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1.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12117766, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601965

RESUMO

The prognostic implications of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), as defined by 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines, have not been tested using ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitor thresholds (ie, 24-hour mean systolic BP <125 mm Hg and diastolic BP ≥75 mm Hg). We analyzed data from 11 135 participants in the IDACO (International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes). Using 24-hour mean ambulatory BP monitor values, we performed Cox regression testing independent associations of IDH with death or cardiovascular events. Analyses were conducted in the cohort overall, as well as after age stratification (<50 years versus ≥50 years). The median age at baseline was 54.7 years and 49% were female. Over a median follow-up of 13.8 years, 2836 participants died, and 2049 experienced a cardiovascular event. Overall, irrespective of age, IDH on 24-hour ambulatory BP monitor defined by 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association criteria was not significantly associated with death (hazard ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.79-1.13]) or cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.94-1.40]), compared with normotension. However, among the subgroup <50 years old, IDH was associated with excess risk for cardiovascular events (2.87 [95% CI, 1.72-4.80]), with evidence for effect modification based on age (P interaction <0.001). In conclusion, using ambulatory BP monitor data, this study suggests that IDH defined by 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association criteria is not a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults aged 50 years or older but is a risk factor among younger adults. Thus, age is an important consideration in the clinical management of adults with IDH.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468696

RESUMO

Importance: Elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels are associated with risk of heart failure (HF) and mortality among individuals in the general population. However, it is unknown if this risk is modifiable. Objective: To test the hypothesis that elevated hscTnT and NTproBNP levels would identify individuals with the greatest risk for mortality and HF and the largest benefit associated with intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a nonprespecified post hoc analysis of the multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), conducted from October 20, 2010, to August 20, 2015. A total of 9361 patients without diabetes with increased risk for cardiovascular disease were randomized to receive intensive vs standard SBP lowering. Statistical analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis from September 30, 2019, to July 29, 2021. Interventions: Participants were randomized to undergo intensive (<120 mm Hg) or standard (<140 mm Hg) SBP lowering. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and NTproBNP levels were measured from stored specimens collected at enrollment, with elevated levels defined as 14 ng/L or more for hscTnT (to convert to micrograms per liter, multiply by 0.001) and 125 pg/mL or more for NTproBNP (to convert to nanograms per liter, multiply by 1.0). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of this ancillary study was HF and mortality. Results: Of the 9361 participants enrolled in SPRINT, 8828 (5578 men [63.2%]; mean [SD] age, 68.0 [9.5] years) had measured hscTnT levels and 8836 (5585 men [63.2%]; mean [SD] age, 68.0 [9.5] years) had measured NTproBNP levels; 2262 of 8828 patients (25.6%) had elevated hscTnT levels, 3371 of 8836 patients (38.2%) had elevated NTproBNP, and 1411 of 8828 patients (16.0%) had both levels elevated. Randomization to the intensive SBP group led to a 4.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-7.5%) absolute risk reduction (ARR) over 4 years in death and HF (421 events) for those with elevated hscTnT and a 1.7% (95% CI, 0.7%-2.5%) ARR for those without elevated levels. Similarly, for those with elevated NTproBNP, the ARR for death and HF over 4 years was 4.6% (95% CI, 2.3%-6.5%) vs 1.8% (95% CI, 0.9%-2.5%) in those without elevated levels. For those with elevated levels of both biomarkers, the ARR for death and HF over 4 years was 7.8% (95% CI, 3.3%-11.3%) vs 1.7% (95% CI, 0.8%-2.3%) in those with neither biomarker elevated. No significant treatment group by biomarker category interactions were detected. Conclusions and Relevance: Intensive SBP control led to large absolute differences in death and HF among patients with abnormal hscTnT and NTproBNP levels. These findings demonstrate that risk associated with elevation of these biomarkers is modifiable with intensive BP control. A prospective, randomized clinical trial is needed to evaluate whether these biomarkers may help guide selection of patients for intensive SBP lowering. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01206062.

