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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 294: 33-40, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the two leading causes of death in smokers. Lung cancer screening is recommended in a large proportion of smokers. We examined the implication of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score (quantitative and qualitative) for cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and cancer mortality risk prediction among current smokers. METHODS: We included current smokers without known heart disease from the CAC Consortium. Cox regression (for all-cause mortality) and Fine-and-Gray competing-risk regression (for CVD, CHD, and cancer mortality) models, adjusted for traditional CVD risk factors, were used to assess the association between CAC and each mortality outcome, with CAC as a continuous (log2-transformed) or categorical variable (CAC = 0, CAC = 1-99, CAC = 100-399, and CAC ≥400). We used number of vessels with CAC as a surrogate for the qualitative measure of CAC and mortality outcomes. Analyses were repeated for lung cancer screening-eligible population (defined as ever smokers with >30 pack years smoking history) (n = 1,149). Hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality and Subdistribution HRs (sHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. RESULTS: Over a median of 11.9 years (25th-75th percentile: 10.2-13.3) of follow-up, of 5,147 current smokers (mean age 52.5 ± 9.4, 32.4% women) 337 died (102 of CVD, 54 of CHD, and 123 of cancer). A doubling of CAC score was associated with increased HRs of all-cause mortality (1.10 (1.06-1.14)), and sHRs for CVD (1.15 (1.07-1.24)), CHD (1.26 (1.11-1.42)) and cancer mortality (1.06 (1.00-1.13)). Those with CAC ≥400 had increased sHR of CVD (3.55 (1.70-7.41)), CHD (8.80 (2.41-32.10)), and cancer mortality (1.85 (1.07-3.22)), compared with those with CAC = 0. A diffuse CAC pattern significantly increased the risk of all-cause, CVD, and CHD mortality among smokers. Results were consistent for the lung cancer screening-eligible population. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative and quantitative CAC scores can prognosticate risk of all-cause, CVD, CHD, and cancer mortality beyond traditional risk factors among all smokers as well as those eligible for lung cancer screening.

2.
JAMA ; 323(4): 329-338, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990314

RESUMO

Importance: In the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guideline, the definition of hypertension was lowered from a blood pressure (BP) of greater than or equal to 140/90 to greater than or equal to 130/80 mm Hg. The new diastolic BP threshold of 80 mm Hg was recommended based on expert opinion and changes the definition of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH). Objective: To compare the prevalence of IDH in the United States, by 2017 ACC/AHA and 2003 Joint National Committee (JNC7) definitions, and to characterize cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of IDH with outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2013-2016) and longitudinal analyses of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (baseline 1990-1992, with follow-up through December 31, 2017). Longitudinal results were validated in 2 external cohorts: (1) the NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 1999-2014 and (2) the Give Us a Clue to Cancer and Heart Disease (CLUE) II cohort (baseline 1989). Exposures: IDH, by 2017 ACC/AHA (systolic BP <130 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg) and by JNC7 (systolic BP <140 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg) definitions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weighted estimates for prevalence of IDH in US adults and prevalence of US adults recommended BP pharmacotherapy by the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline based solely on the presence of IDH. Risk of incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), heart failure (HF), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the ARIC Study. Results: The study population included 9590 adults from the NHANES (mean [SD] baseline age, 49.6 [17.6] years; 5016 women [52.3%]) and 8703 adults from the ARIC Study (mean [SD] baseline age, 56.0 [5.6] years; 4977 women [57.2%]). The estimated prevalence of IDH in the NHANES was 6.5% by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition and 1.3% by the JNC7 definition (absolute difference, 5.2% [95% CI, 4.7%-5.7%]). Among those newly classified as having IDH, an estimated 0.6% (95% CI, 0.5%-0.6%) also met the guideline threshold for antihypertensive therapy. Compared with normotensive ARIC participants, IDH by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition was not significantly associated with incident ASCVD (n = 1386 events; median follow-up, 25.2 years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.06 [95% CI, 0.89-1.26]), HF (n = 1396 events; HR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.76-1.09]), or CKD (n = 2433 events; HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.65-1.11]). Results were also null for cardiovascular mortality in the 2 external cohorts (eg, HRs of IDH by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition were 1.17 [95% CI, 0.87-1.56] in the NHANES [n = 1012 events] and 1.02 [95% CI, 0.92-1.14] in CLUE II [n = 1497 events]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of US adults, the estimated prevalence of IDH was more common when defined by the 2017 ACC/AHA BP guideline compared with the JNC7 guideline. However, IDH was not significantly associated with increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diástole , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/complicações , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 382-388, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes in older age is heterogeneous, and the treatment approach varies by patient characteristics. We characterized the short-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk associated with hyperglycemia in older age. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 5,791 older adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who attended visit 5 (2011-2013; ages 66-90 years). We compared prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7% to <6.5%), newly diagnosed diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5%, prior diagnosis <1 year, or taking antihyperglycemic medications <1 year), short-duration diabetes (duration ≥1 year but <10 years [median]), and long-standing diabetes (duration ≥10 years). Outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (median follow-up of 5.6 years). RESULTS: Participants were 58% female, and 24% had prevalent cardiovascular disease. All-cause mortality rates, per 1,000 person-years, were 21.2 (95% CI 18.7, 24.1) among those without diabetes, 23.7 (95% CI 20.8, 27.1) for those with prediabetes, 33.8 (95% CI 25.2, 45.5) among those with recently diagnosed diabetes, 29.6 (95% CI 25.0, 35.1) for those with diabetes of short duration, and 48.6 (95% CI 42.4, 55.7) for those with long-standing diabetes. Cardiovascular mortality rates, per 1,000 person-years, were 5.8 (95% CI 4.6, 7.4) among those without diabetes, 6.6 (95% CI 5.2, 8.5) for those with prediabetes, 11.5 (95% CI 7.0, 19.1) among those with recently diagnosed diabetes, 8.2 (95% CI 5.9, 11.3) for those with diabetes of short duration, and 17.3 (95% CI 13.8, 21.7) for those with long-standing diabetes. After adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors, prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes were not significantly associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03 [95% CI 0.85, 1.23] and HR 1.31 [95% CI 0.94, 1.82], respectively) or cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.00 [95% CI 0.70, 1.43] and HR 1.35 [95% CI 0.74, 2.49], respectively). Excess mortality risk was primarily concentrated among those with long-standing diabetes (all-cause: HR 1.71 [95% CI 1.40, 2.10]; cardiovascular: HR 1.72 [95% CI 1.18, 2.51]). CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, long-standing diabetes has a substantial and independent effect on short-term mortality. Older individuals with prediabetes remained at low mortality risk over a median 5.6 years of follow-up.

