coronary physiology and SAQ were similar. Of 98 patients with stress perfusion MRI data, 17 (17%) had abnormal perfusion (≥2 segments with ≥25% ischaemia or ≥1 segment with ≥50% ischaemia) in the target GZFFR artery. Of 89 patients with invasive physiology data, 26 (28%) had coronary flow velocity reserve <2.0 in the target GZFFR artery. After 3 months of follow-up, compared with patients treated with OMT only, patients treated by PCI and OMT had greater improvements in SAQ angina frequency (21 (28) vs 10 (23); p=0.026) and quality of life (24 (26) vs 11 (24); p=0.008) though these differences were no longer significant at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive evidence of major ischaemia is uncommon in patients with GZFFR artery. Compared with OMT alone, patients randomised to undergo PCI reported improved symptoms after 3 months but these differences were no longer significant after 12 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02425969.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972008

RESUMO

AIMS: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide linked to vascular diseases through a common intronic gene enhancer [(rs9349379-G allele), chromosome 6 (PHACTR1/EDN1)]. We performed a multimodality investigation into the role of ET-1 and this gene variant in the pathogenesis of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in patients with symptoms and/or signs of ischaemia but no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety-one patients with angina were enrolled. Of these, 206 (53%) with obstructive CAD were excluded leaving 185 (47%) eligible. One hundred and nine (72%) of 151 subjects who underwent invasive testing had objective evidence of CMD (COVADIS criteria). rs9349379-G allele frequency was greater than in contemporary reference genome bank control subjects [allele frequency 46% (129/280 alleles) vs. 39% (5551/14380); P = 0.013]. The G allele was associated with higher plasma serum ET-1 [least squares mean 1.59 pg/mL vs. 1.28 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.53; P = 0.005]. Patients with rs9349379-G allele had over double the odds of CMD [odds ratio (OR) 2.33, 95% CI 1.10-4.96; P = 0.027]. Multimodality non-invasive testing confirmed the G allele was associated with linked impairments in myocardial perfusion on stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T (N = 107; GG 56%, AG 43%, AA 31%, P = 0.042) and exercise testing (N = 87; -3.0 units in Duke Exercise Treadmill Score; -5.8 to -0.1; P = 0.045). Endothelin-1 related vascular mechanisms were assessed ex vivo using wire myography with endothelin A receptor (ETA) antagonists including zibotentan. Subjects with rs9349379-G allele had preserved peripheral small vessel reactivity to ET-1 with high affinity of ETA antagonists. Zibotentan reversed ET-1-induced vasoconstriction independently of G allele status. CONCLUSION: We identify a novel genetic risk locus for CMD. These findings implicate ET-1 dysregulation and support the possibility of precision medicine using genetics to target oral ETA antagonist therapy in patients with microvascular angina. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03193294.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to present a case series of patient treated for stent underexpansion resistant to conventional treatment with intravascular lithotripsy (IVL). BACKGROUND: Stent underexpansion is a powerful predictor of long-term stent patency and correlates with unfavorable clinical outcomes. This case series demonstrates the utility of IVL in managing stent underexpansion resistant to conventional treatment. METHODS: We describe a case series of patients with stent underexpansion due to calcific coronary artery disease treated with IVL. Stent underexpansion was identified as an inability to adequately expand stents with conventional treatment. Only cases that failed to achieve adequate expansion with high-pressure noncompliant balloon inflation were included. RESULTS: Thirteen patients from six institutions have been included in this case series. The average age was 70.25 years with 76.9% of male patients. The average pre-IVL minimal stent area (MSA) was 2.71 mm2 , which improved to 6.44 mm2 post-IVL treatment, representing an average MSA gain of 238%. There were no procedural, peri-procedural, or 30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event. CONCLUSION: This case series demonstrates that IVL is a feasible, safe alternative for the management of stent underexpansion due to calcific coronary disease.

