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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29024, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects millions of children worldwide. Oral iron replacement is effective but often poorly tolerated. Intravenous iron has been demonstrated to have utility in all ages, but pediatric use remains limited. Low molecular weight iron dextran (LMWID) has a dosing range capable of replacing iron deficits in a single infusion and has been evaluated in small pediatric cohorts, but additional safety and efficacy data are limited. Here, we evaluate the safety and efficacy of LMWID in association with an electronic medical record (EMR)-based effort to optimize dosing. PROCEDURE: A retrospective IRB-approved investigation of LMWID utilization at a tertiary pediatric hospital between January 1, 2016 and March 31, 2020 was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and frequency/severity of infusion-related adverse event (AE) in children and adolescents receiving LMWID. Patient demographics and LMWID dosing characteristics were collected, and primary outcome measures included laboratory response and the incidence/severity of any infusion-related events. The utilization of an EMR-based nomogram for LMWID dosing was also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 254 infusions for 191 patients were included (ages 0.7-20.9 years), most with IDA. LMWID replaced at least 75% of the estimated iron deficit in a single infusion for 76% of patients. The mean hemoglobin and ferritin increases were 2.1 g/dl and >100 ng/ml, respectively. Infusion-related AEs were rare, occurring in only 12/254 (4.7%) of infusions and 67% during the test dose; each rapidly resolved without long-term sequelae. No AEs occurred in those <10 years of age. Premedication use markedly decreased with nomogram use without a change in AE rate. CONCLUSIONS: In a large institutional cohort, LMWID was well tolerated in children and adolescents, with most patients having their total iron deficits relieved in a single infusion. These data support expanded use of LMWID in the management of pediatric iron deficiency.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e29008, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Without early initiation of disease-modifying therapy, the acute and chronic complications of sickle cell anemia (SCA) begin early in childhood and progress throughout life. Hydroxyurea is a safe and effective medication that reduces or prevents most SCA-related complications. Despite recommendations to prescribe hydroxyurea for all children with SCA as young as 9 months, utilization remains low. PROCEDURE: We completed a retrospective review of hydroxyurea-prescribing practices and associated clinical outcomes at our institution over a 10-year period before and after the 2014 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recommendations to use hydroxyurea for all children with SCA. RESULTS: Hydroxyurea use more than doubled within our pediatric SCA population from 43% in 2010 to 95% in 2019. The age of hydroxyurea initiation was significantly younger during 2014-2019 compared to 2010-2013 (median 2 years vs. 6 years, p ≤ .001). With this change in clinical practice, nearly all (69/71 = 97%) children born after 2013 received disease-modifying therapy by the end of 2019, primarily hydroxyurea (93%). Concurrently, the number of SCA-related admissions significantly decreased from 67/100 patient-years in 2010 to 39/100 patient-years in 2019 (p < .001). CONCLUSION: The early and universal prescription of hydroxyurea for children with SCA is the standard of care. Here, we demonstrate that a careful and deliberate commitment to follow this guideline in clinical practice is feasible and results in measurable improvements in clinical outcomes. Our approach and improved outcomes can serve as a model for other programs to expand their hydroxyurea use for more children with SCA.

3.
Am J Hematol ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534136

RESUMO

Neurologic complications are common in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), but conventional tools such as MRI and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) do not fully assess cerebrovascular pathology. Cerebral tissue oximetry measures mixed oxygen saturation in the frontal lobes (SCT O2 ) and provides early prognostic information about tissue at risk of ischemic injury. Untreated patients with SCA have significantly lower SCT O2 than healthy controls that declines with age. Hydroxyurea is effective in preventing many SCA-related complications, but the degree to which it preserves normal neurophysiology is unclear. We analyzed participants enrolled in the Therapeutic Response Evaluation and Adherence Trial (TREAT, NCT02286154), which enrolled participants initiating hydroxyurea using individualized dosing (new cohort) and those previously taking hydroxyurea (old cohort) and was designed to monitor the long-term benefits of hydroxyurea. Cerebral oximetry was performed at baseline and annually. For the new cohort (median starting age = 12 months, n = 55), mean baseline SCT O2 was normal before starting hydroxyurea (mean 65%, 95% CI 58-72%) and significantly increased after 2 years (mean 72%, 95% CI 65-79%, p < .001). The SCT O2 for patients receiving long-term hydroxyurea (median age = 9.6 years) was normal at study entry (mean 66%, 95% CI 58-74%) and remained stable across 2 years. Both cohorts had significantly higher SCT O2 than published data from predominantly untreated SCA patients. Cerebral oximetry is a non-invasive method to assess cerebrovascular pathology that complements conventional imaging. Our results indicate that hydroxyurea suggests protection against neurophysiologic changes seen in untreated SCA.

