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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292592

RESUMO

Histoplasmosis, one of the most frequent endemic mycoses in the Americas, is caused by the inhalation of airborne conidia of Histoplasma capsulatum. Better understanding of the distribution of this fungus in the environment is important for the development of appropriate public health measures to prevent human infections. Previously, we used Hc100 nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify H. capsulatum DNA in 10% of environmental samples in Colombia. Here, we validate a 100-kDa real-time PCR assay for the detection of this fungus in the environment. Using this method, we identified H. capsulatum DNA in 80% of samples of raw organic materials, such as chicken manure, soil from caves, and bird and bat guano, as well as in 62% of samples of organic fertilizer that underwent the composting process. We demonstrated that 100-KDa real-time PCR is a useful tool for environmental surveillance that can be used to identify the potential reservoirs of H. capsulatum and to prevent outbreaks, especially in people with the higher risk of exposure, such as spelunkers, farmers, poultry manure collectors, and anyone who handle organic fertilizers or bat and bird excreta.

2.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356923

RESUMO

Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease caused by the pathogen Histoplasma spp. that results in significant morbidity and mortality in persons with HIV/AIDS and can also affect immunocompetent individuals. Although some PCR and antigen-detection assays have been developed, conventional diagnosis has largely relied on culture, which can take weeks. Our aim was to provide a proof of principle for rationally designing and standardizing PCR assays based on Histoplasma-specific genomic sequences. Via automated comparisons of aligned genome contigs/scaffolds and gene (sub)sequences, we identified protein-coding genes that are present in existing sequences of Histoplasma strains but not in other genera. Two of the genes, PPK and CFP4, were used for designing primer sets for conventional and real-time PCR assays. Both resulted in a 100% analytical specificity in vitro and detected 62/62 H. capsulatum isolates using purified DNA. We also obtained positive detections of 2/2 confirmed H. capsulatum clinical FFPE (formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded) samples using both primer sets. Positive control plasmid 10-fold serial dilutions confirmed the analytical sensitivity of the assays. The findings suggest that these novel primer sets should allow for detection sensitivity and reduce false positive results/cross-reactions. New assays for detecting pathogenic fungi, constructed along these lines, could be simple and affordable to implement.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1560-e1569, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastomycosis has been reported from countries in Africa and the Middle East, but a decades-long debate has persisted regarding whether this is the same disease known in North America and caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii. METHODS: We reviewed published cases of human and veterinary blastomycosis from Africa and the Middle East. We abstracted epidemiological and clinical features of cases, including sites of disease, diagnosis, management, outcomes, and, where available, genetic and antigenic typing of case isolates. In addition, we sequenced nucleic acids from 9 clinical isolates from Africa deposited in global collections as B. dermatitidis; for 5, we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer regions, and for the other 4 we sequenced the whole genomes. RESULTS: We identified 172 unique human patients with blastomycosis, including 159 patients from 25 African countries and 12 patients from 5 Middle Eastern countries, and also identified 7 reports of veterinary blastomycosis. In humans, cutaneous disease predominated (n = 100/137, 73%), followed by pulmonary (n = 73/129, 57%) and osteoarticular involvement (n = 61/128, 48%). Unusual direct microscopy/histopathological presentations included short hyphal fragments in tissues (n = 23/129, 18%). There were 34 genotyped case isolates that comprised 4 species: Blastomyces percursus (n = 22, 65%), from 8 countries throughout all regions; Blastomyces emzantsi (n = 9, 26%), from South Africa; B. dermatitidis (n = 1, 3%), from the Democratic Republic of Congo; and B. gilchristii (n = 2, 6%), from South Africa and Zimbabwe. CONCLUSIONS: Blastomycosis occurs throughout Africa and the Middle East and is caused predominantly by B. percursus and, at least in South Africa, B. emzantsi, resulting in distinct clinical and pathological patterns of disease.


