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1.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458210

RESUMO

Increased hepatic lipid content and decreased insulin sensitivity have critical roles in the development of cardiometabolic diseases. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the dose-response effects of consuming high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages for two weeks on hepatic lipid content and insulin sensitivity in young (18-40 years) adults (BMI 18-35 kg/m2). In a parallel, double-blinded study, participants consumed three beverages/day providing 0% (aspartame: n = 23), 10% (n = 18), 17.5% (n = 16), or 25% (n = 28) daily energy requirements from HFCS. Magnetic resonance imaging for hepatic lipid content and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were conducted during 3.5-day inpatient visits at baseline and again at the end of a 15-day intervention. During the 12 intervening outpatient days participants consumed their usual diets with their assigned beverages. Significant linear dose-response effects were observed for increases of hepatic lipid content (p = 0.015) and glucose and insulin AUCs during OGTT (both p = 0.0004), and for decreases in the Matsuda (p = 0.0087) and Predicted M (p = 0.0027) indices of insulin sensitivity. These dose-response effects strengthen the mechanistic evidence implicating consumption of HFCS-sweetened beverages as a contributor to the metabolic dysregulation that increases risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose , Resistência à Insulina , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Bebidas , Frutose/farmacologia , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lipídeos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ultrasound Q ; 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426380

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The differential diagnosis for a uterine mass and vaginal bleeding after abortion or delivery is broad and includes both benign and malignant causes. A rare etiology for this condition is retained morbidly adherent placenta. Few cases of retained morbidly adherent placenta presenting as a myometrial mass in the setting of vaginal bleeding have been described in the medical literature. In this case series and review of the current literature, we describe the ultrasound features of 3 retained morbidly adherent placentae, along with correlative magnetic resonance imaging findings.

3.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There has been controversy on how frequently small echogenic masses are angiomyolipomas (AMLs) versus renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and how best to manage these echogenic masses. We performed this study to determine the etiologies of echogenic renal masses and compare them with prior publications to reach possible management decisions. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of all consecutive renal ultrasound examinations performed at our institution between January 2015 and December 2016, with an ultrasound report finding containing the wording "echogenic" and "mass." This yielded 6462 total examinations. A total of 107 echogenic lesions met inclusion and exclusion criteria with correlative computed tomography, pathology, or long-term (>5 years) follow-up ultrasound. These lesions were stratified into those that were ≤2 cm and those that were >2 cm. RESULTS: Almost all masses were benign, with the majority (79/107) being AMLs (73.8%); 64 of the 79 (81%) of the AMLs were in female patients. Two of the 107 masses were RCCs, and 1 mass was an oncocytic neoplasm. There were 77 of the masses that were ≤2 cm and these masses were benign except for one lesion of an oncocytic neoplasm. There were 30 of the 107 masses >2 cm, with 2 of the 30 (6.7%) being RCCs. CONCLUSIONS: Incidental echogenic renal masses are most commonly AMLs. However, some masses may be RCCs. In comparing our results with the prior literature, we feel that small echogenic renal masses ≤1 cm usually require no further evaluation, while masses greater than that size require other imaging.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(11): 3248-3264, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265055