9.
Am Heart J ; 221: 48-59, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911341

RESUMO

Microvascular and/or vasospastic anginas are relevant causes of ischemia with no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA) in patients after computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). OBJECTIVES: Our research has 2 objectives. The first is to undertake a diagnostic study, and the second is to undertake a nested, clinical trial of stratified medicine. DESIGN: A prospective, multicenter, randomized, blinded, sham-controlled trial of stratified medicine (NCT03477890) will be performed. All-comers referred for clinically indicated CTCA for investigation of suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) will be screened in 3 regional centers. Following informed consent, eligible patients with angina symptoms are enrolled before CTCA and remain eligible if CTCA excludes obstructive CAD. Diagnostic study: Invasive coronary angiography involving an interventional diagnostic procedure (IDP) to assess for disease endotypes: (1) angina due to obstructive CAD (fractional flow reserve ≤0.80); (2) microvascular angina (coronary flow reserve <2.0 and/or index of microvascular resistance >25); (3) microvascular angina due to small vessel spasm (acetylcholine); (4) vasospastic angina due to epicardial coronary spasm (acetylcholine); and (5) noncoronary etiology (normal coronary function). The IDP involves direct invasive measurements using a diagnostic coronary guidewire followed by provocation testing with intracoronary acetylcholine. The primary outcome of the diagnostic study is the reclassification of the initial CTCA diagnosis based on the IDP. Stratified medicine trial: Participants are immediately randomized 1:1 in the catheter laboratory to therapy stratified by endotype (intervention group) or not (control group). The primary outcome of the trial is the mean within-subject change in Seattle Angina Questionnaire score at 6 months. Secondary outcomes include safety, feasibility, diagnostic utility (impact on diagnosis and certainty), and clinical utility (impact on treatment and investigations). Health status assessments include quality of life, illness perception, anxiety-depression score, treatment satisfaction, and physical activity. Participants who are not randomized will enter a follow-up registry. Health and economic outcomes in the longer term will be assessed using electronic patient record linkage. VALUE: CorCTCA will prospectively characterize the prevalence of disease endotypes in INOCA and determine the clinical value of stratified medicine in this population.


Assuntos
Vasoespasmo Coronário/diagnóstico , Angina Microvascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Vasoespasmo Coronário/fisiopatologia , Vasoespasmo Coronário/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Angina Microvascular/fisiopatologia , Angina Microvascular/terapia , Microvasos/fisiopatologia
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e014066, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986989

RESUMO

Background Impaired microcirculatory reperfusion worsens prognosis following acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. In the T-TIME (A Trial of Low-Dose Adjunctive Alteplase During Primary PCI) trial, microvascular obstruction on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging did not differ with adjunctive, low-dose, intracoronary alteplase (10 or 20 mg) versus placebo during primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We evaluated the effects of intracoronary alteplase, during primary percutaneous coronary intervention, on the index of microcirculatory resistance, coronary flow reserve, and resistive reserve ratio. Methods and Results A prespecified physiology substudy of the T-TIME trial. From 2016 to 2017, patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction ≤6 hours from symptom onset were randomized in a double-blind study to receive alteplase 20 mg, alteplase 10 mg, or placebo infused into the culprit artery postreperfusion, but prestenting. Index of microcirculatory resistance, coronary flow reserve, and resistive reserve ratio were measured after percutaneous coronary intervention. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was performed at 2 to 7 days and 3 months. Analyses in relation to ischemic time (<2, 2-4, and ≥4 hours) were prespecified. One hundred forty-four patients (mean age, 59±11 years; 80% male) were prospectively enrolled, representing 33% of the overall population (n=440). Overall, index of microcirculatory resistance (median, 29.5; interquartile range, 17.0-55.0), coronary flow reserve(1.4 [1.1-2.0]), and resistive reserve ratio (1.7 [1.3-2.3]) at the end of percutaneous coronary intervention did not differ between treatment groups. Interactions were observed between ischemic time and alteplase for coronary flow reserve (P=0.013), resistive reserve ratio (P=0.026), and microvascular obstruction (P=0.022), but not index of microcirculatory resistance. Conclusions In ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction with ischemic time ≤6 hours, there was overall no difference in microvascular function with alteplase versus placebo. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02257294.

11.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 95(2): 232-241, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264314

RESUMO

AIM: Evaluate sex differences in procedural net adverse clinical events and long-term outcomes following rotational atherectomy (RA). METHODS AND RESULTS: From August 2010 to 2016, 765 consecutive patients undergoing RA PCI were followed up for a median of 4.7 years. 285 (37%) of subjects were female. Women were older (mean 76 years vs. 72 years; p < .001) and had more urgent procedures (64.6 vs. 47.3%; p < .001). Females received fewer radial procedures (75.1 vs. 85.1%; p < .001) and less intravascular imaging guidance (16.8 vs. 25.0%; p = .008). After propensity score adjustment, the primary endpoint of net adverse cardiac events (net adverse clinical events: all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, target vessel revascularization plus any procedural complication) occurred more often in female patients (15.1 vs. 9.0%; adjusted OR 1.81 95% CI 1.04-3.13; p = .037). This was driven by an increased risk of procedural complications rather than procedural major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Specifically, women were more likely to experience coronary dissection (4.6 vs. 1.3%; p = .008), cardiac tamponade (2.1 vs. 0.4%; p = .046) and significant bleeding (BARC ≥2: 5.3 vs. 2.3). Despite this, overall MACE-free survival was similar between males and females (adjusted HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.80-1.34; p = .81). Procedural complications during RA were associated with almost double the incidence of MACE at long-term follow-up (HR 1.92; 95% CI 1.34-2.77; p < .001). CONCLUSION: Women may be at greater risk of procedural complications following rotational atherectomy. These include periprocedural bleeding episodes and coronary perforation leading to cardiac tamponade. Despite this, the adjusted overall long-term survival free of major adverse cardiac events was similar between males and females.