3.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495296

RESUMO

Importance: Women cardiologists receive lower salaries than men; however, it is unknown whether US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) reimbursement also differs by gender and contributes to the lower salaries. Objective: To determine whether gender differences exist in the reimbursements, charges, and reimbursement per charge from CMS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional analysis used the CMS database to obtain 2016 reimbursement data for US cardiologists. These included reimbursements to cardiologists, charges submitted, and unique billing codes. Gender differences in reimbursement for evaluation and management and procedural charges from both inpatient and outpatient settings were also assessed. Analysis took place between April 2019 and December 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes included median CMS payments received and median charges submitted in the inpatient and outpatient settings in 2016. Results: In 2016, 17 524 cardiologists (2312 women [13%] and 15 212 men [87%]) received CMS payments in the inpatient setting, and 16 929 cardiologists (2151 women [13%] and 14 778 men [87%]) received CMS payments in the outpatient setting. Men received higher median payments in the inpatient (median [interquartile range], $62 897 [$30 904-$104 267] vs $45 288 [$21 371-$73 191]; P < .001) and outpatient (median [interquartile range], $91 053 [$34 820-$196 165] vs $51 975 [$15 622-$120 175]; P < .001) practice settings. Men submitted more median charges in the inpatient (median [interquartile range], 1190 [569-2093] charges vs 959 [569-2093] charges; P < .001) and outpatient settings (median [interquartile range], 1685 [644-3328] charges vs 870 [273-1988] charges; P < .001). In a multivariable-adjusted linear regression analysis, women received less CMS payments compared with men (log-scale ß = -0.06; 95% CI, -0.11 to -0.02) after adjustment for number of charges, number of unique billing codes, complexity of patient panel, years since graduation of physicians, and physician subspecialty. Payment by billing codes, both inpatient and outpatient, did not differ by gender. Conclusions and Relevance: There may be potential differences in CMS payments between men and women cardiologists, which appear to stem from gender differences in the number and types of charges submitted. The mechanisms behind these differences merit further research, both to understand why such gender differences exist and also to facilitate reductions in pay disparities.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 44(9): 1910-1912, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417276
6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(10): 1161-1170, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259820