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Studies in rodents and humans suggest that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened diets promote greater metabolic dysfunction than sucrose-sweetened diets. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of consuming sucrose-sweetened beverage (SB), HFCS-SB, or a control beverage sweetened with aspartame on metabolic outcomes in humans. METHODS: A parallel, double-blinded, NIH-funded study. Experimental procedures were conducted during 3.5 days of inpatient residence with controlled feeding at a research clinic before (baseline) and after a 12-day outpatient intervention period. Seventy-five adults (18-40 years) were assigned to beverage groups matched for sex, body mass index (18-35 kg/m2), and fasting triglyceride, lipoprotein and insulin concentrations. The intervention was 3 servings/day of sucrose- or HFCS-SB providing 25% of energy requirement or aspartame-SB, consumed for 16 days. Main outcome measures were %hepatic lipid, Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and Predicted M ISI. RESULTS: Sucrose-SB increased %hepatic lipid (absolute change: 0.6 ±â€…0.2%) compared with aspartame-SB (-0.2 ±â€…0.2%, P < 0.05) and compared with baseline (P < 0.001). HFCS-SB increased %hepatic lipid compared with baseline (0.4 ±â€…0.2%, P < 0.05). Compared with aspartame-SB, Matsuda ISI decreased after consumption of HFCS- (P < 0.01) and sucrose-SB (P < 0.01), and Predicted M ISI decreased after consumption of HFCS-SB (P < 0.05). Sucrose- and HFCS-SB increased plasma concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, and uric acid compared with aspartame-SB. No outcomes were differentially affected by sucrose- compared with HFCS-SB. Beverage group effects remained significant when analyses were adjusted for changes in body weight. CONCLUSION: Consumption of both sucrose- and HFCS-SB induced detrimental changes in hepatic lipid, insulin sensitivity, and circulating lipids, lipoproteins and uric acid in 2 weeks.


Assuntos
Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/patologia , Sacarose/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Prognóstico
6.
Ultrasound Q ; 36(3): 235-239, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890326

RESUMO

Right aortic arch anomalies are a spectrum of malformations that include right aortic arch with mirror image branching, right aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery, and double aortic arch. Although these are rare anomalies, they are of importance as they form vascular rings, which can cause symptoms in the newborn period. These anomalies are not detected with routine cardiac views, and it is only with the 3-vessel, and the 3-vessel tracheal view that they can be identified and characterized. We describe specific sonographic findings of these anomalies on the 3-vessel and the 3-vessel tracheal view.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/anormalidades , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 48(9): 532-537, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to review the different etiologies and outcomes of patients with hepatic artery velocities greater than 200 cm/s. METHODS: This retrospective study included 88 hospitalized patients in whom angle-corrected proper hepatic artery flow velocities greater than 200 cm/s were obtained during an abdominal ultrasonographic examination. Peak systolic hepatic artery flow velocities, hepatic artery resistance index, and portal vein flow velocities were evaluated. The patients were then allocated to one of four groups based on their primary underlying diagnosis: structural liver disease, nonstructural liver disease, generalized infection, or miscellaneous. RESULTS: The median hepatic artery velocity was similar for all groups, ranging from 226 to 238 cm/s. The maximum portal venous velocities were not significantly different between groups. No lab values were statistically different between the groups, except total bilirubin that was greater in the nonstructural liver disease group (8 mg/dL). Overall, 9/88 (10.2%) of patients with elevated hepatic artery velocity died within 30 days of their ultrasonographic examination. CONCLUSION: Elevated hepatic artery velocity greater than 200 cm/s in hospitalized patients is not specific to primary hepatobiliary disease but may indicate acute hepatic dysfunction from other causes such as infection or sepsis.