13.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(1): 33-45, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that invasive coronary function testing at time of angiography could help stratify management of angina patients without obstructive coronary artery disease. BACKGROUND: Medical therapy for angina guided by invasive coronary vascular function testing holds promise, but the longer-term effects on quality of life and clinical events are unknown among patients without obstructive disease. METHODS: A total of 151 patients with angina with symptoms and/or signs of ischemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease were randomized to stratified medical therapy guided by an interventional diagnostic procedure versus standard care (control group with blinded interventional diagnostic procedure results). The interventional diagnostic procedure-facilitated diagnosis (microvascular angina, vasospastic angina, both, or neither) was linked to guideline-based management. Pre-specified endpoints included 1-year patient-reported outcome measures (Seattle Angina Questionnaire, quality of life [EQ-5D]) and major adverse cardiac events (all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, unstable angina hospitalization or revascularization, heart failure hospitalization, and cerebrovascular event) at subsequent follow-up. RESULTS: Between November 2016 and December 2017, 151 patients with ischemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease were randomized (n = 75 to the intervention group, n = 76 to the control group). At 1 year, overall angina (Seattle Angina Questionnaire summary score) improved in the intervention group by 27% (difference 13.6 units; 95% confidence interval: 7.3 to 19.9; p < 0.001). Quality of life (EQ-5D index) improved in the intervention group relative to the control group (mean difference 0.11 units [18%]; 95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.19; p = 0.010). After a median follow-up duration of 19 months (interquartile range: 16 to 22 months), major adverse cardiac events were similar between the groups, occurring in 9 subjects (12%) in the intervention group and 8 (11%) in the control group (p = 0.803). CONCLUSIONS: Stratified medical therapy in patients with ischemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease leads to marked and sustained angina improvement and better quality of life at 1 year following invasive coronary angiography. (Coronary Microvascular Angina [CorMicA]; NCT03193294).

14.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(12): e008126, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determine the prevalence and correlates of microvascular and vasospastic angina in patients with symptoms and signs of ischemia but no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA). METHODS: Three hundred ninety-one patients with angina were enrolled at 2 regional centers over 12 months from November 2016 (NCT03193294). INOCA subjects (n=185; 47%) had more limiting dyspnea (New York Heart Association classification III/IV 54% versus 37%; odds ratio [OR], 2.0 [1.3-3.0]; P=0.001) and were more likely to be female (68% INOCA versus 38% in coronary artery disease; OR, 1.9 [1.5 to 2.5]; P<0.001) but with lower cardiovascular risk scores (ASSIGN score median 20% versus 24%; P=0.003). INOCA subjects had similar burden of angina (Seattle Angina Questionnaire) but reduced quality of life compared with coronary artery disease; subjects (EQ5D-5 L index 0.60 versus 0.65 units; P=0.041). RESULTS: An interventional diagnostic procedure with reference invasive tests including coronary flow reserve, microvascular resistance, and vasomotor responses to intracoronary acetylcholine (vasospasm provocation) was performed in 151 INOCA subjects. Overall, 78 (52%) had isolated microvascular angina, 25 (17%) had isolated vasospastic angina, 31 (20%) had both, and 17 (11%) had noncardiac chest pain. Regression analysis showed inducible ischemia on treadmill testing (OR, 7.5 [95% CI, 1.7-33.0]; P=0.008) and typical angina (OR, 2.7 [1.1-6.6]; P=0.032) were independently associated with microvascular angina. Female sex tended to associate with a diagnosis of microvascular angina although this was not significant (OR, 2.7 [0.9-7.9]; P=0.063). Vasospastic angina was associated with smoking (OR, 9.5 [2.8-32.7]; P<0.001) and age (OR, 1.1 per year, [1.0-1.2]; P=0.032]. CONCLUSIONS: Over three quarters of patients with INOCA have identifiable disorders of coronary vasomotion including microvascular and vasospastic angina. These patients have comparable angina burden but reduced quality of life compared to patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. Microvascular angina and vasospastic angina are distinct disorders that may coexist but differ in associated clinical characteristics, symptoms, and angina severity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03193294.

