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1.
CMAJ Open ; 9(1): E142-E148, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After nonelective (i.e., semiurgent, urgent and emergent) surgeries, patients discharged from hospitals are at risk of readmissions, emergency department visits or death. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we are undertaking the Post Discharge after Surgery Virtual Care with Remote Automated Monitoring Technology (PVC-RAM) trial to determine if virtual care with remote automated monitoring (RAM) compared with standard care will increase the number of days adult patients remain alive at home after being discharged following nonelective surgery. METHODS: We are conducting a randomized controlled trial in which 900 adults who are being discharged after nonelective surgery from 8 Canadian hospitals are randomly assigned to receive virtual care with RAM or standard care. Outcome adjudicators are masked to group allocations. Patients in the experimental group learn how to use the study's tablet computer and RAM technology, which will measure their vital signs. For 30 days, patients take daily biophysical measurements and complete a recovery survey. Patients interact with nurses via the cellular modem-enabled tablet, who escalate care to preassigned and available physicians if RAM measurements exceed predetermined thresholds, patients report symptoms, a medication error is identified or the nurses have concerns they cannot resolve. The primary outcome is number of days alive at home during the 30 days after randomization. INTERPRETATION: This trial will inform management of patients after discharge following surgery in the COVID-19 pandemic and offer insights for management of patients who undergo nonelective surgery in a nonpandemic setting. Knowledge dissemination will be supported through an online multimedia resource centre, policy briefs, presentations, peer-reviewed journal publications and media engagement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT04344665.

2.
CJC Open ; 2(4): 286-295, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695978

RESUMO

Background: Catheter ablation (CA) is performed in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) to reduce symptoms and improve health-related quality of life (HRQL). Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated CA of any energy modality compared with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) using inverse-variance random-effects models. We searched for RCTs reporting HRQL and AF-related symptoms at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 60 months after treatment as well as the number of repeat ablations. Results: Of 15,878 records, we included 13 RCTs of CA vs AADs for the analyses of HRQL, 7 RCTs for the analyses of AF-related symptoms, and 13 RCTs for the number of repeat ablations. For the HRQL analyses at 3 months, there were significant increases in both the Physical Component Summary score (3 months' standardized mean difference = 0.58 [0.39-0.78]; P < 0.00001, I 2 = 6%, 3 trials, n = 443) and the Mental Component Summary score (3 months' standardized mean difference = 0.57 [0.37-0.77]; P < 0.00001, I 2 = 0%, 3 trials, n = 443), favouring CA over AADs. These differences were sustained at 12 months but not >24 months after randomization. Similar results were seen for AF-related symptoms. The number of repeat ablations and success rates after procedure varied considerably across trials. Conclusions: Evidence from few trials suggests that CA improves physical and mental health and AF-related symptoms in the short term, but these benefits decrease with time. More trials, reporting both HRQL and AF-related symptoms, at consistent time points are needed to assess the effectiveness of CA for the treatment of AF.

3.
Health Expect ; 23(3): 523-539, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Realizing patient partnership in research requires a shift from patient participation in ancillary roles to engagement as contributing members of research teams. While engaging patient partners is often discussed, impact is rarely measured. OBJECTIVE: Our primary aim was to conduct a scoping review of the impact of patient partnership on research outcomes. The secondary aim was to describe barriers and facilitators to realizing effective partnerships. SEARCH STRATEGY: A comprehensive bibliographic search was undertaken in EBSCO CINAHL, and Embase, MEDLINE and PsycINFO via Ovid. Reference lists of included articles were hand-searched. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Included studies were: (a) related to health care; (b) involved patients or proxies in the research process; and (c) reported results related to impact/evaluation of patient partnership on research outcomes. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted from 14 studies meeting inclusion criteria using a narrative synthesis approach. MAIN RESULTS: Patient partners were involved in a range of research activities. Results highlight critical barriers and facilitators for researchers seeking to undertake patient partnerships to be aware of, such as power imbalances between patient partners and researchers, as well as valuing of patient partner roles. DISCUSSION: Addressing power dynamics in patient partner-researcher relationships and mitigating risks to patient partners through inclusive recruitment and training strategies may contribute towards effective engagement. Further guidance is needed to address evaluation strategies for patient partnerships across the continuum of patient partner involvement in research. CONCLUSIONS: Research teams can employ preparation strategies outlined in this review to support patient partnerships in their work.