5.
Circulation ; 140(25): 2076-2088, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was a novel consideration for antihypertensive medication initiation in the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Pressure (BP) guideline. Whether biomarkers of chronic myocardial injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T ≥6 ng/L] and stress (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] ≥100 pg/mL) can inform cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification and treatment decisions among adults with elevated BP and hypertension is unclear. METHODS: Participant-level data from 3 cohort studies (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Dallas Heart Study, and Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) were pooled, excluding individuals with prevalent CV disease and those taking antihypertensive medication at baseline. Participants were analyzed according to BP treatment group from the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association BP guideline and those with high BP (120 to 159/<100 mm Hg) were further stratified by biomarker status. Cumulative incidence rates for CV event (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or heart failure), and the corresponding 10-year number needed to treat to prevent 1 event with intensive BP lowering (to target systolic BP <120 mm Hg), were estimated for BP and biomarker-based subgroups. RESULTS: The study included 12 987 participants (mean age, 55 years; 55% women; 21.5% with elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T; 17.7% with elevated NT-proBNP) with 825 incident CV events over 10-year follow-up. Participants with elevated BP or hypertension not recommended for antihypertensive medication with versus without either elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T or NT-proBNP had a 10-year CV incidence rate of 11.0% and 4.6%, with a 10-year number needed to treat to prevent 1 event for intensive BP lowering of 36 and 85, respectively. Among participants with stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension recommended for antihypertensive medication with BP <160/100 mm Hg, those with versus without an elevated biomarker had a 10-year CV incidence rate of 15.1% and 7.9%, with a 10-year number needed to treat to prevent 1 event of 26 and 49, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Elevations in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T or NT-proBNP identify individuals with elevated BP or hypertension not currently recommended for antihypertensive medication who are at high risk for CV events. The presence of nonelevated biomarkers, even in the setting of stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension, was associated with lower risk. Incorporation of biomarkers into risk assessment algorithms may lead to more appropriate matching of intensive BP control with patient risk.

7.
8.
J Appl Lab Med ; 4(3): 355-369, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) elevations are associated with incident cardiovascular disease events in primary prevention samples. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. METHODS: We studied 458 men without known cardiovascular disease who participated in the cardiovascular disease substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and had cardiac CT angiography. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models to examine the cross-sectional associations between coronary artery stenosis, coronary artery plaque, indexed left ventricular mass (LVMi), and the outcome of hs-cTnI. We also evaluated the associations between HIV serostatus or use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and hs-cTnI. RESULTS: The mean age was 54 years, 54% were white, and 61% were HIV infected. In multivariable-adjusted logistic models, comparing the highest quartile of LVMi with the lowest quartile, the odds ratio (OR) of hs-cTnI ≥75th percentile was 2.59 (95% CI, 1.20-5.75). There was no significant association between coronary stenosis severity or plaque type and hs-cTnI in linear models; however, in logistic regression models, coronary artery stenosis ≥70% (8% of sample) was marginally associated with a higher likelihood (OR, 2.75 [95% CI, 1.03, 7.27]) of having hs-cTnI ≥75th percentile. There were no associations between HIV serostatus or HAART use and hs-cTnI in either linear or logistic models. CONCLUSION: Among primary prevention men with or at risk for HIV, hs-cTnI concentrations were strongly associated with LVMi but were not associated with HIV infection or treatment status or with coronary plaque type or stenosis until the extremes of severity (≥70% stenosis).