Assuntos
Artéria Hepática/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Feminino , Artéria Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Porta/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 214(1): 122-128, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal masses comparing a group who did not undergo intraprocedural CT and a group who did. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective review included 45 consecutively registered patients who underwent RFA of renal masses. If an adequate biopsy specimen was not obtained or follow-up was inadequate, the patient was eliminated from review from calculation of primary technical efficacy. The inclusion criterion was having undergone RFA with two cooled-tip electrodes. Baseline demographics (age, body mass index, and sex), renal mass characteristics (diameter, side, location, position, morphologic features, type of mass, and grade), technical details (repositioning and hydrodissection), and complications were evaluated. Follow-up images were evaluated to determine the presence of recurrence at the ablation site in the two groups. RESULTS. Among the 45 patients who underwent RFA, 13 did not undergo intraprocedural CT and 32 intraprocedural did. Thirty-five patients met the criteria for follow-up and positive biopsy results. For calculation of recurrence, 10 patients were in the group who did not and 25 were in group who did undergo intraprocedural contrast-enhanced CT. No correlation was found between baseline demographics, renal mass characteristics, and technical results of the two groups. There was an 89% overall technical efficacy rate with a 96% primary technical efficacy rate in the group who underwent intraprocedural CT compared with a 70% rate in the group who did not undergo intraprocedural CT. Negative correlation was found between the groups with respect to technical efficacy rate at p < 0.05. CONCLUSION. Intraprocedural contrast-enhanced CT yields important information about completeness of ablation during the procedure, allowing probe repositioning and thus better therapeutic effect.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Ablação por Radiofrequência/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
9.
J Ultrasound Med ; 39(2): 239-245, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We undertook this retrospective review to compare the safety and diagnostic yield of core biopsy (CB) compared to fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with suspected peritoneal malignancy. METHODS: This retrospective study included 35 patients who underwent ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous biopsy of a peritoneal mass. Success rates of US-guided biopsy of these masses using the CB technique, FNA, or the combination of the two were compared. Outcomes of tissue adequacy, the final pathologic diagnosis, and complications were recorded. The binary outcome variable was adequate tissue obtained. RESULTS: Adequate specimens were obtained in 94% (33 of 35) of the cases. There were 19 CBs, with 100% of samples sufficient for diagnosis (19 of 19). Thirty-one FNAs were performed, of which 7 were insufficient, with a diagnostic yield of 77% (24 of 31). There was a statistically significant difference between FNA and CB in providing more adequate tissue for diagnosis in our population (P = .035). There were no significant complications in either group. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the CB technique when performing US-guided percutaneous biopsy of peritoneal masses provides better tissue for diagnosis compared to FNA. Additional benefits of CB, including genomic testing and tumor subtyping, make this technique a good addition to FNA, without significant complications.


Assuntos
Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Semin Ophthalmol ; 34(7-8): 518-532, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609153

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the imaging approach for evaluating intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) by comparing the ability of different modalities [plain film x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), convetional ultrasound, and ultrasound biomicroscopy] to detect and characterize IOFBs.Methods & Design: Systematic review of the literature.Results: CT is the most practical first step for evaluating patients with suspected IOFBs because it can detect a wide range of IOFB types at small limitis of detection. MRI and ultrasound are best reserved as adjunctive tests in most cases although these tests may provide important insights especially with wood, plastic, and glass IOFBs. Imaging characteristics of metal, wood, glass, plastic, stone, concrete, and graphite IOFBs are reviewed.Conclusion: Understanding the limits of detection for each IOFB type and imaging modality as well as the characteristic features of different IOFBs is of paramount importance to optimizing the management of ocular trauma patients.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos no Olho/diagnóstico , Ferimentos Oculares Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Microscopia Acústica/métodos , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Humanos
11.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 213(6): 1259-1266, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of CT texture analysis (CTTA) in differentiating low-attenuation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from renal cysts on unenhanced CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ninety-four patients with low-attenuation RCC on unenhanced CT were compared with a cohort of 192 patients with benign renal cysts. CT characteristics (size and minimum, maximum, and mean attenuation) and CTTA features were recorded using an ROI approximately two-thirds the size of the mass. Masses were subjectively assessed by two expert genitourinary readers and two novice readers using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = definite cyst, 5 = definite renal cell carcinoma). Results of first-order CTTA and subjective evaluation were compared using ROC analysis. RESULTS. The group of 94 patients with low-attenuation RCC included 62 men and 32 women (mean age, 58.0 years). On unenhanced CT, the RCC were larger than 10 mm and of a median size of 50 mm with less than or equal to 20 HU (mean attenuation, 16 ± 4 HU). Of the RCC cohort, 83 were clear cell subtype. The cohort of 192 patients included 134 men and 58 women (mean age, 64.7 years) with benign renal cysts greater than 10 mm and a median size of 27 mm and less than or equal to 20 HU (mean attenuation, 9 ± 6 HU). The mean follow-up time was 6.2 years. Mean entropy in the low-attenuation RCC group (4.1 ± 0.7) was significantly higher than in the cyst group (2.8 ± 1.3, p < 0.0001). Entropy showed an ROC AUC of 0.89, with sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 80% at threshold 3.9. The AUC was better than subjective evaluation by novice readers (AUC, 0.77) and comparable to subjective evaluation by two expert readers (AUC, 0.90). A model combining the three best texture features (unfiltered mean gray-level attenuation, coarse entropy, and kurtosis) showed an improved AUC of 0.92. CONCLUSION. High entropy revealed with CTTA may be used to differentiate low-attenuation RCC from cysts at unenhanced CT; this technique performs as well as expert readers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Ultrasound Q ; 35(1): 16-20, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020273