Assuntos
Blastomicose , Blastomyces/genética , Blastomicose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oriente Médio , África do Sul
4.
Int J Cardiol Hypertens ; 7: 100050, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The band 9p21.3 contains an established genomic risk zone for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since the initial 2007 Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study (WTCCC), the increased CVD risk associated with 9p21.3 has been confirmed by multiple studies in different continents. However, many years later there was still no confirmed report of a corresponding association of 9p21.3 with hypertension, a major CV risk factor, nor with blood pressure (BP). THEORY: In this contribution, we review the bipartite haplotype structure of the 9p21.3 risk locus: one block is devoid of protein-coding genes but contains the lead CVD risk SNPs, while the other block contains the first exon and regulatory DNA of the gene for the cell cycle inhibitor p15. We consider how findings from molecular biology offer possibilities of an involvement of p15 in hypertension etiology, with expression of the p15 gene modulated by genetic variation from within the 9p21.3 risk locus. RESULTS: We present original results from a Colombian study revealing moderate but persistent association signals for BP and hypertension within the classic 9p21.3 CVD risk locus. These SNPs are mostly confined to a 'hypertension island' that spans less than 60 kb and coincides with the p15 haplotype block. We find confirmation in data originating from much larger, recent European BP studies, albeit with opposite effect directions. CONCLUSION: Although more work will be needed to elucidate possible mechanisms, previous findings and new data prompt reconsidering the question of how variation in 9p21.3 might influence hypertension components of cardiovascular risk.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 560332, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193142

RESUMO

Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen capable of causing invasive infections in humans. Since its first appearance around 1996, it has been isolated in countries spanning five continents. C. auris is a yeast that has the potential to cause outbreaks in hospitals, can survive in adverse conditions, including dry surfaces and high temperatures, and has been frequently misidentified by traditional methods. Furthermore, strains have been identified that are resistant to two and even all three of the main classes of antifungals currently in use. Several nuclear genome assemblies of C. auris have been published representing different clades and continents, yet until recently, the mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA chromosomes) of this species and the closely related species of C. haemulonii, C. duobushaemulonii, and C. pseudohaemulonii had not been analyzed in depth. We used reads from PacBio and Illumina sequencing to obtain a de novo reference assembly of the mitochondrial genome of the C. auris clade I isolate B8441 from Pakistan. This assembly has a total size of 28.2 kb and contains 13 core protein-coding genes, 25 tRNAs and the 12S and 16S ribosomal subunits. We then performed a comparative analysis by aligning Illumina reads of 129 other isolates from South Asia, Japan, South Africa, and South America with the B8441 reference. The clades of the phylogenetic tree we obtained from the aligned mtDNA sequences were consistent with those derived from the nuclear genome. The mitochondrial genome revealed a generally low genetic variation within clades, although the South Asian clade displayed two sub-branches including strains from both Pakistan and India. In particular, the 86 isolates from Colombia and Venezuela had mtDNA sequences that were all identical at the base level, i.e., a single conserved haplotype or mitochondrial background that exhibited characteristic differences from the Pakistan reference isolate B8441, such as a unique 25-nt insert that may affect function.

6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2515-2525, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155518

RESUMO

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous infection caused by fungi from the genus Sporothrix. It is transmitted by inoculation of infective particles found in plant-contaminated material or diseased animals, characterizing the classic sapronotic and emerging zoonotic transmission, respectively. Since 1998, southeastern Brazil has experienced a zoonotic sporotrichosis epidemic caused by S. brasiliensis, centred in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Our observation of feline sporotrichosis cases in Brasília (Midwestern Brazil), around 900 km away from Rio de Janeiro, led us to question whether the epidemic caused by S. brasiliensis has spread from the epicentre in Rio de Janeiro, emerged independently in the two locations, or if the disease has been present and unrecognized in Midwestern Brazil. A retrospective analysis of 91 human and 4 animal cases from Brasília, ranging from 1993 to 2018, suggests the occurrence of both sapronotic and zoonotic transmission. Molecular typing of the calmodulin locus identified S. schenckii as the agent in two animals and all seven human patients from which we were able to recover clinical isolates. In two other animals, the disease was caused by S. brasiliensis. Whole-genome sequence typing of seven Sporothrix spp. strains from Brasília and Rio de Janeiro suggests that S. brasiliensis isolates from Brasília are genetically distinct from those obtained at the epicentre of the outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, both in phylogenomic and population genomic analyses. The two S. brasiliensis populations seem to have separated between 2.2 and 3.1 million years ago, indicating independent outbreaks or that the zoonotic S. brasiliensis outbreak might have started earlier and be more widespread in South America than previously recognized.


