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1.
World Psychiatry ; 21(1): 61-76, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015367

RESUMO

Mental ill-health represents the main threat to the health, survival and future potential of young people around the world. There are indications that this is a rising tide of vulnerability and need for care, a trend that has been augmented by the COVID-19 pandemic. It represents a global public health crisis, which not only demands a deep and sophisticated understanding of possible targets for prevention, but also urgent reform and investment in the provision of developmentally appropriate clinical care. Despite having the greatest level of need, and potential to benefit, adolescents and emerging adults have the worst access to timely and quality mental health care. How is this global crisis to be addressed? Since the start of the century, a range of co-designed youth mental health strategies and innovations have emerged. These range from digital platforms, through to new models of primary care to new services for potentially severe mental illness, which must be locally adapted according to the availability of resources, workforce, cultural factors and health financing patterns. The fulcrum of this progress is the advent of broad-spectrum, integrated primary youth mental health care services. They represent a blueprint and beach-head for an overdue global system reform. While resources will vary across settings, the mental health needs of young people are largely universal, and underpin a set of fundamental principles and design features. These include establishing an accessible, "soft entry" youth primary care platform with digital support, where young people are valued and essential partners in the design, operation, management and evaluation of the service. Global progress achieved to date in implementing integrated youth mental health care has highlighted that these services are being accessed by young people with genuine and substantial mental health needs, that they are benefiting from them, and that both these young people and their families are highly satisfied with the services they receive. However, we are still at base camp and these primary care platforms need to be scaled up across the globe, complemented by prevention, digital platforms and, crucially, more specialized care for complex and persistent conditions, aligned to this transitional age range (from approximately 12 to 25 years). The rising tide of mental ill-health in young people globally demands that this focus be elevated to a top priority in global health.

2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 99: 147-156, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) mediated membrane function plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Even though preclinical findings have supported the anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 FAs on brain health, their biological roles as anti-inflammatory agents and their therapeutic role on clinical symptoms of psychosis risk are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the relationship of erythrocyte omega-3 FAs with plasma immune markers in a clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) sample. In addition, a mediation analysis was performed to examine whether previously reported associations between omega-3 FAs and clinical outcomes were mediated via plasma immune markers. Clinical outcomes for CHR participants in the NEURAPRO clinical trial were measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Schedule for the Scale of Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) scales. The erythrocyte omega-3 index [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers were quantified at baseline (n = 268) and 6 month follow-up (n = 146) by gas chromatography and multiplex immunoassay, respectively. In linear regression models, the baseline plasma concentrations of Interleukin (IL)-15, Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and Vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were negatively associated with baseline omega-3 index. In addition, 6-month change in IL-12p40 and TNF-α showed a negative association with change in omega-3 index. In longitudinal analyses, the baseline and 6 month change in omega-3 index was negatively associated with VCAM-1 and TNF-α respectively at follow-up. Mediation analyses provided little evidence for mediating effects of plasma immune markers on the relationship between omega-3 FAs and clinical outcomes (psychotic symptoms and functioning) in CHR participants. Our results indicate a predominantly anti-inflammatory relationship of omega-3 FAs on plasma inflammatory status in CHR individuals, but this did not appear to convey clinical benefits at 6 month and 12 month follow-up. Both immune and non-immune biological effects of omega-3 FAs would be resourceful in understanding the clinical benefits of omega-3 FAs in CHR papulation.

6.
Elife ; 102021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569937

RESUMO

Causal interactions between specific psychiatric symptoms could contribute to the heterogenous clinical trajectories observed in early psychopathology. Current diagnostic approaches merge clinical manifestations that co-occur across subjects and could significantly hinder our understanding of clinical pathways connecting individual symptoms. Network analysis techniques have emerged as alternative approaches that could help shed light on the complex dynamics of early psychopathology. The present study attempts to address the two main limitations that have in our opinion hindered the application of network approaches in the clinical setting. Firstly, we show that a multi-layer network analysis approach, can move beyond a static view of psychopathology, by providing an intuitive characterization of the role of specific symptoms in contributing to clinical trajectories over time. Secondly, we show that a Graph-Signal-Processing approach, can exploit knowledge of longitudinal interactions between symptoms, to predict clinical trajectories at the level of the individual. We test our approaches in two independent samples of individuals with genetic and clinical vulnerability for developing psychosis. Novel network approaches can allow to embrace the dynamic complexity of early psychopathology and help pave the way towards a more a personalized approach to clinical care.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557990