4.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the academic concerns and risk strata of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) as identified through a parent-directed screening tool and to compare the rates of these concerns with actual school service utilization in the clinic population. STUDY DESIGN: We completed a retrospective review of patients with SCD referred to the school intervention program during the 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 school years due to a school-related concern raised by parents or noted by the clinical team. All parents completed the Brief School Needs Inventory (BSNI), a validated parent-response tool used to stratify academic risk. Rates of special education services, grade retention, and results from neuropsychological testing were captured. Clinical history, the use of disease-modifying therapy, and results from laboratory and neuroimaging studies were also obtained. Descriptive statistics were performed to examine demographic information, clinical history, and BSNI results. RESULTS: 137 unique patients (age range - 14 months to 19 years) completed the BSNI during the study period, for a total of 181 events. According to BSNI risk-stratification, 45% of patients were deemed low, 36% moderate, and 19% high academic risk. Over half of parents were concerned about their ability to advocate for their child's needs. Despite legal qualification for a Section 504 accommodation plan, only 20% had established plans. Academic concerns were common with 31% of children reporting an Individualized Education Program and 20% with grade retention/remediation. CONCLUSIONS: Concerns for academic challenges remain high amongst parents of children with SCD; however, school service utilization remains disproportionately low due to numerous reasons.

5.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 337, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anemia is common and frequently fatal for hospitalized patients in limited-resource settings. Lack of access to low-cost, accurate, and rapid diagnosis of anemia impedes the delivery of life-saving care and appropriate use of the limited blood supply. The WHO Haemoglobin Colour Scale (HCS) is a simple low-cost test but frequently inaccurate. AnemoCheck-LRS (limited-resource settings) is a rapid, inexpensive, color-based point-of-care (POC) test optimized to diagnose severe anemia. METHODS: Deidentified whole blood samples were diluted with plasma to create variable hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, with most in the severe (≤ 7 g/dL) or profound (≤ 5 g/dL) anemia range. Each sample was tested with AnemoCheck-LRS and WHO HCS independently by three readers and compared to Hb measured by an electronic POC test (HemoCue 201+) and commercial hematology analyzer. RESULTS: For 570 evaluations within the limits of detection of AnemoCheck-LRS (Hb ≤ 8 g/dL), the average difference between AnemoCheck-LRS and measured Hb was 0.5 ± 0.4 g/dL. In contrast, the WHO HCS overestimated Hb with an absolute difference of 4.9 ± 1.3 g/dL for samples within its detection range (Hb 4-14 g/dL, n = 405). AnemoCheck-LRS was much more sensitive (92%) for the diagnosis of profound anemia than WHO HCS (22%). CONCLUSIONS: AnemoCheck-LRS is a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate POC test for anemia. AnemoCheck-LRS is more accurate than WHO HCS for detection of low Hb levels, severe anemia that may require blood transfusion. AnemoCheck-LRS should be tested prospectively in limited-resource settings where severe anemia is common, to determine its utility as a screening tool to identify patients who may require transfusion.

6.
Trials ; 21(1): 983, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a severe and devastating hematological disorder that affects over 100,000 persons in the USA and millions worldwide. Hydroxyurea is the primary disease-modifying therapy for the SCD, with proven benefits to reduce both short-term and long-term complications. Despite the well-described inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, and optimal dose, hydroxyurea is traditionally initiated at a weight-based dose with a subsequent conservative dose escalation strategy to avoid myelosuppression. Because the dose escalation process is time consuming and requires frequent laboratory checks, many providers default to a fixed dose, resulting in inadequate hydroxyurea exposure and suboptimal benefits for many patients. Results from a single-center trial of individualized, PK-guided dosing of hydroxyurea for children with SCD suggest that individualized dosing achieves the optimal dose more rapidly and provides superior clinical and laboratory benefits than traditional dosing strategies. However, it is not clear whether these results were due to individualized dosing, the young age that hydroxyurea treatment was initiated in the study, or both. The Hydroxyurea Optimization through Precision Study (HOPS) aims to validate the feasibility and benefits of this PK-guided dosing approach in a multi-center trial. METHODS: HOPS is a randomized, multicenter trial comparing standard vs. PK-guided dosing for children with SCD as they initiate hydroxyurea therapy. Participants (ages 6 months through 21 years), recruited from 11 pediatric sickle cell centers across the USA, are randomized to receive hydroxyurea either using a starting dose of 20 mg/kg/day (Standard Arm) or a PK-guided dose (Alternative Arm). PK data will be collected using a novel sparse microsampling approach requiring only 10 µL of blood collected at 3 time-points over 3 h. A protocol-guided strategy more aggressive protocols is then used to guide dose escalations and reductions in both arms following initiation of hydroxyurea. The primary endpoint is the mean %HbF after 6 months of hydroxyurea. DISCUSSION: HOPS will answer important questions about the clinical feasibility, benefits, and safety of PK-guided dosing of hydroxyurea for children with SCD with potential to change the treatment paradigm from a standard weight-based approach to one that safely and effectively optimize the laboratory and clinical response. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03789591 . Registered on 28 December 2018.