RESUMO

Importance: The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol recommends the use of risk-enhancing factor assessment and the selective use of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring to guide the allocation of statin therapy among individuals with an intermediate risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Objective: To examine the association between risk-enhancing factors and incident ASCVD by CAC burden among those at intermediate risk of ASCVD. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a multicenter population-based prospective cross-sectional study conducted in the US. Baseline data for the present study were collected between July 15, 2000, and July 14, 2002, and follow-up for incident ASCVD events was ascertained through August 20, 2015. Participants were aged 45 to 75 years with no clinical ASCVD or diabetes at baseline, were at intermediate risk of ASCVD (≥7.5% to <20.0%), and had a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 70 to 189 mg/dL. Exposures: Family history of premature ASCVD, premature menopause, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, lipid and inflammatory biomarkers, and low ankle-brachial index. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident ASCVD over a median follow-up of 12.0 years. Results: A total of 1688 participants (mean [SD] age, 65 [6] years; 976 men [57.8%]). Of those, 648 individuals (38.4%) were White, 562 (33.3%) were Black, 305 (18.1%) were Hispanic, and 173 (10.2%) were Chinese American. A total of 722 participants (42.8%) had a CAC score of 0. Among those with 1 to 2 risk-enhancing factors vs those with 3 or more risk-enhancing factors, the prevalence of a CAC score of 0 was 45.7% vs 40.3%, respectively. Over a median follow-up of 12.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 11.5-12.6 years), the unadjusted incidence rate of ASCVD among those with a CAC score of 0 was less than 7.5 events per 1000 person-years for all individual risk-enhancing factors (with the exception of ankle-brachial index, for which the incidence rate was 10.4 events per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 1.5-73.5]) and combinations of risk-enhancing factors, including participants with 3 or more risk-enhancing factors. Although the individual and composite addition of risk-enhancing factors to the traditional risk factors was associated with improvement in the area under the receiver operating curve, the use of CAC scoring was associated with the greatest improvement in the C statistic (0.633 vs 0.678) for ASCVD events. For incident ASCVD, the net reclassification improvement for CAC was 0.067. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, among participants with CAC scores of 0, the presence of risk-enhancing factors was generally not associated with an overall ASCVD risk that was higher than the recommended treatment threshold for the initiation of statin therapy. The use of CAC scoring was associated with significant improvements in the reclassification and discrimination of incident ASCVD. The results of this study support the utility of CAC scoring as an adjunct to risk-enhancing factor assessment to more accurately classify individuals with an intermediate risk of ASCVD who might benefit from statin therapy.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 27-38, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of optimal medical therapy (OMT) on 5-year outcomes in patients with 3-vessel disease and/or left main disease after percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was demonstrated in the randomized SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this analysis is to assess the impact of the status of OMT at 5 years on 10-year mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG. METHODS: This is a subanalysis of the SYNTAXES (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery Extended Survival) study, which evaluated for up to 10 years the vital status of patients who were originally enrolled in the SYNTAX trial. OMT was defined as the combination of 4 types of medications: at least 1 antiplatelet drug, statin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, and beta-blocker. After stratifying participants by the number of individual OMT agents at 5 years and randomized treatment, a landmark analysis was conducted to assess the association between treatment response and 10-year mortality. RESULTS: In 1,472 patients, patients on OMT at 5 years had a significantly lower mortality at 10 years compared with those on ≤2 types of medications (13.1% vs 19.9%; adjusted HR: 0.470; 95% CI: 0.292-0.757; P = 0.002) but had a mortality similar to those on 3 types of medications. Furthermore, patients undergoing CABG with the individual OMT agents, antiplatelet drug and statin, at 5 years had lower 10-year mortality than those without. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG, medication status at 5 years had a significant impact on 10-year mortality. Patients on OMT with guideline-recommended pharmacologic therapy at 5 years had a survival benefit. (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050; Taxus Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Stents Farmacológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Am J Cardiol ; 151: 30-38, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049676

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated a paradoxical association between higher baseline body mass index (BMI) and lower long-term mortality risk after coronary revascularization, known as the "obesity paradox", possibly relying on the single use of BMI. The current study is a post-hoc analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) trial, which is the extended follow-up of the SYNTAX trial comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with left-main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) or three-vessel disease (3VD). Patients were stratified according to baseline BMI and/or waist circumference (WC). Out of 1,800 patients, 1,799 (99.9%) and 1,587 (88.2%) had available baseline BMI and WC data, respectively. Of those, 1,327 (73.8%) patients had High BMI (≥25 kg/m2), whereas 705 (44.4%) patients had High WC (>102 cm for men or >88 cm for women). When stratified by both BMI and WC, 10-year mortality risk was significantly higher in patients with Low BMI/Low WC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 to 2.51), Low BMI/ High WC (adjusted HR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.12 to 6.69), or High BMI/High WC (adjusted HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.27) compared to those with High BMI/Low WC. In conclusion, the "obesity paradox" following coronary revascularization would be driven by low long-term mortality risk of the High BMI/Low WC group. Body composition should be assessed by the combination of BMI and WC in the appropriate evaluation of the long-term risk of obesity in patients with LMCAD or 3VD.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895965

