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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating the association between peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length and testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) risk have produced conflicting results. METHODS: Using available genotype data from the Testicular Cancer Consortium (TECAC), polygenic risk score (PRS) and mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of genetic variants previously associated with leukocyte telomere length were used to assess potential etiologic associations between telomere length and TGCT risk. RESULTS: Genetically inferred telomere length was not associated with TGCT risk among 2,049 cases and 6,921 controls with individual-level genotype data (odds ratio (OR)=1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.97-1.07). MR analyses using summary statistic data further indicated no evidence for an association between telomere length and TGCT risk among all available TECAC consortium participants (3,558 cases; 13,971 controls). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses in the largest molecular genetic testicular cancer study to date provide no evidence for an association between genetically inferred peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length and TGCT risk. IMPACT: The lack of evidence for an overall association indicates that peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length is likely not a strong biomarker for TGCT risk.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1173, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in Latin American women, but with a wide variability with respect to their mortality. This study aims to estimate the mortality rates from BC in Peruvian women and to assess mortality trends over 15 years. METHODS: We calculated BC age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) per 100,000 women-years using the world standard SEGI population. We estimated joinpoint regression models for BC in Peru and its geographical areas. The spatial analysis was performed using the Moran's I statistic. RESULTS: In a 15-year period, Peru had a mortality rate of 9.97 per 100,000 women-years. The coastal region had the highest mortality rate (12.15 per 100,000 women-years), followed by the highlands region (4.71 per 100,000 women-years). In 2003, the highest ASMR for BC were in the provinces of Lima, Arequipa, and La Libertad (above 8.0 per 100,000 women-years), whereas in 2017, the highest ASMR were in Tumbes, Callao, and Moquegua (above 13.0 per women-years). The mortality trend for BC has been declining in the coastal region since 2005 (APC = - 1.35, p < 0.05), whereas the highlands region experienced an upward trend throughout the study period (APC = 4.26, p < 0.05). The rainforest region had a stable trend. Spatial analysis showed a Local Indicator of Spatial Association of 0.26 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We found regional differences in the mortality trends over 15 years. Although the coastal region experienced a downward trend, the highlands had an upward mortality trend in the entire study period. It is necessary to implement tailored public health interventions to reduce BC mortality in Peru.

4.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 511, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports suggest that Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have not reduced leukemia mortality compared to high-income countries. However, updated trends remain largely unknown in the region. Given that leukemia is the leading cause of cancer-related death in LAC children, we evaluated mortality trends in children (0-14y) from 15 LAC countries for the period 2000-2017 and predicted mortality to 2030. METHODS: We retrieved cancer mortality data using the World Health Organization Mortality Database. Mortality rates (standardized to the world standard SEGI population) were analyzed for 15 LAC countries. We evaluated the average mortality rates for the last 5 years (2013-2017). Joinpoint regression analysis was used to evaluate leukemia mortality trends and provide an estimated annual percent change (EAPC). Nordpred was utilized for the calculation of predictions until 2030. RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2017, the highest mortality rates were reported in Venezuela, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Mexico, and Peru. Upward mortality trends were reported in Nicaragua (EAPC by 2.9% in boys, and EAPC by 2.0% in girls), and Peru (EAPC by 1.4% in both sexes). Puerto Rico experienced large declines in mortality among both boys (EAPC by - 9.7%), and girls (EAPC by - 6.0%). Leukemia mortality will increase in Argentina, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panama, Peru, and Uruguay by 2030. CONCLUSION: Leukemia mortality is predicted to increase in some LAC countries by 2030. Interventions to prevent this outcome should be tailor to reduce the socioeconomic inequalities and ensure universal healthcare coverage.