8.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869281

RESUMO

Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a common and devastating inherited blood disorder, affecting millions of people across the world. Without treatment, SCA results in tremendous morbidity and early mortality. Hydroxyurea is the primary and most well-established pharmacologic therapy with proven benefits to ameliorate the clinical course of SCA, primarily due to its ability to increase the expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which prevents sickling of red blood cells. The optimal induction of HbF depends upon selection and maintenance of the proper dose that maximizes benefits and minimizes toxicity. Due to the significant interpatient variability in hydroxyurea pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and dosing, most patients treated with hydroxyurea receive suboptimal doses and have only modest treatment responses. Recognizing this variability, using a precision medicine approach, we developed and prospectively evaluated an individualized dosing model for children with SCA, designed to optimize the hydroxyurea dose and clinical response. We utilize novel laboratory methods and a sparse sampling strategy requiring only 10 µL of blood collected 15 minutes, 60 minutes, and 180 minutes after a test dose. We use Bayesian adaptive control to estimate hydroxyurea exposure and to select an individual, optimal starting dose. This dosing model has resulted in HbF responses >30-40%, levels beyond what is achieved with traditional weight-based dosing and trial and error dose escalation. This hydroxyurea dosing strategy, if widely implemented, has the potential to change the treatment paradigm of hydroxyurea therapy and improve outcomes for the millions of patients with SCA across the world.

10.
Mil Med ; 185(7-8): e1002-e1007, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588895

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is a growing trend of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). The goal of this study was to characterize MDRO at a single center from ophthalmic cultures to better understand how treatments were tailored and to assess effect on visual acuity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MDRO data were collected by the Multidrug-Resistant Organism Repository and Surveillance Network from the Brooke Army Medical Center clinical laboratory. Both patient- and isolate-specific data were collected and qualitatively analyzed. Primary outcome measures were organism and type of resistance, anatomic location of isolate, initial and final antibiotic choice, and visual acuity. RESULTS: Thirty-one bacterial culture samples were analyzed from 29 patients. Twenty-two (72%) were Gram-positive and all were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nine (29%) were Gram-negative and of these five were Pseudomonas spp. Fourteen (45%) isolates were cultured from the cornea, nine (29%) from the lid, four (13%) from the conjunctiva, and four (13%) from other locations. The majority (66.6%) required adjustment of initial antibiotics following ocular culture results. Sixteen adult patients had recorded initial and final visual acuities. Fifteen of those 16 patients had stable or improved visual acuities following treatment of the infection, but five patients had a final visual acuity less than 20/200. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a high frequency of corneal MDRO infections and specifically MRSA and Pseudomonas spp. isolates. Antibiotic treatments frequently required adjustment. Further prospective study of visual outcomes from ophthalmic MDRO cultures is needed.

12.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 42(6): e494-e496, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969263

RESUMO

The thalassemias are genetically complex and usually autosomal recessive. We describe 5 unrelated individuals with non-transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia (NTDT), some with apparently dominant transmission, because of a single ß-thalassemia mutation coinherited with a triplicated α-globin locus. Each had an initial, incorrect diagnosis of ß-thalassemia trait. The correct diagnosis of NTDT was made at a mean of 7 years of age. Despite reports of this compound genotype causing NTDT, it remains unfamiliar to many clinicians. To increase awareness, we highlight its varied and sometimes subtle clinical and laboratory features and the need for comprehensive genetic testing for timely and correct diagnosis.