Assuntos
Calmodulina/genética , Sporothrix/classificação , Esporotricose/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genoma Fúngico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem Molecular , Filogenia , Sporothrix/genética , Sporothrix/isolamento & purificação , Esporotricose/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
7.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1751, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849380

RESUMO

The mitochondrial genome of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis reference isolate Pb18 was first sequenced and described by Cardoso et al. (2007), as a circular genome with a size of 71.3 kb and containing 14 protein coding genes, 25 tRNAs, and the large and small subunits of ribosomal RNA. Later in 2011, Desjardins et al. (2011) obtained partial assemblies of mitochondrial genomes of P. lutzii (Pb01), P. americana (Pb03), and P. brasiliensis sensu stricto (Pb18), although with a size of only 43.1 kb for Pb18. Sequencing errors or other limitations resulting from earlier technologies, and the advantages of NGS (short and long reads), prompted us to improve and update the mtDNA sequences and annotations of two Paracoccidioides species. Using Oxford Nanopore and Illumina read sequencing, we generated high-quality complete de novo mitochondrial genome assemblies and annotations for P. brasiliensis (Pb18) and P. americana (Pb03). Both assemblies were characterized by an unusually long spacer or intron region (>50 kb) between exons 2 and 3 of the nad5 gene, which was moderately conserved between Pb03 and Pb18 but not similar to other reported sequences, except for an unassigned contig in the 2011 assembly of Pb03. The reliability of the insert missing from previous mtDNA genome assemblies was confirmed by inspection of the individual Nanopore read sequences containing nad5 coding DNA, and experimentally by PCR for Pb18. We propose that the insert may aid replication initiation and may be excised to produce a smaller structural variant. The updated mtDNA genomes should enable more accurate SNP and other comparative or evolutionary analyses and primer/probe designs. A comparative analysis of the mtDNA from 32 isolates of Paracoccidioides spp., using the SNPs of the aligned mitochondrial genomes, showed groupings within the brasiliensis species complex that were largely consistent with previous findings from only five mitochondrial loci.

8.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(14)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241867

RESUMO

Aspergillus is a very diverse genus of fungi that are common in the environment and can affect human health. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two Colombian isolates of Aspergillus tamarii, an emerging pathogenic species. One isolate was obtained from an infected patient and the other from the environment in a hospital.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17206, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748561

RESUMO

The genus Paracoccidioides consist of dimorphic fungi geographically limited to the subtropical regions of Latin America, which are responsible for causing deep systemic mycosis in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Paracoccidioides spp. causes the disease remain poorly understood. Paracoccidioides spp. harbor genes that encode proteins involved in host cell interaction and mitochondrial function, which together are required for pathogenicity and mediate virulence. Previously, we identified TufM (previously known as EF-Tu) in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (PbTufM) and suggested that it may be involved in the pathogenicity of this fungus. In this study, we examined the effects of downregulating PbTUFM using a silenced strain with a 55% reduction in PbTUFM expression obtained by antisense-RNA (aRNA) technology. Silencing PbTUFM yielded phenotypic differences, such as altered translation elongation, respiratory defects, increased sensitivity of yeast cells to reactive oxygen stress, survival after macrophage phagocytosis, and reduced interaction with pneumocytes. These results were associated with reduced virulence in Galleria mellonella and murine infection models, emphasizing the importance of PbTufM in the full virulence of P. brasiliensis and its potential as a target for antifungal agents against paracoccidioidomycosis.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Paracoccidioides/patogenicidade , Paracoccidioidomicose/microbiologia , Fator Tu de Elongação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Virulência , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Paracoccidioides/metabolismo , Paracoccidioidomicose/metabolismo , Fagocitose
10.
Protein Sci ; 28(11): 2024-2029, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503375

