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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527857

RESUMO

Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by mutations which lead to impaired neuromuscular transmission. SLC25A1 encodes a mitochondrial citrate carrier, associated mainly with the severe neurometabolic disease combined D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D/L-2-HGA). We previously reported a single family with a homozygous missense variant in SLC25A1 with a phenotype restricted to relatively mild CMS with intellectual disability, but to date no additional cases of this CMS subtype had been reported. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in three additional and unrelated families presenting with CMS and mild intellectual disability to identify the underlying causative gene. The WES analysis revealed the presence of a homozygous c.740G>A; p.(Arg247Gln) missense SLC25A1 variant, the same SLC25A1 variant as identified in the original family with this phenotype. Electron microscopy of muscle from two cases revealed enlarged and accumulated mitochondria. Haplotype analysis performed in two unrelated families suggested that this variant is a result of recurrent mutation and not a founder effect. This suggests that p.(Arg247Gln) is associated with a relatively mild CMS phenotype with subtle mitochondrial abnormalities, while other variants in this gene cause more severe neurometabolic disease. In conclusion, the p.(Arg247Gln) SLC25A1 variant should be considered in patients presenting with a presynaptic CMS phenotype, particularly with accompanying intellectual disability.

3.
Ann Neurol ; 86(2): 310-315, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187502

RESUMO

Distinct clinical syndromes have been associated with pathogenic MT-ATP6 variants. In this cohort study, we identified 125 individuals (60 families) including 88 clinically affected individuals and 37 asymptomatic carriers. Thirty-one individuals presented with Leigh syndrome and 7 with neuropathy ataxia retinitis pigmentosa. The remaining 50 patients presented with variable nonsyndromic features including ataxia, neuropathy, and learning disability. We confirmed maternal inheritance in 39 families and demonstrated that tissue segregation patterns and phenotypic threshold are variant dependent. Our findings suggest that MT-ATP6-related mitochondrial DNA disease is best conceptualized as a mitochondrial disease spectrum disorder and should be routinely included in genetic ataxia and neuropathy gene panels. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:310-315.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1731-1748, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045291

RESUMO

Mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes are associated with a diverse group of human disorders characterized by impaired mitochondrial respiration. Within this group, an increasing number of mutations have been identified in nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism, including ELAC2. The ELAC2 gene codes for the mitochondrial RNase Z, responsible for endonucleolytic cleavage of the 3' ends of mitochondrial pre-tRNAs. Here, we report the identification of 16 novel ELAC2 variants in individuals presenting with mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and lactic acidosis. We provide evidence for the pathogenicity of the novel missense variants by studying the RNase Z activity in an in vitro system. We also modeled the residues affected by a missense mutation in solved RNase Z structures, providing insight into enzyme structure and function. Finally, we show that primary fibroblasts from the affected individuals have elevated levels of unprocessed mitochondrial RNA precursors. Our study thus broadly confirms the correlation of ELAC2 variants with severe infantile-onset forms of HCM and mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction. One rare missense variant associated with the occurrence of prostate cancer (p.Arg781His) impairs the mitochondrial RNase Z activity of ELAC2, suggesting a functional link between tumorigenesis and mitochondrial RNA metabolism.

6.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(5): 826-836, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139680

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the cognitive profile of adult patients with mitochondrial disease, and the effect of disease severity on cognition. Methods: Using a prospective case-control design, we compared cognition of patients to normative data and to matched controls, assessed three times over 18 months. Forty-nine patients with m.3243A>G (N = 36) and m.8344A>G (N = 13) mtDNA mutations and 32 controls, matched by age (±5 years) and premorbid cognition (±10 WTAR FSIQ points), participated. Participants completed neuropsychological assessments of general cognition (WAIS-IV), executive function (D-KEFS), and memory (WMS-IV). Potential predictors of cognition were explored. Results: Patients show mild-to-moderate premorbid cognitive impairment, but substantial impairment in current general cognition and distinct domains, including verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed, and memory retrieval. Executive dysfunction may be caused by slower decision-making. Patients performed worse than controls, except on memory tasks, indicating intact memory, when premorbid cognition is controlled for. Premorbid cognition and disease severity were consistent predictors of cognition in patients; however, cognitive decline appears slow and is unlikely in the short-term, when other disease-specific factors remain stable. Interpretation: Patients should be monitored to facilitate early identification of a complex profile of cognitive deficits and individuals with higher disease burden should be followed up more closely. On development of cognitive difficulties, appropriate compensatory strategies should be determined through in-depth assessment. Using strategies such as slower presentation of information, multiple modes of presentation, active discussion to aid understanding and decision-making, and use of memory aids, may ameliorate difficulties.