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining additional cardiac views as proposed on an extended fetal cardiac examination and to see if there was any variation in individual components of that examination stratified by sonographer training, patient body habitus, or equipment. We retrospectively reviewed 200 consecutive detailed second-trimester high-risk fetal obstetric sonograms that included additional extended cardiac views. We analyzed the percentage of the time individual views were obtained, with variation based on (1) a sonographer with greater than 3 years of training compared with a group with 6 to 12 months of training, (2) 2 different ultrasound units, and (3) different body mass indices. Overall, the highest rate of visualization was achieved with the 4-chamber view (98.2%), whereas the 3-vessel tracheal view had the lowest percentage of visualization (40.2%), among the less experienced sonographers. Differences in successful completion of the extended cardiac views were not statistically different between the sonographer with a level of training greater than 3 years as compared with those with 6 to 12 months' training except for the 3-vessel tracheal view (P < 0.001). There is no statistically significant difference in our ultrasound equipment, when considering only inexperienced sonographers. Increasing body mass index had an inverse relationship with obtaining the components of the detailed cardiac examination. Using state-of-the-art ultrasound equipment and with focused additional training of obstetric sonographers, the majority of extended cardiac views can be obtained. There are exceptions.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Coração Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Coração Fetal/embriologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Tempo
13.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 211(6): 1259-1263, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine the attenuation range of homogeneous papillary renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) on contrast-enhanced CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was performed at two institutions from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2017. Multiphasic CT studies with and without IV contrast material of 114 patients with pathologically proven papillary RCCs were independently reviewed by two sets of two abdominal radiologists. Seventy-two cases were excluded because of subjective lesion heterogeneity, leaving 42 homogeneous RCCs. Three ROIs were placed on all lesions for all CT phases, and the mean attenuations were calculated. RESULTS: Mean lesion size was 2.8 cm (range, 1.2-11.0 cm). The attenuation range for each CT phase was as follows: unenhanced, 14.7-50.7 HU; corticomedullary, 32.2-99.5 HU; portal venous, 40.8-95.1 HU; nephrographic, 17.9-90.8 HU; and excretory, 18.0-73.0 HU. Two of 114 (1.8%; 95% CI, 0.2-6.5%) RCCs were homogeneous and less than 30 HU on the portal venous or nephrographic phase. One of these RCCs was a solid hypoenhancing mass, and the other was a homogeneous cystic RCC. Of the cases with an unenhanced phase, three of 107 (2.8%; 95% CI, 0.6-8.8%) were both homogeneous and were less than 20 HU in attenuation. CONCLUSION: Papillary RCCs are rarely both subjectively homogeneous and less than 20 HU at unenhanced CT and less than 30 HU at portal venous or nephrographic phase CT.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 43(10): 2625-2642, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155697