5.
Helicobacter ; 25(6): e12756, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested an association between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the current study was to examine the association in Guatemala, a region with elevated prevalences of both H pylori and NAFLD. Associations between H pylori and other metabolic conditions were also examined, as were associations between H hepaticus and H bilis and the metabolic conditions. MATERIALS & METHODS: The analysis included 424 participants from a cross-sectional study in Guatemala. H pylori seropositivity was defined as positivity for ≥ 4 antigens. Seropositivities for H bilis and H hepaticus were defined as positivity for ≥ 2 antigens. NAFLD was estimated using the Fatty Liver Index and the Hepatic Steatosis Index. Other conditions examined were obesity, central obesity, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL, diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. RESULTS: No overall associations between H pylori,H hepaticus, or H bilis and NAFLD or related metabolic conditions were found. Seropositivity for H pylori antigens CagA and VacA and H hepaticus antigen HH0713 was each significantly associated with NAFLD, however. In addition, associations were observed between the H pylori antigens HyuA, HP1564, and UreA and specified metabolic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: While no overall associations between H pylori or Helicobacter species with NAFLD or related conditions were observed, some selected Helicobacter spp. antigens were associated with NAFLD. Further research is warranted to examine whether H. species are associated with any metabolic condition.

6.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(10): 1541-1551, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024922

RESUMO

In the United States, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) survival varies with tumor characteristics, patient comorbidities, and treatment. The effect of HCC etiology on survival is less clearly defined. The relationship between HCC etiology and mortality was examined using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data. In a cohort of 11,522 HCC cases diagnosed from 2000 through 2014, etiologies were identified from Medicare data, including metabolic disorders (32.9%), hepatitis C virus (8.2%), alcohol (4.7%), hepatitis B virus (HBV, 2.1%), rare etiologies (0.9%), multiple etiologies (26.7%), and unknown etiology (24.4%). After adjusting for demographics, tumor characteristics, comorbidities and treatment, hazard ratios (HRs) and survival curves by HCC etiology were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Compared with HBV-related HCC cases, higher mortality was observed for those with alcohol-related HCC (HR 1.49; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.25-1.77), metabolic disorder-related HCC (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.07-1.47), and multiple etiology-related HCC (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.07-1.46), but was not statistically significant for hepatitis C virus-related, rare disorder-related, and HCC of unknown etiology. For all HCC etiologies, there was short median survival ranging from 6.1 months for alcohol to 10.3 months for HBV. Conclusion: More favorable survival was seen with HBV-related HCC. To the extent that HCC screening is more common among persons with HBV infection compared to those with other etiologic risk factors, population-based HCC screening, applied evenly to persons across all HCC etiology categories, could shift HCC diagnosis to earlier stages, when cases with good clinical status are more amenable to curative therapy.

7.
Colorectal Dis ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976668

RESUMO

AIM: Larger tumour size and lymph node involvement traditionally predict poorer survival in colon cancer patients. However, it has been recently suggested that very small tumours (<5 mm) may be a predictor of poor prognosis in colon cancer patients when lymph nodes are involved. This study investigated whether node-positive colon cancer patients with small tumours had worse survival compared to those with larger tumours in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Military Health System (MHS), a universal health care system. METHODS: Surgically treated colon cancer patients were identified from the DoD's Automated Central Tumour Registry (ACTUR). These patients were diagnosed with Stage I-III colon cancer between 1989 and 2010, had one or more lymph nodes examined, did not receive pre-operative radiotherapy and were followed through 2013 to determine vital status. Multivariable Cox models were used to examine survival differences according to tumour size, and data were stratified by lymph node status and age. RESULTS: There were no differences in overall survival according to tumour size in the study population. These findings remained similar in analyses stratified by lymph node status and age. CONCLUSION: In a universal healthcare system, small tumour size is not associated with worse prognosis in node-positive colon cancer patients.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Guatemala, cirrhosis is among the 10 leading causes of death, and mortality rates have increased lately. The reasons for this heavy burden of disease are not clear as the prevalence of prominent risk factors, such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and heavy alcohol consumption, appears to be low. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure, however, appears to be high, and thus could be associated with the high burden of cirrhosis. Whether AFB1 increases the risk of cirrhosis in the absence of viral infection, however, is not clear. DESIGN: Cirrhosis cases (n=100) from two major referral hospitals in Guatemala City were compared with controls (n=200) from a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs and 95% CIs of cirrhosis and quintiles of AFB1 in crude and adjusted models. A sex-stratified analysis was also conducted. RESULTS: The median AFB1 level was significantly higher among the cases (11.4 pg/mg) than controls (5.11 pg/mg). In logistic regression analyses, higher levels of AFB1 was associated with cirrhosis (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, OR: 11.55; 95% CI 4.05 to 32.89). No attenuation was observed with adjustment by sex, ethnicity, hepatitis B virus status, and heavy alcohol consumption. A significantly increasing trend in association was observed in both models (p trend <0.01). Additionally, the cirrhosis-AFB1 association was more prominent among men. CONCLUSIONS: The current study found a significant positive association between AFB1 exposure and cirrhosis. Mitigation of AFB1 exposure and a better understanding of additional risk factors may be important to reduce the burden of cirrhosis in Guatemala.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 123(6): 909-911, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32595210