7.
Mitochondrion ; 47: 18-23, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022467

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA variants in the MT-TM (mt-tRNAMet) gene are rare, typically associated with myopathic phenotypes. We identified a novel MT-TM variant resulting in prolonged seizures with childhood-onset myopathy, retinopathy, short stature and elevated CSF lactate associated with bilateral basal ganglia changes on neuroimaging. Muscle biopsy confirmed multiple respiratory chain deficiencies and focal cytochrome c oxidase (COX) histochemical abnormalities. Next-generation sequencing of the mitochondrial genome revealed a novel m.4412G>A variant at high heteroplasmy levels in muscle that fulfils all accepted criteria for pathogenicity including segregation within single muscle fibres, thus broadening the genotypic and phenotypic landscape of mitochondrial tRNA-related disease.

8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021000

RESUMO

Mitochondrial disease is hugely diverse with respect to associated clinical presentations and underlying genetic causes, with pathogenic variants in over 300 disease genes currently described. Approximately half of these have been discovered in the last decade due to the increasingly widespread application of next generation sequencing technologies, in particular unbiased, whole exome-and latterly, whole genome sequencing. These technologies allow more genetic data to be collected from patients with mitochondrial disorders, continually improving the diagnostic success rate in a clinical setting. Despite these significant advances, some patients still remain without a definitive genetic diagnosis. Large datasets containing many variants of unknown significance have become a major challenge with next generation sequencing strategies and these require significant functional validation to confirm pathogenicity. This interface between diagnostics and research is critical in continuing to expand the list of known pathogenic variants and concomitantly enhance our knowledge of mitochondrial biology. The increasing use of whole exome sequencing, whole genome sequencing and other "omics" techniques such as transcriptomics and proteomics will generate even more data and allow further interrogation and validation of genetic causes, including those outside of coding regions. This will improve diagnostic yields still further and emphasizes the integral role that functional assessment of variant causality plays in this process-the overarching focus of this review.

9.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(3): 515-524, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911575

RESUMO

Objectives: Mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase (MTFMT) is required for the initiation of translation and elongation of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Pathogenic variants in MTFMT have been associated with Leigh syndrome (LS) and mitochondrial multiple respiratory chain deficiencies. We sought to elucidate the spectrum of clinical, neuroradiological and molecular genetic findings of patients with bi-allelic pathogenic variants in MTFMT. Methods: Retrospective cohort study combining new cases and previously published cases. Results: Thirty-eight patients with pathogenic variants in MTFMT were identified, including eight new cases. The median age of presentation was 14 months (range: birth to 17 years, interquartile range [IQR] 4.5 years), with developmental delay and motor symptoms being the most frequent initial manifestation. Twenty-nine percent of the patients survived into adulthood. MRI headings in MTFMT pathogenic variants included symmetrical basal ganglia changes (62%), periventricular and subcortical white matter abnormalities (55%), and brainstem lesions (48%). Isolated complex I and combined respiratory chain deficiencies were identified in 31% and 59% of the cases, respectively. Reduction of the mitochondrial complex I and complex IV subunits was identified in the fibroblasts (13/13). Sixteen pathogenic variants were identified, of which c.626C>T was the most common. Seventy-four percent of the patients were alive at their last clinical review (median 6.8 years, range: 14 months to 31 years, IQR 14.5 years). Interpretation: Patients that harbour pathogenic variants in MTFMT have a milder clinical phenotype and disease progression compared to LS caused by other nuclear defects. Fibroblasts may preclude the need for muscle biopsy, to prove causality of any novel variant.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 759, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770810