RESUMO

The Liver Imaging and Reporting Data System (LI-RADS) is a comprehensive system for standardizing the terminology, technique, interpretation, reporting, and data collection of liver imaging with the overarching goal of improving communication, clinical care, education, and research relating to patients at risk for or diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In 2018, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) integrated LI-RADS into its clinical practice guidance for the imaging-based diagnosis of HCC. The harmonization between the AASLD and LI-RADS diagnostic imaging criteria required minor modifications to the recently released LI-RADS v2017 guidelines, necessitating a LI-RADS v2018 update. This article provides an overview of the key changes included in LI-RADS v2018 as well as a look at the LI-RADS v2018 diagnostic algorithm and criteria, technical recommendations, and management suggestions. Substantive changes in LI-RADS v2018 are the removal of the requirement for visibility on antecedent surveillance ultrasound for LI-RADS 5 (LR-5) categorization of 10-19 mm observations with nonrim arterial phase hyper-enhancement and nonperipheral "washout", and adoption of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network definition of threshold growth (≥ 50% size increase of a mass in ≤ 6 months). Nomenclatural changes in LI-RADS v2018 are the removal of -us and -g as LR-5 qualifiers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Algoritmos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
15.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 43(9): 2462-2466, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470628

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between the presence of bladder debris on ultrasound and urinalysis results in the emergency department setting. METHODS: Adult patients presenting to the emergency department with an ultrasound of the bladder and a urinalysis performed within 24 h of the ultrasound were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists in consensus evaluated for the presence or absence of debris within the bladder. Urinalysis results were recorded including continuous variables (specific gravity and pH) and categorical variables (presence of occult blood, bilirubin, ketones, glucose, protein, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, white blood cells, and red blood cells). The presence and absence of white and red blood cells were defined as > 5 cells/high-powered field. To control the experimentwise type I error rate at 0.05, a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of 0.0042 was used to determine significant associations. RESULTS: The presence of bladder debris was associated with the presence of urobilinogen, nitrite, and white blood cells (p = < 0.0001, 0.0005, and 0.0004, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Bladder debris in the emergency department setting correlates with urinalysis laboratory values suggesting a urinary tract infection. Therefore, the presence of bladder debris should elicit the recommendation of a urinalysis in such a setting.


Assuntos
Ultrassonografia/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Urinálise
16.
J Ultrasound Med ; 37(6): 1455-1465, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of ultrasound-based shear wave elastography (SWE) as a noninvasive method to accurately detect and potentially stage the severity of renal allograft fibrosis and assess its user reproducibility. METHODS: In this Institutional Review Board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant prospective study, 70 renal transplant recipients underwent an SWE evaluation of their allograft followed directly by biopsy. Two radiologists performed separate SWE measurement acquisitions and the mean, median, and standard deviation of 10 SWE measurements, obtained separately within the cortex and the medulla, were automatically computed. Each patient's SWE results were subsequently compared to their histologic fibrosis scores. The Fisher exact test and univariate logistic regression models were fit to test for associations between the presence of fibrosis (yes/no) as well as categorical SWE results based on the fibrosis severity, ranging from F0 (no fibrosis) to F3 (severe fibrosis), correlating with histologic scores according to the 2007 Banff classification system. Interobserver and intraobserver correlations were also examined. RESULTS: Our median medulla SWE values reached statistical significance (P = .04) in association with fibrosis. Furthermore, for every unit increase in the median medulla SWE measurement, the odds of fibrosis increased by approximately 20%. No statistical significance was found for mean cortical, median cortical, or mean medullary SWE values (P = .32, .37, and .06, respectively) in association with fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: The use of SWE for assessing renal allograft fibrosis is challenging but promising. Further investigation with a larger sample size remains to validate our initial results and establish clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Aloenxertos/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Rim , Rim/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 209(5): 1064-1073, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28858538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate which spectral Doppler ultrasound parameters are useful in patients with clinical concern for transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) and create mathematically derived prediction models that are based on these parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study subjects included 120 patients with clinical signs of renal dysfunction who had undergone ultrasound followed by angiography (either digital subtraction angiography or MR angiography) between January 2005 and December 2015. Five ultrasound variables were evaluated: ratio of highest renal artery velocity to iliac artery velocity, highest renal artery velocity, spectral broadening, resistive indexes, and acceleration time. Angiographic studies were categorized as either showing no stenosis or showing stenosis. Reviewers assessed the ultrasound examinations for TRAS using all five variables, which we refer to as the full model, and using a reduced number of variables, which we refer to as the reduced-variable model; sensitivities and specificities were generated. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients had stenosis and 23 had no stenosis. The full model had a sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 91%, respectively. The reduced-variable model excluded the ratio and resistive index variables without affecting sensitivity and specificity. We applied cutoff values to the variables in the reduced-variable model, which we refer to as the simple model. Using these cutoff values, the simple model showed a sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 83%. The simple model was able to categorize patients into four risk categories for TRAS: low, intermediate, high, and very high risk. CONCLUSION: We propose a simple model that is based on highest renal artery velocity, distal spectral broadening, and acceleration time to classify patients into risk categories for TRAS.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução da Artéria Renal/etiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla , Angiografia Digital , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resistência Vascular
18.
J Ultrasound Med ; 36(10): 2143-2147, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28557070