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13156, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511587

RESUMO

Prevalence estimates and evidence informing treatment targets for thyroid dysfunction largely come from studies of middle-aged adults. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for abnormal thyroid tests in participants aged ≥65 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (N = 5,392). We measured serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (Anti-TPO), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In this population (58% women, 22% black), 17% reported medication use for thyroid dysfunction. Among those not on treatment, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.82% and 6.06%, respectively. Overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism affected 0.26% and 0.78%, respectively. Multivariable adjusted TSH, FT4 and T3 levels were 25%, 1.3% and 3.9% lower in blacks compared to whites, respectively. Men were less likely to be anti-TPO positive compared to women (p < 0.001). Former and never smoking were associated with lower T3 and FT4 levels compared to current smoking. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in older adults is nearly 25%. Multiple illnesses can interact to contribute to declines in health. Additional attention to thyroid dysfunction and screening in this age group is recommended.

11.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(9): 265-271, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this secondary analysis of the PACIFY randomized trial, we assessed whether dose and timing of fentanyl have implications for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor loading during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: Among 212 patients undergoing clinically indicated coronary angiography, a total of 70 required PCI and received 180 mg oral ticagrelor. Of these, thirty-two patients received no fentanyl and 38 received fentanyl (with variability in the timing of administration and cumulative dose among those randomized to fentanyl, given that both were provided at the interventional cardiologist's discretion). A time-weighted cumulative fentanyl exposure variable was calculated based on total dose of fentanyl and proximity in time of fentanyl administrations to the ticagrelor load. Patients were stratified based on receiving above or below the median time-weighted cumulative dose. Outcomes included ticagrelor concentrations by mass spectrometry (24-hour area under the curve) and platelet function measured using both VerifyNow platelet reactivity units (PRU) and light-transmission aggregometry (LTA). RESULTS: Unadjusted ticagrelor 24-hour area under the curve was significantly lower across the categories of increasing fentanyl exposure (P=.02). In adjusted regression models, this difference only remained when comparing the no-fentanyl group with the time-weighted cumulative dose above the median group (P=.04). Similarly, with the no-fentanyl group as the reference, adjusted models testing 2-hour PRU and LTA values demonstrated significant differences (with less platelet inhibition for both tests) only among those with time-weighted cumulative fentanyl exposures above the median value (5.1 µg/min). CONCLUSIONS: We have previously shown that fentanyl slows absorption of oral ticagrelor, attenuating its effect on platelet inhibition. We now demonstrate this mechanism appears to be dose- and time-dependent.

12.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(8): 1198-1206, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416591

RESUMO

Low-dose rivaroxaban was effective in secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the COMPASS trial. There is no established role, however, for oral anticoagulants in primary prevention. We evaluated whether coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring identifies a high-risk primary prevention adult population who may benefit from low-dose rivaroxaban to prevent ASCVD events. We modeled expected outcomes of low-dose rivaroxaban in 5,196 Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort participants not already on antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy. We applied relative risk ratios from COMPASS to absolute MESA event rates in order to estimate number needed to treat (NNT) to avoid a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, as well as number needed to harm (NNH) to cause 1 hospitalized bleed; with both NNT and NNH stratified by calculated ASCVD risk and by baseline CAC. MESA participants with CAC ≥300 had crude ASCVD event rate of 20 per 1000 patient-years, which is comparable to that observed in the COMPASS control-arm. CAC was independently associated with the composite ASCVD outcome (p <0.001 for trend). However, CAC was not independently associated with adjusted hazard ratio for hospitalized major bleeding. Predicted 5-year NNT (modeled from COMPASS) was 75 in persons with CAC 100-299 and 45 with CAC ≥300 despite NNH values of 252 and 98, respectively. In conclusion, CAC helps to distinguish estimated ASCVD benefit from estimated bleeding harm, thereby identifying very high-risk primary prevention adults without established cardiovascular disease who may derive net-benefit from low-dose rivaroxaban.