13.
Blood Adv ; 3(23): 4002-4020, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809537

RESUMO

To address the global burden of sickle cell disease and the need for novel therapies, the American Society of Hematology partnered with the US Food and Drug Administration to engage the work of 7 panels of clinicians, investigators, and patients to develop consensus recommendations for clinical trial end points. The panels conducted their work through literature reviews, assessment of available evidence, and expert judgment focusing on end points related to patient-reported outcome, pain (non-patient-reported outcomes), the brain, end-organ considerations, biomarkers, measurement of cure, and low-resource settings. This article presents the findings and recommendations of the end-organ considerations, measurement of cure, and low-resource settings panels as well as relevant findings and recommendations from the biomarkers panel.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia
15.
Am J Hematol ; 94(8): 871-879, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106898

RESUMO

Hydroxyurea is FDA-approved and now increasingly used for children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), but dosing strategies, pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles, and treatment responses for individual patients are highly variable. Typical weight-based dosing with step-wise escalation to maximum tolerated dose (MTD) leads to predictable laboratory and clinical benefits, but often takes 6 to 12 months to achieve. The Therapeutic Response Evaluation and Adherence Trial (TREAT, NCT02286154) was a single-center study designed to prospectively validate a novel personalized PK-guided hydroxyurea dosing strategy with a primary endpoint of time to MTD. Enrolled participants received a single oral 20 mg/kg dose of hydroxyurea, followed by a sparse PK sampling approach with three samples collected over three hours. Analysis of individual PK data into a population PK model generated a starting dose that targets the MTD. The TREAT cohort (n = 50) was young, starting hydroxyurea at a median age of 11 months (IQR 9-26 months), and PK-guided starting doses were high (27.7 ± 4.9 mg/kg/d). Time to MTD was 4.8 months (IQR 3.3-9.3), significantly shorter than comparison studies (p < 0.0001), thus meeting the primary endpoint. More remarkably, the laboratory response for participants starting with a PK-guided dose was quite robust, achieving higher hemoglobin (10.1 ± 1.3 g/dL) and HbF (33.3 ± 9.1%) levels than traditional dosing. Though higher than traditional dosing, PK-guided doses were safe without excess hematologic toxicities. Our data suggest early initiation of hydroxyurea, using a personalized dosing strategy for children with SCA, provides laboratory and clinical response beyond what has been seen historically, with traditional weight-based dosing.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Antidrepanocíticos/administração & dosagem , Antidrepanocíticos/sangue , Hidroxiureia/administração & dosagem , Modelos Biológicos , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Antidrepanocíticos/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/sangue , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 40(7): 804-806, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088580

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has yielded new insights into the transmission patterns of healthcare facility-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI). WGS results prompted a focused diagnostic stewardship program, which was associated with a significant and sustained decrease in HO-CDI at large, urban hospital.


Assuntos
/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Genoma Bacteriano , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Ribotipagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
Clin Proteomics ; 16: 8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890899

RESUMO

Background: Colistin (polymyxin E) and polymixin B are important bactericidal antibiotics used in the treatment of serious infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-negative organisms. Transferrable plasmid-mediated colistin resistance, conferred by the product of the mcr-1 gene, has emerged as a global healthcare threat. Consequently, the rapid detection of the MCR-1 protein in clinical bacterial isolates has become increasingly important. We used a genoproteomic approach to identify unique peptides of the MCR-1 protein that could be detected rapidly by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Methods: MCR-1 tryptic peptides that were efficiently ionized and readily detectable were characterized in a set of mcr-1-containing isolates with triple quadrupole LC-MS. Three optimal peptides were selected for the development of a rapid multiple reaction monitoring LC-MS/MS assay for the MCR-1 protein. To investigate the feasibility of rapid detection of the MCR-1 protein in bacterial isolates using this assay, a blinded 99-sample test set was built that included three additional mcr-1-containing clinical isolates tested in triplicate (9 samples) and 90 negative control isolates. Results: All of the mcr-1-containing isolates in the test set were accurately identified with no false positive detections by three independent, blinded operators, yielding an overall performance of 100% sensitivity and specificity for multiple operators. Among the three peptides tested in this study, the best performing was DTFPQLAK. The isolate-to-result time for the assay as implemented is less than 90 min. Conclusions: This work demonstrates the feasibility of rapid detection of the MCR-1 protein in bacterial isolates by LC-MS/MS.