RESUMO

The use of B- and M-mode sonography for detection of pneumothorax has been well described and studied. It is now widely incorporated by sonographers, emergency physicians, trauma surgeons, radiologists, and critical care specialists worldwide. Lung sonography can be performed rapidly at the bedside or in the prehospital setting. It is more sensitive, specific, and accurate than plain chest radiography. The use of color and power Doppler sonography as an adjunct to B- and M-mode imaging for detection of pneumothorax has been described in a small number of studies and case reports but is much less widely known or used. Color and power Doppler imaging may be used for confirmation of the presence or absence of lung sliding detected with B-mode sonography. In this article, we examine the physics behind Doppler sonography as it applies to the lung, technique, an actual case, and the past literature describing the use of color and power Doppler sonography for the detection of pneumothorax.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/métodos
19.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 42(9): 2325-2333, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since it has been suggested that benign renal cysts can be diagnosed at unenhanced CT on the basis of homogeneity and attenuations of 20 HU or less, we determined the prevalence of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with these characteristics using two different methods of measuring attenuation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After IRB approval, two radiologists obtained unenhanced attenuation values of 104 RCCs (mean size 5.6 cm) using a single, large region of interest (ROI), two-thirds the size of the mass. They were then determined if the masses appeared heterogeneous. Of RCCs measuring 20 HU or less, those which appeared homogeneous were re-measured with multiple (6 or more), small (0.6 cm2 or smaller) ROIs dispersed throughout the lesion. Masses with attenuations 20 HU or less were compared to those with masses with HU greater than 20 for any differences in demographic data. RESULTS: Of 104 RCCS, 24 RCC had HU less than 20 using a large ROI. Of these, 21 appeared heterogeneous and 3 appeared homogeneous. Using multiple small ROIs, these three RCCs revealed maximum attenuation values above 20 HU (Range: 26-32 HU). A greater portion of RCCs measuring 20 HU or less using a large ROI were clear cell sub-type. There were no other differences. CONCLUSIONS: Renal cell carcinoma can measure 20 HU or less at unenhanced CT when a single large ROI is used. While most appear heterogeneous, some may appear homogeneous, but will likely reveal attenuations greater than 20 HU when multiple, small ROIs are used. This knowledge may prevent some RCCs from being misdiagnosed as cysts on unenhanced CT.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 7(2)2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452952

RESUMO

Women that are positive for an ovarian abnormality in a clinical setting can have either a malignancy or a benign tumor with probability favoring the benign alternative. Accelerating the abnormality to surgery will result in a high number of unnecessary procedures that will place cost burdens on the individual and the health delivery system. Surveillance using serial ultrasonography is a reasonable alternative that can be used to discover if changes in the ovarian abnormality will occur that favor either a malignant or benign interpretation. Several ovarian cancer screening trials have had extensive experiences with changes in subclinical ovarian abnormalities in normal women that can define growth, stability or resolution and give some idea of the time frame over which changes occur. The present report examines these experiences and relates them to the current understanding of ovarian cancer ontology, presenting arguments related to the benefits of surveillance.

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