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: General practice has a key role in diagnosing patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) and referring them to appropriate services. METHODS: An anonymous survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and clinical practice behaviour of Irish general practitioners (GPs) in relation to VHD. In addition to demographic data, the survey captured information in the following domains: knowledge of VHD prevalence, knowledge of contemporary VHD treatments, barriers to diagnosis, and referral patterns. To augment responses, a monetary prize (donated to charity) was offered and the survey was also disseminated using social media and by the Irish College of General Practitioners. RESULTS: Valid survey responses were received from 197 GPs. The sample was well-balanced by gender, number of years in practice, and practice setting. A small proportion of GPs (16.8%) used a stethoscope to examine for VHD in all patients over 60 years, a figure that rose to 22.3% in patients over 75. Approximately half of participants (48%) felt confident in their ability to detect and diagnose VHD using a stethoscope, and 74% felt lack of access to echocardiography was a major barrier to making a VHD diagnosis. There was a high level of awareness among GPs of minimally invasive nonsurgical interventions now available for VHD treatment. DISCUSSION: Irish GPs displayed good understanding of contemporary VHD treatment options but reported low confidence and inconsistent practices in evaluating patients for VHD. Improved access to echocardiography might help address these deficiencies, but reorganisation of services will be required in a resource-limited public health service.

11.
Eur Heart J ; 42(21): 2119-2129, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677498

RESUMO

AIMS: Whether isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), as defined by the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guideline, is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been disputed. We aimed to further study the associations of IDH with (i) subclinical CVD in the form of coronary artery calcium (CAC), (ii) incident systolic hypertension, and (iii) CVD events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used multivariable-adjusted logistic and Cox regression to test whether IDH by 2017 ACC/AHA criteria (i.e. systolic blood pressure <130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mmHg) was associated with the above outcomes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). In a random-effects meta-analysis of the association between IDH and CVD events, we combined the MESA results with those from seven other previously published cohort studies. Among the 5104 MESA participants studied, 7.5% had IDH by the 2017 ACC/AHA criteria. There was no association between IDH and CAC [e.g. adjusted prevalence odds ratio for CAC >0 of 0.88 (95% CI 0.66, 1.17)]. Similarly, while IDH was associated with incident systolic hypertension, there was no statistically significant associations with incident CVD [hazard ratio 1.19 (95% CI 0.77, 1.84)] or death [hazard ratio 0.94 (95% CI 0.65, 1.36)] over 13 years in MESA. In a stratified meta-analysis of eight cohort studies (10 037 843 participants), the 2017 IDH definition was also not consistently associated with CVD and the relative magnitude of any potential association was noted to be numerically small [e.g. depending on inclusion criteria applied in the stratification, the adjusted hazard ratios ranged from 1.04 (95% CI 0.98, 1.10) to 1.09 (95% 1.03, 1.15)]. CONCLUSION: The lack of consistent excess in CAC or CVD suggests that emphasis on healthy lifestyle rather than drug therapy is sufficient among the millions of middle-aged or older adults who now meet the 2017 ACC/AHA criteria for IDH, though they require follow-up for incident systolic hypertension. These findings may not extrapolate to adults younger than 40 years, motivating further study in this age group.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
12.
Am J Cardiol ; 148: 102-109, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667446