RESUMO

Episodic memory ability relies on hippocampal-prefrontal connectivity. However, few studies have examined relationships between memory performance and white matter (WM) microstructure in hippocampal-prefrontal pathways in schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSDs). Here, we investigated these relationships in individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) using tractography analysis designed to interrogate the microstructure of WM tracts in the hippocampal-prefrontal pathway. Measures of WM microstructure (fractional anisotropy [FA], radial diffusivity [RD], and axial diffusivity [AD]) were obtained for 47 individuals with chronic SSDs, 28 FEP individuals, 52 older healthy controls, and 27 younger healthy controls. Tractography analysis was performed between the hippocampus and three targets involved in hippocampal-prefrontal connectivity (thalamus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens). Measures of WM microstructure were then examined in relation to episodic memory performance separately across each group. Both those with FEP and chronic SSDs demonstrated impaired episodic memory performance. However, abnormal WM microstructure was only observed in individuals with chronic SSDs. Abnormal WM microstructure in the hippocampal-thalamic pathway in the right hemisphere was associated with poorer memory performance in individuals with chronic SSDs. These findings suggest that disruptions in WM microstructure in the hippocampal-prefrontal pathway may contribute to memory impairments in individuals with chronic SSDs but not FEP.

8.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 271(8): 1475-1485, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467451

RESUMO

Increased severity of neurological soft signs (NSS) in schizophrenia have been associated with abnormal brain morphology in cerebello-thalamo-cortical structures, but it is unclear whether similar structures underlie NSS prior to the onset of psychosis. The present study investigated the relationship between severity of NSS and grey matter volume (GMV) in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) stratified for later conversion to psychosis. Structural T1-weighted MRI scans were obtained from 56 antipsychotic-naïve UHR individuals and 35 healthy controls (HC). The UHR individuals had follow-up data (mean follow-up: 5.2 years) to ascertain clinical outcome. Using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry, the relationship between NSS and GMV at baseline was assessed in UHR, HC, as well as individuals who later transitioned (UHR-P, n = 25) and did not transition (UHR-NP, n = 31) to psychosis. NSS total and subscale scores except motor coordination were significantly higher in UHR compared to HC. Higher signs were also found in UHR-P, but not UHR-NP. Total NSS was not associated with GMV in the whole sample or in each group. However, in UHR-P individuals, greater deficits in sensory integration was associated with lower GMV in the left cerebellum, right insula, and right middle frontal gyrus. In conclusion, NSS are present in UHR individuals, particularly those who later transitioned to a psychotic disorder. While these signs show little overall variation with GMV, the association of sensory integration deficits with lower GMV in UHR-P suggests that certain brain areas may be implicated in the development of specific neurological abnormalities in the psychosis prodrome.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specialist early intervention (SEI) service models are designed to treat symptoms, promote social and vocational recovery, prevent relapse, and resource and up-skill patients and their families. The benefits of SEI over the first few years have been demonstrated. While early recovery can be expected to translate to better long-term outcomes by analogy with other illnesses, there is limited evidence to support this from follow-up studies. The current study involves the long-term follow-up of a sub-set of first episode psychosis (FEP) patients, with a range of diagnoses, who were first treated at Orygen's Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC) between 1998 and 2000. The aim of this paper is to present the methodology for this follow-up study. METHODS: Between January 1998 and December 2000, 786 patients between the ages of 15-29 years were treated at EPPIC, located in Melbourne, Australia. Our cohort consists of 661 people (82 were transferred/discharged and 43 were not diagnosed with a psychotic disorder at time of discharge). The 18-month treatment characteristics of this cohort have been extensively examined in the First Episode Psychosis Outcome Study (FEPOS). The ≥15 year outcomes of this cohort are being examined in this study, known as FEPOS15. RESULTS: Participant follow-up is ongoing. In order to extend and assess broader outcomes of the cohort, data linkage with health-related databases will be conducted. CONCLUSION: This study will provide a comprehensive evaluation of the long-term trajectory of psychotic disorders after treatment for FEP in a SEI service.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young people present high rates of cannabis use, abuse, and dependence. The United Nations estimates that roughly 3.8% of the global population aged 15-64 years used cannabis at least once in 2017. Cannabis use in young people may impair cognitive skills, interfere with learning, impact relationships, and lead to long term behavioural and psychological consequences. Online cannabis interventions (OCI) are increasingly popular, but their dissemination is not often supported by empirical evidence. AIM: To systematically compile and analyse the effectiveness of OCI for the reduction of cannabis use among adolescents and young adults (AYA). METHODS: Pooled effect sizes of cannabis use between treatment and control groups were estimated. For each comparison, Hedge's g was calculated using a random effects model. RESULTS: The search strategy yielded 4531 articles. Of those, a total of 411 articles were retrieved for detailed evaluation resulting in 17 eligible studies (n = 3525). Analyses revealed that online interventions did not significantly reduce cannabis consumption (Hedge's g = -0.061, 95% CI [-0.363] to [-0.242], p = .695) and high heterogeneity was noted (Q = 191.290). More recent studies using structured interventions, daily feedback, AYA centred designs, and peer support, specifically targeting CU seemed to have positive effects to address CU in this population. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of positive outcomes suggests that more specific and targeted interventions may be necessary to promote cannabis-related behavioural change among young people. These targeted interventions may include structured CU modules, daily feedback, peer support for increased adherence, user-centred design procedures, and input from key stakeholders such as families and service providers.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of existing research regarding young people with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) and psychotic features, who are not in education, employment, and training (NEET). Thus, the aims of the study were to: (a) establish rates of NEET at service entry to a specialist early intervention service; (b) delineate premorbid and current variables associated with NEET status at service entry and (c) examine correlates of NEET status at discharge. METHOD: Medical file audit methodology was utilized to collect information on 118 patients with first episode psychotic mania treated at the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC), Melbourne, Australia. NEET status was determined using the modified vocation status index (MVCI). Bivariate and multivariable logistic variables were used to examine relationships between premorbid, service entry and treatment variables, and NEET status at service entry and discharge. RESULTS: The NEET rate was 33.9% at service entry, and 39.2% at discharge. Variables associated with NEET status at service entry were premorbid functioning and polysubstance use. NEET status at service entry was the only significant correlate of NEET status at discharge. When service entry NEET was taken out of the model, substance use during treatment was predictive of NEET status at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: NEET status at service entry was related to a history of premorbid decline, and risk factors such as substance use and forensic issues. NEET status can decline during treatment, and utility of vocational intervention programs specifically for BD, in addition to specialist early intervention, needs to be examined.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No biological treatment has been firmly established for the at-risk stage of psychotic disorder. In this study we aim to test if subthreshold psychotic symptoms can be effectively treated with cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive compound of the plant Cannabis sativa. The question has taken on increased importance in the wake of evidence questioning both the need and efficacy of specific pharmacological interventions in the ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis group. METHODS: Three-arm randomized controlled trial of 405 patients (135 per arm) aged 12-25 years who meet UHR for psychosis criteria. The study includes a 6-week lead-in phase during which 10% of UHR individuals are expected to experience symptom remission. Participants will receive CBD (per oral) at doses 600 or 1000 mg per day (fixed schedule) for 12 weeks. Participants in the third arm of the trial will receive matching placebo capsules. Primary outcome is severity of positive psychotic symptoms as measured by the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States at 12 weeks. We hypothesize that CBD will be significantly more effective than placebo in improving positive psychotic symptoms in UHR patients. All participants will also be followed up 6 months post baseline to evaluate if treatment effects are sustained. CONCLUSION: This paper reports on the rationale and protocol of the Cannabidiol for At Risk for psychosis Youth (CanARY) study. This study will test CBD for the first time in the UHR phase of psychotic disorder.