RESUMO

The LUFS domain (LUG/LUH, Flo8, single-strand DNA-binding protein [SSBP]) is a well-conserved and apparently ancient region found in diverse proteins and taxa. This domain, which has as its most obvious structural feature a series of three helices, has been identified in transcriptional regulator proteins of animals, plants, and fungi. Recently, in these pages (Wang et al., Protein Sci., 2019, 28:788-793), the first crystal structure of a LUFS domain was reported, for the human SSBP2, a transcriptional repressor. We briefly address how the new insights into LUFS structures might contribute to a better understanding of an important transcriptional activator of yeasts that contains the LUFS domain, Flo8, and consider how a focus on the LUFS domain and its variation could help us to understand etiologies of drug resistance in a recently emerged pathogenic fungus, Candida auris.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anfotericina B/química , Antifúngicos/química , Candida/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Alinhamento de Sequência
11.
Heliyon ; 5(7): e02084, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372546

RESUMO

The thermally dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum is the causative agent of histoplasmosis, one of the most prevalent endemic mycosis in the Americas. In tropical regions, agro-ecosystems require organic matter replacement, therefore, the use of organic fertilizers has increased disregarding the fact that certain number of such fertilizers might be contaminated with the fungus, and with their handling resulting in human cases and even outbreaks of histoplasmosis. Additionally, in Colombia, chicken manure is the most common raw material used in the production of organic fertilizers. In this work, we reported the isolation of this fungus from chicken manure, and genetically compared with 42 clinical isolates. The genetically compared environmental isolates grouped together with the clinical ones. Our result suggests that chicken manure may be one of H. capsulatum infection sources. Also, the phylogenetic analyses done with other H. capsulatum isolates indicate that the Colombian isolates are widely distributed in the relational tree thus reveling towards the great genetic diversity among the H. capsulatum Colombian isolates.

12.
Genome Announc ; 6(24)2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903814

RESUMO

Sporothrix schenckii is a thermodimorphic fungal pathogen with a high genetic diversity. In this work, we present the assembly and similarity analysis of the whole-genome sequences of two clinical isolates from Colombia of S. schenckiisensu stricto.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4473, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540755

RESUMO

Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H. griseus and P. hystricis. While genes involved in the virulence of dimorphic pathogenic fungi are conserved in saprophytes, changes in the copy number of proteases, kinases and transcription factors in systemic dimorphic relative to non-dimorphic species may have aided the evolution of specialized gene regulatory programs to rapidly adapt to higher temperatures and new nutritional environments. Notably, both of the basal branching, non-pathogenic species appear homothallic, with both mating type locus idiomorphs fused at a single locus, whereas all related pathogenic species are heterothallic. These differences revealed that independent changes in nutrient acquisition capacity have occurred in the Onygenaceae and Ajellomycetaceae, and underlie how the dimorphic pathogens have adapted to the human host and decreased their capacity for growth in environmental niches.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Fungos/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Genômica , Micoses/microbiologia , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metabolismo Energético , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Filogenia , Plantas/microbiologia
15.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 106: 9-25, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602831

RESUMO

The use of molecular taxonomy for identifying recently diverged species has transformed the study of speciation in fungi. The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides spp has been hypothesized to be composed of five phylogenetic species, four of which compose the brasiliensis species complex. Nuclear gene genealogies support this divergence scenario, but mitochondrial loci do not; while all species from the brasiliensis complex are differentiated at nuclear coding loci, they are not at mitochondrial loci. We addressed the source of this incongruity using 11 previously published gene fragments, 10 newly-sequenced nuclear non-coding loci, and 10 microsatellites. We hypothesized and further demonstrated that the mito-nuclear incongruence in the brasiliensis species complex results from interspecific hybridization and mitochondrial introgression, a common phenomenon in eukaryotes. Additional population genetic analyses revealed possible nuclear introgression but much less than that seen in the mitochondrion. Our results are consistent with a divergence scenario of secondary contact and subsequent mitochondrial introgression despite the continued persistence of species boundaries. We also suggest that yeast morphology slightly-but significantly-differs across all five Paracoccidioides species and propose to elevate four of these phylogenetic species to formally described taxonomic species.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Paracoccidioides/classificação , Paracoccidioides/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Loci Gênicos , Genoma Fúngico , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Recombinação Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
16.
Mycoses ; 60(5): 296-309, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176377