RESUMO

Increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is associated with heart failure (HF) in previous studies, but it is not known whether the association of cIMT differs between HF with reduced (HFrEF) versus preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We studied 6699 participants (mean age 62 ± 10 years, 47% male, and 38% white) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with baseline cIMT measurements. We classified HF events as HFrEF (EF <50%) or HFpEF (EF ≥ 50%) at the time of diagnosis. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between the IMT Z-score (measured maximum IMT of Internal Carotid (IC) and Common Carotid (CC) sites as the mean of the maximum IMT of the near and far walls of right and left sides), and incident HFrEF or HFpEF. Models were adjusted for covariates and interim coronary artery disease (CAD) events. A total of 191 HFrEF and 167 HFpEF events occurred during follow-up. In multivariable analysis, each 1 standard deviation increase in the measured maximum IMT (Z-score) was associated with both HFrEF and HFpEF in the unadjusted and demographically adjusted models [HR, 95% CI 1.57 (1.43 to 1.73)] and [HR, 95% CI 1.61 (1.47 to 1.77)] but not in the fully adjusted models [HR, 95% CI 1.11 (0.96 to 1.28)] and [HR, 95% CI 1.13 (0.98 to 1.30)]. In conclusion, cIMT was significantly associated with incident HF, but the association is partially attenuated with adjustment for demographic factors and becomes non-significant after adjustment for other traditional heart failure risk factors and interim CAD events. There was no difference in the association of IMT measures with HFrEF versus HFpEF.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(5): 559-571, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although intensive blood pressure reduction has cardiovascular benefits, the absolute benefit is greater in those at higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) helps identify subjects at higher risk for CVD events across systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), or pulse pressure (PP) categories. METHODS: Participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study visit 4 (1996 to 98) were grouped according to SBP, DBP, or PP categories and further stratified by NT-proBNP categories. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for incident CVD (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, or heart failure hospitalization) and mortality across combined NT-proBNP and/or BP categories, adjusting for CVD risk factors. RESULTS: There were 9,309 participants (age: 62.6 ± 5.6 years; 58.3% women) with 2,416 CVD events over a median follow-up of 16.7 years. Within each SBP, DBP, or PP category, a higher category of NT-proBNP (100 to <300 or 300 pg/ml, compared with NT-proBNP <100 pg/ml) was associated with a graded increased risk for CVD events and mortality. Participants with SBP 130 to 139 mm Hg but NT-proBNP ≥300 pg/ml had a hazards ratio of 3.4 for CVD (95% confidence interval: 2.44 to 4.77) compared with a NT-proBNP of <100 pg/ml and SBP of 140 to 149 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated NT-proBNP is independently associated with CVD and mortality across SBP, DBP, and PP categories and helps identify subjects at the highest risk. Participants with stage 1 hypertension but elevated NT-proBNP had greater cardiovascular risk compared with those with stage 2 SBP but lower NT-proBNP. Future studies are needed to evaluate use of biomarker-based strategies for CVD risk assessment to assist with initiation or intensification of BP treatment.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Vigilância da População/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Precursores de Proteínas , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Circulation ; 143(9): 895-906, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent clinical guidelines support intensive blood pressure treatment targets. However, observational data suggest that excessive diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lowering might increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), reflecting a J- or U-shaped relationship. METHODS: We analyzed 47 407 participants from 5 cohorts (median age, 60 years). First, to corroborate previous observational analyses, we used traditional statistical methods to test the shape of association between DBP and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Second, we created polygenic risk scores of DBP and systolic blood pressure and generated linear Mendelian randomization (MR) estimates for the effect of DBP on CVD. Third, using novel nonlinear MR approaches, we evaluated for nonlinearity in the genetic relationship between DBP and CVD events. Comprehensive MR interrogation of DBP required us to also model systolic blood pressure, given that the 2 are strongly correlated. RESULTS: Traditional observational analysis of our cohorts suggested a J-shaped association between DBP and MI. By contrast, linear MR analyses demonstrated an adverse effect of increasing DBP increments on CVD outcomes, including MI (MI hazard ratio, 1.07 per unit mm Hg increase in DBP; P<0.001). Furthermore, nonlinear MR analyses found no evidence for a J-shaped relationship; instead confirming that MI risk decreases consistently per unit decrease in DBP, even among individuals with low values of baseline DBP. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of the genetic effect of DBP, we found no evidence for a nonlinear J- or U-shaped relationship between DBP and adverse CVD outcomes; including MI.

17.
Circulation ; 142(16): 1579-1590, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886529

RESUMO

Four decades have passed since the first trial suggesting the efficacy of aspirin in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction. Further trials, collectively summarized by the Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration, solidified the historical role of aspirin in secondary prevention. Although the benefit of aspirin in the immediate phase after a myocardial infarction remains incontrovertible, a number of emerging lines of evidence, discussed in this narrative review, raise some uncertainty as to the primacy of aspirin for the lifelong management of all patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). For example, data challenging the previously unquestioned role of aspirin in CCS have come from recent trials where aspirin was discontinued in specific clinical scenarios, including early discontinuation of the aspirin component of dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention and the withholding of aspirin among patients with both CCS and atrial fibrillation who require anticoagulation. Recent primary prevention trials have also failed to consistently demonstrate net benefit for aspirin in patients treated to optimal contemporary cardiovascular risk factor targets, indicating that the efficacy of aspirin for secondary prevention of CCS may similarly have changed with the addition of more modern secondary prevention therapies. The totality of recent evidence supports further study of the universal need for lifelong aspirin in secondary prevention for all adults with CCS, particularly in stable older patients who are at highest risk for aspirin-induced bleeding.