18.
J Clin Microbiol ; 57(5)2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814261

RESUMO

Phenotypic detection of the OXA-48-type class D ß-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae is challenging. We describe a rapid (less than 90 min) assay for the identification of OXA-48 family carbapenemases in subcultured bacterial isolates based on a genoproteomic approach. Following in silico trypsin digestion to ascertain theoretical core peptides common to the OXA-48 family, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) data-dependent acquisition was used to identify candidate peptide markers. Two peptides were selected based on performance characteristics: ANQAFLPASTFK, a core peptide common to all 12 OXA-48 family ß-lactamase members, and YSVVPVYQEFAR, a highly specific peptide common to 11 of 12 OXA-48 family proteins providing the basis for an LC-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring assay. An accuracy assessment was performed that included 98 isolates, 26 of which were OXA-48 positive. Two additional specificity assessments were performed including a mixture of isolates positive for OXA-48, KPC, NDM, VIM, and IMP carbapenemases. A combination of expert rules and expert judgment was applied by blinded operators to identify positive isolates. All isolates containing an OXA-48 family carbapenemase across all three test sets were correctly identified with no false positives, demonstrating 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.2% to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 96.2% to 100%) for the assay. These findings provide a framework for an LC-MS/MS-based method for the direct detection of OXA-48 family carbapenemases from cultured isolates that may have utility in predicting carbapenem resistance and tracking hospital outbreaks of OXA-48-carrying organisms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Peptídeos/química , beta-Lactamases/química , Antibacterianos , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Cromatografia Líquida , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Genômica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Proteômica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
N Engl J Med ; 380(2): 121-131, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxyurea is an effective treatment for sickle cell anemia, but few studies have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, where the burden is greatest. Coexisting conditions such as malnutrition and malaria may affect the feasibility, safety, and benefits of hydroxyurea in low-resource settings. METHODS: We enrolled children 1 to 10 years of age with sickle cell anemia in four sub-Saharan countries. Children received hydroxyurea at a dose of 15 to 20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day for 6 months, followed by dose escalation. The end points assessed feasibility (enrollment, retention, and adherence), safety (dose levels, toxic effects, and malaria), and benefits (laboratory variables, sickle cell-related events, transfusions, and survival). RESULTS: A total of 635 children were fully enrolled; 606 children completed screening and began receiving hydroxyurea at a mean (±SD) dose of 17.5±1.8 mg per kilogram per day. The retention rate was 94.2% at 3 years of treatment. Hydroxyurea therapy led to significant increases in both the hemoglobin and fetal hemoglobin levels. Dose-limiting toxic events regarding laboratory variables occurred in 5.1% of the participants, which was below the protocol-specified threshold for safety. During the treatment phase, 20.6 dose-limiting toxic effects per 100 patient-years occurred, as compared with 20.7 events per 100 patient-years before treatment. As compared with the pretreatment period, the rates of clinical adverse events decreased with hydroxyurea use, including rates of vaso-occlusive pain (98.3 vs. 44.6 events per 100 patient-years; incidence rate ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.56), nonmalaria infection (142.5 vs. 90.0 events per 100 patient-years; incidence rate ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.72), malaria (46.9 vs. 22.9 events per 100 patient-years; incidence rate ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.66), transfusion (43.3 vs. 14.2 events per 100 patient-years; incidence rate ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.47), and death (3.6 vs. 1.1 deaths per 100 patient-years; incidence rate ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Hydroxyurea treatment was feasible and safe in children with sickle cell anemia living in sub-Saharan Africa. Hydroxyurea use reduced the incidence of vaso-occlusive events, infections, malaria, transfusions, and death, which supports the need for wider access to treatment. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; REACH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01966731 .).


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Antidrepanocíticos/administração & dosagem , Hidroxiureia/administração & dosagem , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Antidrepanocíticos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Malária/complicações , Malária/prevenção & controle , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Dor/prevenção & controle
20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(2): e27531, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393954

RESUMO

The broad phenotypic variability among individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) suggests the presence of modifying factors. We identified two unrelated SCD patients with unusually severe clinical and laboratory phenotype that were found to carry the hereditary elliptocytosis-associated alpha-spectrin mutation c.460_462dupTTG (p.L155dup), a mutation enriched due to positive selective pressure of malaria, similar to the SCD globin mutations. A high index of suspicion for additional hematologic abnormalities may be indicated for challenging patients with SCD. These cases highlight the validity of specialized testing such as ektacytometry and next-generation sequencing for patients and family members to assess genotype/phenotype correlations.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/genética , Espectrina/genética , Pré-Escolar , Eliptocitose Hereditária/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo
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