RESUMO

Helicobacter has been suggested to play a possible role in hepatitis, gallstones, and hepatobiliary tumours. We assessed whether seropositivity to 15 H. pylori proteins was associated with subsequent incidence of 74 biliary tract and 105 liver cancer cases vs. 357 matched controls in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed by conditional logistic regression after adjustment for known hepatobiliary cancer risk factors. H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either biliary tract (1.76, 0.90-3.46) or liver cancer (0.87, 0.46-1.65). CagA seropositivity was associated with both endpoints, although the latter association was not statistically significant (biliary tract: 2.16, 1.03-4.50; liver cancer: 1.96, 0.98-3.93) and neither association was statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Together, these results suggest possible associations between H. pylori and hepatobiliary cancer and suggest the value of future studies investigating the association.Trial registration number: NCT00339495.

11.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 863-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. RESULTS: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. LAY SUMMARY: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.

12.
Health Sci Rep ; 3(2): e155, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382660

RESUMO

Background and aims: Guatemala has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the Western hemisphere. The major risk factors in Guatemala are not well characterized, but the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) appears to be low, while the prevalence of aflatoxin (AFB1) exposure appears to be high. To examine whether AFB1 may contribute to the elevated incidence of HCC in Guatemala, this study examined the frequency of the AFB1-signature mutation in the TP53 gene (R249S) as well as other somatic mutations. In addition, we assessed whether the frequency of the TP53 mutation differed by sex. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) HCC tissues were obtained from three hospitals in Guatemala City between 2016 and 2017. In addition, tumor tissues preserved in RNAlater were also obtained. Sociodemographic and clinical information including HBV and HCV status were collected. Targeted sequencing of TP53 was performed in the FFPE samples, and a panel of 253 cancer-related genes was sequenced in the RNAlater samples. Results: Ninety-one FFPE tissues were examined, from 52 men and 39 women. Median (IQR) age at diagnosis was 62 (51-70). Among those with known HBV and HCV status, two were HBV+ and three were HCV+. Overall, 47% of the HCCs had a TP53 mutation. The AFB1-signature R249S mutation was present in 24%. No overlap between the R249S mutation and HBV+ was observed in this cohort. Among 18 RNAlater samples examined, 44% had any TP53 mutation and 33% had the R249S mutation. Other somatic mutations were identified in known HCC driver genes. Conclusions: The presence of the TP53 R249S mutation in the samples studied suggests that AFB1 may contribute to the high incidence of HCC in Guatemala. The proportion of HBV+ tumors was low, suggesting that AFB1 may be associated with HCC in the absence of concomitant HBV infection. Further investigation of AFB1 and other risk factors for HCC in Guatemala is warranted.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(6): 1237-1245, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) has been rising in the United States and is notably higher among white men. Previously, our group reported that rates were rising among Hispanic men in certain areas. This study sought to determine whether the patterns noted in our prior publication remained evident in more recent years and to determine whether any new patterns have emerged. METHODS: Data from 51 U.S. cancer registries were examined. Racial/ethnic-specific incidence rates per 100,000 man-years were calculated overall and by census region. Annual percent changes (APC) were estimated, and joinpoint models were fit. Differences in regional incidence were examined using the Wald test. RESULTS: During the time period 2001 to 2016, 126,575 TGCTs were recorded. TGCT incidence was highest among non-Hispanic whites (NHW; 6.63/100,000), followed by Hispanics (4.20), American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN; 3.27), Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PI; 1.72), and non-Hispanic blacks (NHB; 1.27). TGCT incidence increased significantly among all men; the greatest increase was experienced by A/PIs (APC: 2.47), followed in order by Hispanics (2.10), AI/ANs (1.71), NHBs (1.28), and NHWs (0.41). Significant differences in rates by region were seen for all men except NHBs, with the highest rates among Hispanics (5.38/100,000), AI/ANs (4.47), and A/PIs (2.37) found in the West, and among NHWs (7.60) and NHBs (1.51) found in the Northeast. CONCLUSIONS: Although TGCT incidence remained highest among NHWs between 2001 and 2016, the greatest increase was experienced by A/PI men. IMPACT: Rising rates of TGCTs among men of all racial/ethnic backgrounds in the United States suggest that future attention is warranted.