RESUMO

Recent discoveries of novel systemic fungal pathogens with thermally dimorphic yeast-like phases have challenged the current taxonomy of the Ajellomycetaceae, a family currently comprising the genera Blastomyces, Emmonsia, Emmonsiellopsis, Helicocarpus, Histoplasma, Lacazia and Paracoccidioides. Our morphological, phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses demonstrated species relationships and their specific phenotypes, clarified generic boundaries and provided the first annotated genome assemblies to support the description of two new species. A new genus, Emergomyces, accommodates Emmonsia pasteuriana as type species, and the new species Emergomyces africanus, the aetiological agent of case series of disseminated infections in South Africa. Both species produce small yeast cells that bud at a narrow base at 37°C and lack adiaspores, classically associated with the genus Emmonsia. Another novel dimorphic pathogen, producing broad-based budding cells at 37°C and occurring outside North America, proved to belong to the genus Blastomyces, and is described as Blastomyces percursus.


Assuntos
Micoses/microbiologia , Onygenales/classificação , Onygenales/genética , Blastomyces/genética , Chrysosporium/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Histoplasma/genética , Humanos , Microscopia , Micélio/ultraestrutura , Micoses/epidemiologia , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Onygenales/patogenicidade , Onygenales/ultraestrutura , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/ultraestrutura
17.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 100: 22-32, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28093309

RESUMO

Dimorphic human pathogenic fungi interact with host effector cells resisting their microbicidal mechanisms. Yeast cells are able of surviving within the tough environment of the phagolysosome by expressing an antioxidant defense system that provides protection against host-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). This includes the production of catalases (CATs). Here we identified and analyzed the role of CAT isoforms in Paracoccidioides, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Firstly, we found that one of these isoforms was absent in the closely related dimorphic pathogen Coccidioides and dermatophytes, but all of them were conserved in Paracoccidioides, Histoplasma and Blastomyces species. We probed the contribution of CATs in Paracoccidioides by determining the gene expression levels of each isoform through quantitative RT-qPCR, in both the yeast and mycelia phases, and during the morphological switch (transition and germination), as well as in response to oxidative agents and during interaction with neutrophils. PbCATP was preferentially expressed in the pathogenic yeast phase, and was associated to the response against exogenous H2O2. Therefore, we created and analyzed the virulence defects of a knockdown strain for this isoform, and found that CATP protects yeast cells from H2O2 generated in vitro and is relevant during lung infection. On the other hand, CATA and CATB seem to contribute to ROS homeostasis in Paracoccidioides cells, during endogenous oxidative stress. CAT isoforms in Paracoccidioides might be coordinately regulated during development and dimorphism, and differentially expressed in response to different stresses to control ROS homeostasis during the infectious process, contributing to the virulence of Paracoccidioides.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Paracoccidioidomicose/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Histoplasma/genética , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Micélio/genética , Paracoccidioides/enzimologia , Paracoccidioidomicose/enzimologia , Paracoccidioidomicose/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
mSphere ; 1(5)2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27704050