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are associated with mitochondrial disease, and also accumulate during normal human ageing. The mechanisms underlying mtDNA deletions remain unknown although several models have been proposed. Here we use deep sequencing to characterize abundant mtDNA deletions in patients with mutations in mitochondrial DNA replication factors, and show that these have distinct directionality and repeat characteristics. Furthermore, we recreate the deletion formation process in vitro using only purified mitochondrial proteins and defined DNA templates. Based on our in vivo and in vitro findings, we conclude that mtDNA deletion formation involves copy-choice recombination during replication of the mtDNA light strand.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Southern Blotting , Replicação do DNA/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética
11.
J Med Genet ; 56(3): 123-130, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683676

RESUMO

Primary genetic mitochondrial diseases are often difficult to diagnose, and the term 'possible' mitochondrial disease is used frequently by clinicians when such a diagnosis is suspected. There are now many known phenocopies of mitochondrial disease. Advances in genomic testing have shown that some patients with a clinical phenotype and biochemical abnormalities suggesting mitochondrial disease may have other genetic disorders. In instances when a genetic diagnosis cannot be confirmed, a diagnosis of 'possible' mitochondrial disease may result in harm to patients and their families, creating anxiety, delaying appropriate diagnosis and leading to inappropriate management or care. A categorisation of 'diagnosis uncertain', together with a specific description of the metabolic or genetic abnormalities identified, is preferred when a mitochondrial disease cannot be genetically confirmed.

12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(23): 4135-4144, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452684

RESUMO

Protein import into mitochondria is facilitated by translocases within the outer and the inner mitochondrial membranes that are dedicated to a highly specific subset of client proteins. The mitochondrial carrier translocase (TIM22 complex) inserts multispanning proteins, such as mitochondrial metabolite carriers and translocase subunits (TIM23, TIM17A/B and TIM22), into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both types of substrates are essential for mitochondrial metabolic function and biogenesis. Here, we report on a subject, diagnosed at 1.5 years, with a neuromuscular presentation, comprising hypotonia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and persistently elevated serum and Cerebrospinal fluid lactate (CSF). Patient fibroblasts displayed reduced oxidative capacity and altered mitochondrial morphology. Using trans-mitochondrial cybrid cell lines, we excluded a candidate variant in mitochondrial DNA as causative of these effects. Whole-exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous variants in the TIM22 gene (NM_013337), resulting in premature truncation in one allele (p.Tyr25Ter) and a point mutation in a conserved residue (p.Val33Leu), within the intermembrane space region, of the TIM22 protein in the second allele. Although mRNA transcripts of TIM22 were elevated, biochemical analyses revealed lower levels of TIM22 protein and an even greater deficiency of TIM22 complex formation. In agreement with a defect in carrier translocase function, carrier protein amounts in the inner membrane were found to be reduced. This is the first report of pathogenic variants in the TIM22 pore-forming subunit of the carrier translocase affecting the biogenesis of inner mitochondrial membrane proteins critical for metabolite exchange.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423112

RESUMO

Context: Abnormal growth and short stature are observed in patients with mitochondrial disease but it is unclear whether there is a relationship between final adult height, and disease severity. Objective: To determine whether patients with genetically confirmed mitochondrial disease are shorter than their peers and whether stature is related to disease severity. Design: Analysis of final adult height in relation to disease severity determined by the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale (NMDAS). Setting: United Kingdom (UK) Mitochondrial Disease Patient Cohort. Patients: 575 patients were identified with recorded height, weight and molecular genetic diagnosis of mitochondrial disease within the UK Mitochondrial Disease Patient Cohort. Main Outcome Measures: Adult Height, BMI and their association with genetic subgroup and disease severity. Results: Adults with mitochondrial disease were short with a mean height of -0.49 standard deviations (SD) (95% CI; -0.58 to -0.39, n=575) compared to UK reference data. Patients were overweight with a BMI SD 0.52 (95% CI; 0.37 to 0.67, n=472). The most common genetic subgroup (m.3243A>G mutation) had a height SD of -0.70 (95% CI; -0.85 to -0.54, n=234) and BMI SD of 0.12 (95% CI; -0.10 to 0.34, n=212). NMDAS scores were negatively correlated with height SD (r= -0.25, 95% CI; -0.33 to -0.17, p<0.001, n=533).Rate of disease progression also correlated negatively with adult height (p<0.001). Conclusion: Final height in mitochondrial disease reflects disease severity and rate of disease progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction and associated subclinical comorbidities affect growth plate physiology.