14.
Europace ; 21(10): 1476-1483, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304532

RESUMO

AIMS: Obesity decreases arrhythmia-free survival after atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation by mechanisms that are not fully understood. We investigated the impact of pre-ablation bariatric surgery (BS) on AF recurrence after ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, 239 consecutive morbidly obese patients (body mass index ≥40 kg/m2 or ≥35 kg/m2 with obesity-related complications) were followed for a mean of 22 months prior to ablation. Of these patients, 51 had BS prior to ablation, and our primary outcome was whether BS was associated with a lower rate of AF recurrence during follow-up. Adjustment for confounding was performed with multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and propensity-score based analyses. During a mean follow-up of 36 months after ablation, 10/51 patients (20%) in the BS group had recurrent AF compared with 114/188 (61%) in the non-BS group (P < 0.0001). In the BS group, 6 patients (12%) underwent repeat ablation compared with 77 patients (41%) in the non-BS group, (P < 0.0001). On multivariable analysis, the association between BS and lower AF recurrence remained significant. Similarly, after weighting and adjusting for the inverse probability of the propensity score, BS was still associated with a lower hazard of AF recurrence (hazard ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.39; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery is associated with a lower AF recurrence after ablation. Morbidly obese patients should be considered for BS prior to AF ablation, though prospective multicentre studies should be performed to confirm our novel finding.

15.
Lancet ; 393(10186): 2155-2167, 2019 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226053

RESUMO

Aspirin is one of the most frequently used drugs worldwide and is generally considered effective for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. By contrast, the role of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is controversial. Early trials evaluating aspirin for primary prevention, done before the turn of the millennium, suggested reductions in myocardial infarction and stroke (although not mortality), and an increased risk of bleeding. In an effort to balance the risks and benefits of aspirin, international guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have typically recommended aspirin only when a substantial 10-year risk of cardiovascular events exists. However, in 2018, three large randomised clinical trials of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease showed little or no benefit and have even suggested net harm. In this narrative Review, we reappraise the role of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, contextualising data from historical and contemporary trials.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Prevenção Primária , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(2): 245-252, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088661

RESUMO

Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and elevated pulse pressure (PP) are common blood pressure (BP) abnormalities in older adults, reflect poor vascular compliance, and can signify risk for cardiovascular outcomes. We sought to characterize the associations of ISH and widened PP with high-sensitivity Troponin-T (hs-cTnT; a marker of myocardial damage) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; a marker of hemodynamic stress) levels in older adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 5,251 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants without heart failure who attended visit 5 (2011 to 2013). We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of ISH (systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and diastolic BP < 90 mm Hg) and quartiles of PP with detectable (≥5 ng/L) and elevated hs-cTnT (≥14 ng/L); as well as elevated NT-proBNP (≥100 pg/mL). The mean age was 75 years, 58% were women, and 78% were white. ISH was present in 24.7% and PP ≥ 70 mm Hg in 30.3% of this cohort. Compared to participants with nonhypertensive BP (<140/90 mm Hg), ISH was independently associated with hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP; adjusted odds ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 1.9) for detectable hs-cTnT; 1.3 (1.1 to 1.5) for elevated hs-cTnT; and 1.8 (1.6 to 2.1) for elevated NT-proBNP. Increasing quartiles of PP were also significantly associated with both elevated hs-cTnT (p-for-trend <0.0001) and NT-proBNP (p-for-trend <0.0001). These associations were not modified by BP treatment status. In conclusion, ISH and wide PP are relatively common in older adults despite contemporary BP treatment and are associated with abnormalities in hs-cTnT and NT-pro BNP, findings that could guide personalized treatment of older patients with these BP aberrations.

19.
Atherosclerosis ; 286: 105-113, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128454

RESUMO

South Asian (SA) individuals represent a large, growing population in a number of European countries. These individuals, particularly first-generation SA immigrants, are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and coronary heart disease than most other racial/ethnic groups living in Europe. SAs also have an increased risk of stroke compared to European-born individuals. Despite a large body of conclusive evidence, SA-specific cardiovascular health promotion and preventive interventions are currently scarce in most European countries, as well as at the European Union level. In this narrative review, we aim to increase awareness among clinicians and healthcare authorities of the public health importance of cardiovascular disease among SAs living in Europe, as well as the need for tailored interventions targeting this group - particularly, in countries where SA immigration is a recent phenomenon. To this purpose, we review key studies on the epidemiology and risk factors of cardiovascular disease in SAs living in the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and other European countries. Building on these, we discuss potential opportunities for multi-level, targeted, tailored cardiovascular prevention strategies. Because lifestyle interventions often face important cultural barriers in SAs, particularly for first-generation immigrants; we also discuss features that may help maximise the effectiveness of those interventions. Finally, we evaluate knowledge gaps, currently available risk stratification tools such as QRISK-3, and future directions in this important field.

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