RESUMO

The Paracoccidioides genus includes two species of thermally dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis, a neglected health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. To examine the genome evolution and the diversity of Paracoccidioides spp., we conducted whole-genome sequencing of 31 isolates representing the phylogenetic, geographic, and ecological breadth of the genus. These samples included clinical, environmental and laboratory reference strains of the S1, PS2, PS3, and PS4 lineages of P. brasiliensis and also isolates of Paracoccidioides lutzii species. We completed the first annotated genome assemblies for the PS3 and PS4 lineages and found that gene order was highly conserved across the major lineages, with only a few chromosomal rearrangements. Comparing whole-genome assemblies of the major lineages with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predicted from the remaining 26 isolates, we identified a deep split of the S1 lineage into two clades we named S1a and S1b. We found evidence for greater genetic exchange between the S1b lineage and all other lineages; this may reflect the broad geographic range of S1b, which is often sympatric with the remaining, largely geographically isolated lineages. In addition, we found evidence of positive selection for the GP43 and PGA1 antigen genes and genes coding for other secreted proteins and proteases and lineage-specific loss-of-function mutations in cell wall and protease genes; these together may contribute to virulence and host immune response variation among natural isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. These insights into the recent evolutionary events highlight important differences between the lineages that could impact the distribution, pathogenicity, and ecology of Paracoccidioides. IMPORTANCE Characterization of genetic differences between lineages of the dimorphic human-pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides can identify changes linked to important phenotypes and guide the development of new diagnostics and treatments. In this article, we compared genomes of 31 diverse isolates representing the major lineages of Paracoccidioides spp. and completed the first annotated genome sequences for the PS3 and PS4 lineages. We analyzed the population structure and characterized the genetic diversity among the lineages of Paracoccidioides, including a deep split of S1 into two lineages (S1a and S1b), and differentiated S1b, associated with most clinical cases, as the more highly recombining and diverse lineage. In addition, we found patterns of positive selection in surface proteins and secreted enzymes among the lineages, suggesting diversifying mechanisms of pathogenicity and adaptation across this species complex. These genetic differences suggest associations with the geographic range, pathogenicity, and ecological niches of Paracoccidioides lineages.

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(3): e0004481, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26963091

RESUMO

The ability of Paracoccidioides to defend itself against reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by host effector cells is a prerequisite to survive. To counteract these radicals, Paracoccidioides expresses, among different antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutases (SODs). In this study, we identified six SODs isoforms encoded by the Paracoccidioides genome. We determined gene expression levels of representative isolates of the phylogenetic lineages of Paracoccidioides spp. (S1, PS2, PS3 and Pb01-like) using quantitative RT-PCR. Assays were carried out to analyze SOD gene expression of yeast cells, mycelia cells, the mycelia-to-yeast transition and the yeast-to-mycelia germination, as well as under treatment with oxidative agents and during interaction with phagocytic cells. We observed an increased expression of PbSOD1 and PbSOD3 during the transition process, exposure to oxidative agents and interaction with phagocytic cells, suggesting that these proteins could assist in combating the superoxide radicals generated during the host-pathogen interaction. Using PbSOD1 and PbSOD3 knockdown strains we showed these genes are involved in the response of the fungus against host effector cells, particularly the oxidative stress response, and in a mouse model of infection. Protein sequence analysis together with functional analysis of knockdown strains seem to suggest that PbSOD3 expression is linked with a pronounced extracellular activity while PbSOD1 seems more related to intracellular requirements of the fungus. Altogether, our data suggests that P. brasiliensis actively responds to the radicals generated endogenously during metabolism and counteracts the oxidative burst of immune cells by inducing the expression of SOD isoforms.


Assuntos
Paracoccidioides/enzimologia , Paracoccidioides/patogenicidade , Paracoccidioidomicose/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
Virulence ; 7(2): 72-84, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26646480

RESUMO

The interaction between the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and host cells is usually mediated by specific binding events between adhesins on the fungal surface and receptors on the host extracellular matrix or cell surface. One molecule implicated in the P. brasiliensis-host interaction is the 14-3-3 protein. The 14-3-3 protein belongs to a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in diverse cellular functions. Here, we investigated the relevance of the 14-3-3 protein to the virulence of P. brasiliensis. Using antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we generated a 14-3-3-silenced strain (expression reduced by ˜55%). This strain allowed us to investigate the interaction between 14-3-3 and the host and to correlate the functions of P. brasiliensis 14-3-3 with cellular features, such as morphological characteristics and virulence, that are important for pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Paracoccidioides/genética , Paracoccidioides/patogenicidade , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Animais , Adesão Celular , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Larva/microbiologia , Mariposas/microbiologia , Paracoccidioides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paracoccidioides/ultraestrutura , RNA Antissenso/genética , Transformação Genética , Virulência/genética
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