14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285085

RESUMO

Recessively-inherited variants in AARS2 (NM_020745.2) encoding mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase (mt-AlaRS) were first described in patients presenting with fatal infantile cardiomyopathy and multiple oxidative phosphorylation defects. To date, all described patients with AARS2-related fatal infantile cardiomyopathy are united by either a homozygous or compound heterozygous c.1774C>T (p.Arg592Trp) missense founder mutation that is absent in patients with other AARS2-related phenotypes. We describe the clinical, biochemical and molecular investigations of two unrelated boys presenting with fatal infantile cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis and respiratory failure. Oxidative histochemistry showed cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Biochemical studies showed markedly decreased activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and IV with a mild decrease of complex III activity in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Using next-generation sequencing, we identified a c.1738C>T (p.Arg580Trp) AARS2 variant shared by both patients that was in trans with a loss-of-function heterozygous AARS2 variant; a c.1008dupT (p.Asp337*) nonsense variant or an intragenic deletion encompassing AARS2 exons 5-7. Interestingly, our patients did not harbour the p.Arg592Trp AARS2 founder mutation. In silico modelling of the p.Arg580Trp substitution suggested a deleterious impact on protein stability and folding. We confirmed markedly decreased mt-AlaRS protein levels in patient fibroblasts, skeletal and cardiac muscle, although mitochondrial protein synthesis defects were confined to skeletal and cardiac muscle. In vitro data showed that the p.Arg580Trp variant had a minimal effect on activation, aminoacylation or misaminoacylation activities relative to wild-type mt-AlaRS, demonstrating that instability of mt-AlaRS is the biological mechanism underlying the fatal cardiomyopathy phenotype in our patients.

16.
Arch Dis Child ; 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report investigations performed in children with progressive neurodegenerative diseases reported to this UK study. DESIGN: Since 1997 paediatric surveillance for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has been performed by identifying children aged less than 16 years with progressive intellectual and neurological deterioration (PIND) and searching for vCJD among them. SETTING: The PIND Study obtains case details from paediatricians who notify via the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. PARTICIPANTS: Between May 1997 and October 2017, a total of 2050 cases meeting PIND criteria had been notified and investigated. RESULTS: Six children had vCJD. 1819 children had other diagnoses, made in 12 cases by antemortem brain biopsy and in 15 by postmortem investigations. 225 children were undiagnosed: only 3 had antemortem brain biopsies and only 14 of the 108 who died were known to have had autopsies; postmortem neuropathological studies were carried out in just 10% (11/108) and only two had prion protein staining of brain tissue. Of the undiagnosed cases 43% were known to come from Asian British families. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the notified children had a diagnosis other than vCJD to explain their neurological deterioration. None of the undiagnosed cases had the clinical phenotype of vCJD but brain tissue was rarely studied to exclude vCJD. Clinical surveillance via the PIND Study remains the only practical means of searching for vCJD in UK children.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 592-601, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245030