14.
Br J Cancer ; 123(2): 316-324, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -ß, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC. METHODS: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases). RESULTS: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.

15.
Bone Joint Res ; 9(3): 139-145, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435466

RESUMO

Aims: To examine the relationship of sex steroid hormones with osteopenia in a nationally representative sample of men in the USA. Methods: Data on bone mineral density (BMD), serum sex hormones, dairy consumption, smoking status, and body composition were available for 806 adult male participants of the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2004). We estimated associations between quartiles of total and estimated free oestradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) and osteopenia (defined as 1 to 2.5 SD below the mean BMD for healthy 20- to 29-year-old men) by applying sampling weights and using multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. We then estimated the association between serum hormone concentrations and osteopenia by percentage of body fat, frequency of dairy intake, cigarette smoking status, age, and race/ethnicity. Results: Men in the lowest quartile of total E2 concentrations (< 21.52 pg/ml) had greater odds of osteopenia compared with men in the highest quartile (odds ratio (OR) 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 to 4.73; p-trend = 0.030). Total and free T were not associated with osteopenia. Low total E2 concentrations were associated with greater odds of osteopenia among non-daily dairy consumers (p-trend = 0.046), current or former smokers (p-trend = 0.032), and younger men (p-trend = 0.031). No differences were observed by race/ethnicity and obesity. Conclusion: In this nationally representative study of the USA, men with lower total E2 were more likely to have osteopenia, which was particularly evident among younger men, men with less-than-daily dairy consumption, and current or former smokers.Cite this article: Bone Joint Res. 2020;9(3):139-145.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2743-2753, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406072

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the dominant histologic type of liver cancer, accounting for 75% of cases. Growing evidence suggests that the cross-talk between the gut microbiome and metabolome (ie, gut-liver axis) are related to the development of hepatic inflammation, and ultimately, HCC. Bile acids are metabolites, derived from cholesterol and synthesized in the liver, which may have a critical role in regulation of the gut-liver axis. We investigated whether prediagnostic circulating bile acids were associated with HCC risk, using the Risk Evaluation of Viral Load Elevation and Associated Liver Disease/Cancer (REVEAL)-Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and REVEAL-Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) cohorts from Taiwan. Fifteen bile acids were quantitated using liquid chromatography, from 185 cases and 161 matched controls in REVEAL-HBV and 96 cases and 96 matched controls in REVEAL-HCV. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between bile acid levels and HCC were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Higher levels of glycine and taurine conjugated primary bile acids were associated with a 2- to 8-fold increased risk of HBV- (eg, glycocholic acid ORQ4vsQ1 = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.48-7.71, Ptrend < .003) and HCV-related HCC (eg, OR = 8.16, 95% CI: 2.21-30.18, Ptrend < .001). However, higher levels of the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid were inversely associated with HBV-related HCC risk (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.88, Ptrend = .02). Our study provides evidence that higher concentrations of bile acids-specifically, conjugated primary bile acids-are associated with increased HCC risk. However, our study does not support the hypothesis that higher levels of secondary bile acids increase liver cancer risk; indeed, deoxycholic acid may be associated with a decreased HCC risk.

17.
Cancer ; 126(13): 3151-3155, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver cancer incidence has increased for several decades in the United States. Recently, reports have suggested that rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the dominant form of liver cancer, had declined in certain groups. However, to the authors' knowledge, the most recent histology-specific liver cancer rates have not been reported to date. METHODS: The authors examined the incidence of HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) from 1992 through 2016 using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated by histology, sex, race and/or ethnicity, and age. Trends were analyzed using the National Cancer Institute's Joinpoint Regression Program to estimate the annual percent change. RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2016, HCC rates significantly declined (annual percent change, -1.9%), with more prominent declines noted among males, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and individuals aged <50 years. Conversely, ICC rates increased from 2002 through 2016. CONCLUSIONS: Declining HCC rates may persist due to improved treatment of the hepatitis C virus and/or competing causes of mortality among individuals with fatty liver disease.