15.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(8): e007830, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of routine invasive management in patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafts presenting with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes are uncertain because these patients were excluded from pivotal trials. METHODS: In a multicenter trial, non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft were prospectively screened in 4 acute hospitals. Medically stabilized patients were randomized to invasive management (invasive group) or noninvasive management (medical group). The primary outcome was adherence with the randomized strategy by 30 days. A blinded, independent Clinical Event Committee adjudicated predefined composite outcomes for efficacy (all-cause mortality, rehospitalization for refractory ischemia/angina, myocardial infarction, hospitalization because of heart failure) and safety (major bleeding, stroke, procedure-related myocardial infarction, and worsening renal function). RESULTS: Two hundred seventeen patients were screened and 60 (mean±SD age, 71±9 years, 72% male) were randomized (invasive group, n=31; medical group, n=29). One-third (n=10) of the participants in the invasive group initially received percutaneous coronary intervention. In the medical group, 1 participant crossed over to invasive management on day 30 but percutaneous coronary intervention was not performed. During 2-years' follow-up (median [interquartile range], 744 [570-853] days), the composite outcome for efficacy occurred in 13 (42%) subjects in the invasive group and 13 (45%) subjects in the medical group. The composite safety outcome occurred in 8 (26%) subjects in the invasive group and 9 (31%) subjects in the medical group. An efficacy or safety outcome occurred in 17 (55%) subjects in the invasive group and 16 (55%) subjects in the medical group. Health status (EuroQol 5 Dimensions) and angina class in each group were similar at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the population experienced a serious adverse event. An initial noninvasive management strategy is feasible. A substantive health outcomes trial of invasive versus noninvasive management in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafts appears warranted. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01895751.

16.
Open Heart ; 6(1): e000979, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168381

RESUMO

Objectives: We aimed to assess for sex differences in invasive parameters of acute microvascular reperfusion injury and infarct characteristics on cardiac MRI after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: Patients with STEMI undergoing emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were prospectively enrolled. Index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were measured in the culprit artery post-PCI. Contrast-enhanced MRI was used to assess infarct characteristics, microvascular obstruction and myocardial haemorrhage, 2 days and 6 months post-STEMI. Prespecified outcomes were as follows: (i) all-cause death/first heart failure hospitalisation and (ii) cardiac death/non-fatal myocardial infarction/urgent coronary revascularisation (major adverse cardiovascular event, MACE) during 5- year median follow-up. Results: In 324 patients with STEMI (87 women, mean age: 61 ± 12.19 years; 237 men, mean age: 59 ± 11.17 years), women had anterior STEMI less often, fewer prescriptions of beta-blockers at discharge and higher baseline N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (all p < 0.05). Following emergency PCI, fewer women than men had Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) myocardial perfusion grades ≤ 1 (20% vs 32%, p = 0.027) and women had lower corrected TIMI frame counts (12.94 vs 17.65, p = 0.003). However, IMR, CFR, microvascular obstruction, myocardial haemorrhage, infarct size, myocardial salvage index, left ventricular remodelling and ejection fraction did not differ significantly between sexes. Female sex was not associated with MACE or all-cause death/first heart failure hospitalisation. Conclusion: There were no sex differences in microvascular pathology in patients with acute STEMI. Women had less anterior infarcts than men, and beta-blocker therapy at discharge was prescribed less often in women. Trial registration number: NCT02072850.

17.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(10): 951-966, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122353

RESUMO

The goal of reperfusion therapies in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction has evolved to include effective reperfusion of the microcirculation subtended by the culprit epicardial coronary artery. The index of microcirculatory resistance is measured using a pressure- and temperature-sensing coronary guidewire and quantifies microvascular dysfunction. The index of microcirculatory resistance is an independent predictor of microvascular obstruction, infarct size, and adverse clinical outcomes. It has the advantage of being immediately measurable in the catheterization laboratory, before the results of blood biomarkers or noninvasive imaging become available. This provides an opportunity for additional intervention that may alter outcomes. In this review, the authors provide a critical appraisal of the published research on the emerging role of the index of microcirculatory resistance as a tool to guide the stratification of patients for adjunctive therapeutic strategies in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