RESUMO

Isolated complex I deficiency is a common biochemical phenotype observed in pediatric mitochondrial disease and often arises as a consequence of pathogenic variants affecting one of the ∼65 genes encoding the complex I structural subunits or assembly factors. Such genetic heterogeneity means that application of next-generation sequencing technologies to undiagnosed cohorts has been a catalyst for genetic diagnosis and gene-disease associations. We describe the clinical and molecular genetic investigations of four unrelated children who presented with neuroradiological findings and/or elevated lactate levels, highly suggestive of an underlying mitochondrial diagnosis. Next-generation sequencing identified bi-allelic variants in NDUFA6, encoding a 15 kDa LYR-motif-containing complex I subunit that forms part of the Q-module. Functional investigations using subjects' fibroblast cell lines demonstrated complex I assembly defects, which were characterized in detail by mass-spectrometry-based complexome profiling. This confirmed a marked reduction in incorporated NDUFA6 and a concomitant reduction in other Q-module subunits, including NDUFAB1, NDUFA7, and NDUFA12. Lentiviral transduction of subjects' fibroblasts showed normalization of complex I. These data also support supercomplex formation, whereby the ∼830 kDa complex I intermediate (consisting of the P- and Q-modules) is in complex with assembled complex III and IV holoenzymes despite lacking the N-module. Interestingly, RNA-sequencing data provided evidence that the consensus RefSeq accession number does not correspond to the predominant transcript in clinically relevant tissues, prompting revision of the NDUFA6 RefSeq transcript and highlighting not only the importance of thorough variant interpretation but also the assessment of appropriate transcripts for analysis.

18.
EMBO Mol Med ; 10(11)2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201738

RESUMO

OXA1, the mitochondrial member of the YidC/Alb3/Oxa1 membrane protein insertase family, is required for the assembly of oxidative phosphorylation complexes IV and V in yeast. However, depletion of human OXA1 (OXA1L) was previously reported to impair assembly of complexes I and V only. We report a patient presenting with severe encephalopathy, hypotonia and developmental delay who died at 5 years showing complex IV deficiency in skeletal muscle. Whole exome sequencing identified biallelic OXA1L variants (c.500_507dup, p.(Ser170Glnfs*18) and c.620G>T, p.(Cys207Phe)) that segregated with disease. Patient muscle and fibroblasts showed decreased OXA1L and subunits of complexes IV and V. Crucially, expression of wild-type human OXA1L in patient fibroblasts rescued the complex IV and V defects. Targeted depletion of OXA1L in human cells or Drosophila melanogaster caused defects in the assembly of complexes I, IV and V, consistent with patient data. Immunoprecipitation of OXA1L revealed the enrichment of mtDNA-encoded subunits of complexes I, IV and V. Our data verify the pathogenicity of these OXA1L variants and demonstrate that OXA1L is required for the assembly of multiple respiratory chain complexes.

19.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 120, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family member 9 (ACAD9) is essential for the assembly of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. Disease causing biallelic variants in ACAD9 have been reported in individuals presenting with lactic acidosis and cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: We describe the genetic, clinical and biochemical findings in a cohort of 70 patients, of whom 29 previously unpublished. We found 34 known and 18 previously unreported variants in ACAD9. No patients harbored biallelic loss of function mutations, indicating that this combination is unlikely to be compatible with life. Causal pathogenic variants were distributed throughout the entire gene, and there was no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation. Most of the patients presented in the first year of life. For this subgroup the survival was poor (50% not surviving the first 2 years) comparing to patients with a later presentation (more than 90% surviving 10 years). The most common clinical findings were cardiomyopathy (85%), muscular weakness (75%) and exercise intolerance (72%). Interestingly, severe intellectual deficits were only reported in one patient and severe developmental delays in four patients. More than 70% of the patients were able to perform the same activities of daily living when compared to peers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that riboflavin treatment improves complex I activity in the majority of patient-derived fibroblasts tested. This effect was also reported for most of the treated patients and is mirrored in the survival data. In the patient group with disease-onset below 1 year of age, we observed a statistically-significant better survival for patients treated with riboflavin.

20.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027425

RESUMO

Although there are no effective disease-modifying therapies for mitochondrial diseases, an increasing number of trials are being conducted in this rare disease group. The use of sensitive and valid endpoints is essential to test the effectiveness of potential treatments. There is no consensus on which outcome measures to use in children with mitochondrial disease. The aims of this two-day Delphi-based workshop were to (i) define the protocol for an international, multi-centre natural history study in children with mitochondrial myopathy and (ii) to select appropriate outcome measures for a validation study in children with mitochondrial encephalopathy. We suggest two sets of outcome measures for a natural history study in children with mitochondrial myopathy and for a proposed validation study in children with mitochondrial encephalopathy.

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