18.
Hepatology ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319693

RESUMO

Liver cancer is a major contributor to the worldwide cancer burden. Incidence rates of this disease have increased in many countries in recent decades. As the principal histologic type of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for the great majority of liver cancer diagnoses and deaths. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) remain, at present, the most important global risk factors for HCC, but their importance will likely decline in the coming years. The effect of HBV vaccination of newborns, already seen in young adults in some countries, will be more notable as vaccinated cohorts age. In addition, effective treatments for chronic infections with both HBV and HCV should contribute to declines in the rates of viral-associated HCC. Unfortunately, the prevalence of metabolic risk factors for HCC, including metabolic syndrome, obesity, type II diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are increasing and may jointly become the major cause of HCC globally. Excessive alcohol consumption also remains an intractable risk factor, as does aflatoxin contamination of food crops in some parts of the world. While significant efforts in early diagnosis and better treatment are certainly needed for HCC, primary prevention efforts aimed at decreasing the prevalence of obesity and diabetes and controlling mycotoxin growth, are just as urgently required.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 147(8): 2075-2090, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285447

RESUMO

Deficient intake of micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (eg, choline, methionine, vitamin B12 and folic acid) leads to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in rodents, but is under-investigated in humans. We investigated the association between one-carbon metabolism-related micronutrient intake and HCC risk in a prospective cohort of 494 860 participants with 16 years of follow-up in the NIH-AARP study. Dietary intakes and supplement use were ascertained at baseline using a food-frequency questionnaire. Total intake (diet plus supplements) of the following one-carbon metabolism-related micronutrients were calculated: folate, methionine and vitamins B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 and B12 . These micronutrients were examined both individually and simultaneously, with adjustment for covariates. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over the 16-year follow-up period, 647 incident HCC cases were diagnosed. When examined individually, higher total vitamin B3 intake was associated with a lower HCC risk (HRQ5 vs Q1 = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.42-0.85; Ptrend = .008), and the association remained significant when all six micronutrients were examined simultaneously (HRQ5 vs Q1 = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.18-0.55; Ptrend < .0001). Among participants with >3 years of follow-up, higher total vitamin B3 intake was again associated with lower risk (HRQ5 vs Q1 = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.20-0.68; Ptrend = .001), whereas higher total vitamin B6 intake was associated with higher risk (HRQ5 vs Q1 = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.02-4.07; Ptrend = .04). Restricted cubic spline analyses showed a dose-response inverse association between total vitamin B3 intake and HCC risk, and dose-response positive association between total vitamin B6 intake and HCC risk. The study suggests that higher vitamin B3 intake is associated with lower HCC risk, whereas higher vitamin B6 intake is associated with increased risk.

20.
Cancer ; 126(13): 3053-3060, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioma is the most common malignant brain cancer. Accessibility to health care is an important factor affecting cancer outcomes in the US general population. The US Military Health System (MHS) provides universal health care to its beneficiaries. It is unknown whether this universal health care has translated into improved survival outcomes among MHS beneficiaries with glioma. This study compared the overall survival of patients with glioma in the MHS with the overall survival of patients with glioma in the general population. METHODS: The MHS cases were identified from the Department of Defense's Automated Central Tumor Registry (ACTUR). Glioma cases from the general population were identified from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. SEER cases were matched 2:1 to ACTUR cases by age, sex, race, histology, and diagnosis year. All cases had histologically confirmed glioma diagnosed between January 1, 1987, and December 31, 2013. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to compare survival between the ACTUR and SEER cases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The study included 2231 glioma cases from ACTUR and 4462 cases from SEER. ACTUR cases exhibited significantly better overall survival than SEER cases (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.67-0.83). The survival advantage of the ACTUR patients was observed in most subgroups stratified by age, sex, race, diagnosis year, and histology. For glioblastoma, the survival advantage was observed in both the pre- and post-temozolomide periods. CONCLUSIONS: Universal MHS health care may have translated into improved survival outcomes in glioma. Future studies are warranted to identify factors contributing to the improved survival.

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