4.
JMIR Pediatr Parent ; 2(2): e15106, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of synchronous digital health technologies for care delivery to children with special health care needs (having a chronic physical, behavioral, developmental, or emotional condition in combination with high resource use) and their families at home has shown promise for improving outcomes and increasing access to care for this medically fragile and resource-intensive population. However, a comprehensive description of the various models of synchronous home digital health interventions does not exist, nor has the impact of such interventions been summarized to date. OBJECTIVE: We aim to describe the various models of synchronous home digital health that have been used in pediatric populations with special health care needs, their outcomes, and implementation barriers. METHODS: A systematic scoping review of the literature was conducted, guided by the Arksey and O'Malley Scoping Review Framework. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases were searched from inception to June 2018, and the reference lists of the included systematic reviews and high-impact journals were hand-searched. RESULTS: A total of 38 articles were included in this review. Interventional articles are described as feasibility studies, studies that aim to provide direct care to children with special health care needs, and studies that aim to support family members to deliver care to children with special health care needs. End-user involvement in the design and implementation of studies is evaluated using a human-centered design framework, and factors affecting the implementation of digital health programs are discussed in relation to technological, human, and systems factors. CONCLUSIONS: The use of digital health to care for children with special health care needs presents an opportunity to leverage the capacity of technology to connect patients and their families to much-needed care from expert health care providers while avoiding the expenses and potential harms of the hospital-based care system. Strategies to scale and spread pilot studies, such as involving end users in the co-design techniques, are needed to optimize digital health programs for children with special health care needs.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e022995, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826789

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Approximately 400 000 Americans and 36 000 Canadians undergo cardiac surgery annually, and up to 56% will develop chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). The primary aim of this study is to explore the association of pain-related beliefs and gender-based pain expectations on the development of CPSP. Secondary goals are to: (A) explore risk factors for poor functional status and patient-level cost of illness from a societal perspective up to 12 months following cardiac surgery; and (B) determine the impact of CPSP on quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) borne by cardiac surgery, in addition to the incremental cost for one additional QALY gained, among those who develop CPSP compared with those who do not. METHODS AND ANALYSES: In this prospective cohort study, 1250 adults undergoing cardiac surgery, including coronary artery bypass grafting and open-heart procedures, will be recruited over a 3-year period. Putative risk factors for CPSP will be captured prior to surgery, at postoperative day 3 (in hospital) and day 30 (at home). Outcome data will be collected via telephone interview at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. We will employ generalised estimating equations to model the primary (CPSP) and secondary outcomes (function and cost) while adjusting for prespecified model covariates. QALYs will be estimated by converting data from the Short Form-12 (version 2) to a utility score. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol has been approved by the responsible bodies at each of the hospital sites, and study enrolment began May 2015. We will disseminate our results through CardiacPain.Net, a web-based knowledge dissemination platform, presentation at international conferences and publications in scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01842568.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/psicologia , Dor Crônica/economia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
8.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(7): 850-862, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960614

RESUMO

Worldwide, more than 230 million adults have major noncardiac surgery each year. Although surgery can improve quality and duration of life, it can also precipitate major complications. Moreover, a substantial proportion of deaths occur after discharge. Current systems for monitoring patients postoperatively, on surgical wards and after transition to home, are inadequate. On the surgical ward, vital signs evaluation usually occurs only every 4-8 hours. Reduced in-hospital ward monitoring, followed by no vital signs monitoring at home, leads to thousands of cases of undetected/delayed detection of hemodynamic compromise. In this article we review work to date on postoperative remote automated monitoring on surgical wards and strategy for advancing this field. Key considerations for overcoming current barriers to implementing remote automated monitoring in Canada are also presented.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Telemedicina/métodos , Sinais Vitais/fisiologia , Humanos
9.
Qual Health Res ; 28(11): 1769-1787, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916769