18.
Eur J Radiol ; 112: 121-129, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) and feature-tracking derived circumferential strain would provide incremental prognostic value over the extent of infarction for recovery of segmental myocardial function. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-one patients (mean age 59 years, 73% male) underwent MRI 2 days post-ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 241 (92%) underwent repeat imaging 6 months later. The MRI protocol included cine, 2D-cine DENSE, T2 mapping and late enhancement. Wall motion scoring was assessed by 2-blinded observers and adjudicated by a third. (WMS: 1=normal, 2=hypokinetic, 3=akinetic, 4=dyskinetic). WMS improvement was defined as a decrease in WMS ≥ 1, and normalization where WMS = 1 on follow-up. Segmental circumferential strain was derived utilizing DENSE and feature-tracking. A generalized linear mixed model with random effect of subject was constructed and used to account for repeated sampling when investigating predictors of segmental myocardial improvement or normalization RESULTS: At baseline and follow-up, 1416 segments had evaluable data for all parameters. Circumferential strain by DENSE (p < 0.001) and feature-tracking (p < 0.001), extent of oedema (p < 0.001), infarct size (p < 0.001), and microvascular obstruction (p < 0.001) were associates of both improvement and normalization of WMS. Circumferential strain provided incremental predictive value even after accounting for infarct size, extent of oedema and microvascular obstruction, for segmental improvement (DENSE: odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals: 1.08 per -1% peak strain, 1.05-1.12, p < 0.001, feature-tracking: odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals: 1.05 per -1% peak strain, 1.03-1.07, p < 0.001) and segmental normalization (DENSE: 1.08 per -1% peak strain, 1.04-1.12, p < 0.001, feature-tracking: 1.06 per -1% peak strain, 1.04-1.08, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Circumferential strain provides incremental prognostic value over segmental infarct size in patients post STEMI for predicting segmental improvement or normalization by wall-motion scoring.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/patologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
19.
JAMA ; 321(1): 56-68, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620371

RESUMO

Importance: Microvascular obstruction commonly affects patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and is associated with adverse outcomes. Objective: To determine whether a therapeutic strategy involving low-dose intracoronary fibrinolytic therapy with alteplase infused early after coronary reperfusion will reduce microvascular obstruction. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between March 17, 2016, and December 21, 2017, 440 patients presenting at 11 hospitals in the United Kingdom within 6 hours of STEMI due to a proximal-mid-vessel occlusion of a major coronary artery were randomized in a 1:1:1 dose-ranging trial design. Patient follow-up to 3 months was completed on April 12, 2018. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo (n = 151), alteplase 10 mg (n = 144), or alteplase 20 mg (n = 145) by manual infusion over 5 to 10 minutes. The intervention was scheduled to occur early during the primary PCI procedure, after reperfusion of the infarct-related coronary artery and before stent implant. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the amount of microvascular obstruction (% left ventricular mass) demonstrated by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted from days 2 through 7 after enrollment. The primary comparison was the alteplase 20-mg group vs the placebo group; if not significant, the alteplase 10-mg group vs the placebo group was considered a secondary analysis. Results: Recruitment stopped on December 21, 2017, because conditional power for the primary outcome based on a prespecified analysis of the first 267 randomized participants was less than 30% in both treatment groups (futility criterion). Among the 440 patients randomized (mean age, 60.5 years; 15% women), the primary end point was achieved in 396 patients (90%), 17 (3.9%) withdrew, and all others were followed up to 3 months. In the primary analysis, the mean microvascular obstruction did not differ between the 20-mg alteplase and placebo groups (3.5% vs 2.3%; estimated difference, 1.16%; 95% CI, -0.08% to 2.41%; P = .32) nor in the analysis of 10-mg alteplase vs placebo groups (2.6% vs 2.3%; estimated difference, 0.29%; 95% CI, -0.76% to 1.35%; P = .74). Major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal MI, unplanned hospitalization for heart failure) occurred in 15 patients (10.1%) in the placebo group, 18 (12.9%) in the 10-mg alteplase group, and 12 (8.2%) in the 20-mg alteplase group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with acute STEMI presenting within 6 hours of symptoms, adjunctive low-dose intracoronary alteplase given during the primary percutaneous intervention did not reduce microvascular obstruction. The study findings do not support this treatment. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02257294.


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Cateteres Cardíacos , Terapia Combinada , Angiografia Coronária , Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Qualidade de Vida , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Falha de Tratamento , Troponina T/sangue
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