18.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(9): 1011-1018, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936272

RESUMO

Importance: The risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) at currently defined normal systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels in persons without ASCVD risk factors based on current definitions is not well defined. Objective: To examine the association of SBP levels with coronary artery calcium and ASCVD in persons without hypertension or other traditional ASCVD risk factors based on current definitions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cohort of 1457 participants free of ASCVD from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were without dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level ≥160 mg/dL or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level <40 mg/dL), diabetes (fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL), treatment for hyperlipidemia or diabetes, or current tobacco use, and had an SBP level between 90 and 129 mm Hg. Participants receiving hypertension medication were excluded. Coronary artery calcium was classified as absent or present and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were calculated for incident ASCVD. The study was conducted from March 27, 2018, to February 12, 2020. Exposures: Systolic blood pressure. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presence or absence of coronary artery calcium and incident ASCVD events. Results: Of the 1457 participants, 894 were women (61.4%); mean (SD) age was 58.1 (9.8) years and mean (SD) follow-up was 14.5 (3.9) years. There was an increase in traditional ASCVD risk factors, coronary artery calcium, and incident ASCVD events with increasing SBP levels. The aHR for ASCVD was 1.53 (95% CI, 1.17-1.99) for every 10-mm Hg increase in SBP levels. Compared with persons with SBP levels 90 to 99 mm Hg, the aHR for ASCVD risk was 3.00 (95% CI, 1.01-8.88) for SBP levels 100 to 109 mm Hg, 3.10 (95% CI, 1.03-9.28) for SBP levels 110 to 119 mm Hg, and 4.58 (95% CI, 1.47-14.27) for SBP levels 120 to 129 mm Hg. Conclusions and Relevance: Beginning at an SBP level as low as 90 mm Hg, there appears to be a stepwise increase in the presence of coronary artery calcium and the risk of incident ASCVD with increasing SBP levels. These results highlight the importance of primordial prevention for SBP level increase and other traditional ASCVD risk factors, which generally seem to have similar trajectories of graded increase in risk within values traditionally considered to be normal.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sístole
20.
J Clin Med Res ; 12(8): 472-482, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849935

RESUMO

Background: Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a marker of oxidative stress, associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. The impact of smoking on oxidative stress may be aggravated in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to ascertain the association of smoking on GGT levels in the presence or absence of NAFLD. Methods: We evaluated 6,354 healthy subjects (43 ± 10 years, 79% males) without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) undergoing an employer-sponsored physical between December 2008 and December 2010. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound and participants were categorized as current or non-smokers by self report. A multivariate linear regression of the cross-sectional association between smoking and GGT was conducted based on NAFLD status. Results: The prevalence of NAFLD was 36% (n = 2,299) and 564 (9%) were current smokers. Smokers had significantly higher GGT levels in the presence of NAFLD (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, current smoking was associated with 4.65 IU/L higher GGT level, P < 0.001, compared to non-smokers. When stratified by NAFLD, the magnitude of this association was higher in subjects with NAFLD (ß-coefficient: 11.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.76 - 16.48; P < 0.001); however, no such relationship was observed in those without NAFLD (ß: -0.02; 95% CI: -3.59, 3.56; P = 0.992). Overall the interaction of NAFLD and smoking with GGT levels as markers of oxidative stress was statistically significant. Conclusions: Smoking is independently associated with significantly increased oxidative stress as measured by GGT level. This association demonstrates effect modification by NAFLD status, suggesting that smoking may intensify CV risk in individuals with NAFLD.

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