RESUMO

Symptom recognition and self-management is instrumental in reducing the number of deaths related to coronary artery disease (CAD) in women. The purpose of this study was to synthesize qualitative research evidence on the self-management of cardiac pain and associated symptoms in women. Seven databases were systematically searched, and the concepts of the Individual and Family Self-Management Theory were used as the framework for data extraction and analysis. Search strategies yielded 22,402 citations, from which 35 qualitative studies were included in a final meta-summary, comprising data from 769 participants, including 437 (57%) women. The available literature focused cardiac pain self-management from a binary sex and gender perspective. Ethnicity was indicated in 19 (54%) studies. Results support individualized intervention strategies that promote goal setting and action planning, management of physical and emotional responses, and social facilitation provided through social support.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/psicologia , Autogestão/métodos , Autogestão/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Sexuais , Saúde da Mulher
10.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(4): 458-467, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac pain is considered the primary indicator of coronary artery disease (CAD). Existing reviews lack appropriate numbers of women or sex-based subgroup analyses, or both; thus, the benefits of self-management (women with cardiac pain actively participating in their own care and treatment) remain uncertain. METHODS: Using methods described by the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre at the Institute of Education, 7 databases were systematically searched to examine and synthesize the evidence on self-management interventions for women with cardiac pain and cardiac pain equivalents, such as fatigue, dyspnea, and exhaustion. RESULTS: Our search yielded 22,402 article titles and abstracts. Of these, 57 randomized controlled trials were included in a final narrative synthesis, comprising data from 13,047 participants, including 5299 (41%) women. Self-management interventions targeting cardiac pain in women compared with a control population reduced (1) cardiac pain frequency and cardiac pain proportion (obstructive and nonobstructive CAD), (2) fatigue at 12 months, and (3) dyspnea at 2 months. There was no evidence of group differences in postprocedural (percutaneous coronary intervention or cardiac surgery) pain. Results indicated that self-management interventions for cardiac pain were more effective if they included a greater proportion of women (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.01; standard error, 0.003; P = 0.02), goal setting (SMD, -0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.49 to -0.03), and collaboration/support from health care providers (SMD, -0.57; 95% CI, -1.00 to -0.14). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this review suggest that self-management interventions reduce cardiac pain and cardiac pain equivalents.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris , Autogestão/métodos , Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico , Angina Pectoris/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos
11.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 15(3): e52-9, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25851233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prodromal symptoms (PS), indicative of myocardial ischemia, are frequently unrecognized by individuals prior to an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACSs are the leading cause of death worldwide. This study describes (1) the prevalence and association of PS with patients' baseline ACS-related acute symptoms of pain intensity and state anxiety and (2) the relationship of PS to co-morbidity. METHODS: An exploratory sub-analysis was performed. Cross sectional data identified prodromal predictors of ACS pain intensity (numeric rating scale 0-10 (NRS)) and state anxiety (Speilberger state-trait anxiety personality inventory (STAI)). ACS patients (n=121) admitted to a community rural emergency department completed the prodromal symptom screening scale (PS-SS) and reported baseline cardiac pain intensity, state, and trait anxiety. RESULTS: Increased ACS pain intensity was associated with PS. Median pain scores were higher by two points for those with prodromal headache, p=0.006, and anxiety, p=0.017, and one point higher for those with sleep disturbances, p=0.012. PS were not associated with state or trait anxiety. Hypertensive individuals were 7.5 times more likely to experience prodromal fatigue prior to their ACS event. CONCLUSION: Results extend current knowledge of the predictive value that prodromal headache, sleep disturbance and anxiety may have on individuals' acute symptom presentation. A prospective, prognostic study is required in order to determine whether PS are predictive of adverse cardiac events and if PS are a stronger predictor of ACS acute symptom presentation, compared with typical ACS-related co-morbidities.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Dor/diagnóstico , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Can J Cardiol ; 24(10): 759-64, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18841254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic stable angina (CSA) is a major debilitating health problem in Canada. A paucity of relevant cardiovascular data sets has precluded a detailed examination of the impact of interventions on CSA-related costs and its broader economic burden. OBJECTIVES: As part of a larger clinical trial, the authors sought to determine the short-term impact of a standardized self-management training program on CSA-related costs. A secondary objective was to estimate the total annualized cost of CSA per patient from a societal perspective. METHODS: Pre- and three-month post-test cost data were collected on 117 participants using the Ambulatory Home Care Record. Mean annualized direct, indirect and system-related CSA costs (2003 to 2005) were estimated; total per-patient CSA costs from a societal perspective were calculated as the sum of these costs. RESULTS: The mean (+/- SD) age of participants was 68+/-11 years; 80% were male. The program did not impact costs in the short-term. Direct annual out-of-pocket costs, including money paid for health care, travel to appointments, medication, equipment and home support totaled $3,267. Indirect costs, reflecting the value of all unpaid time spent by those engaged in angina-related care, were $12,963. System costs, including costs paid by public and private insurers, were $2,979. Total estimated annual CSA costs from a societal perspective were $19,209 per patient. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that CSA imposes a major economic burden, comparable with other prevalent conditions such as chronic noncancer pain. Advancements in self-management training research are needed to help reduce the economic burden of CSA in Canada.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Autocuidado/métodos , Idoso , Angina Pectoris/terapia , Doença Crônica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Urbana
14.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 36(2): 126-40, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18395397

RESUMO

Cardiac pain arising from chronic stable angina (CSA) is a cardinal symptom of coronary artery disease and has a major negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL), including pain, poor general health status, and inability to self-manage. Current secondary prevention approaches lack adequate scope to address CSA as a multidimensional ischemic and persistent pain problem. This trial evaluated the impact of a low-cost six-week angina psychoeducation program, entitled The Chronic Angina Self-Management Program (CASMP), on HRQL, self-efficacy, and resourcefulness to self-manage anginal pain. One hundred thirty participants were randomized to the CASMP or three-month wait-list usual care; 117 completed the study. Measures were taken at baseline and three months. General HRQL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form and the disease-specific Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). Self-efficacy and resourcefulness were measured using the Self-Efficacy Scale and the Self-Control Schedule, respectively. The mean age of participants was 68 years, 80% were male. Analysis of variance of change scores yielded significant improvements in treatment group physical functioning [F=11.75(1,114), P<0.001] and general health [F=10.94(1,114), P=0.001] aspects of generic HRQL. Angina frequency [F=5.57(1,115), P=0.02], angina stability [F=7.37(1,115), P=0.001], and self-efficacy to manage disease [F=8.45(1,115), P=0.004] were also significantly improved at three months. The CASMP did not impact resourcefulness. These data indicate that the CASMP was effective for improving physical functioning, general health, anginal pain symptoms, and self-efficacy to manage pain at three months and provide a basis for long-term evaluation of the program.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/reabilitação , Dor no Peito/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Autocuidado/métodos , Autoeficácia , Idoso , Angina Instável/complicações , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
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