13.
World Psychiatry ; 20(2): 233-243, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002511

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine whether, following two years of specialized support for first-episode psychosis, the addition of a new digital intervention (Horyzons) to treatment as usual (TAU) for 18 months was more effective than 18 months of TAU alone. We conducted a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Participants were people with first-episode psychosis (N=170), aged 16-27 years, in clinical remission and nearing discharge from a specialized service. They were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive Horyzons plus TAU (N=86) or TAU alone (N=84) between October 2013 and January 2017. Horyzons is a novel, comprehensive digital platform merging: peer-to-peer social networking; theory-driven and evidence-informed therapeutic interventions targeting social functioning, vocational recovery and relapse prevention; expert clinician and vocational support; and peer support and moderation. TAU involved transfer to primary or tertiary community mental health services. The primary outcome was social functioning at 18 months as measured by the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). Forty-seven participants (55.5%) in the Horyzons plus TAU group logged on for at least 6 months, and 40 (47.0%) for at least 9 months. Social functioning remained high and stable in both groups from baseline to 18-month follow-up, with no evidence of significant between-group differences (PSP mean difference: -0.29, 95% CI: -4.20 to 3.63, p=0.77). Participants in the Horyzons group had a 5.5 times greater increase in their odds to find employment or enroll in education compared with those in TAU (odds ratio, OR=5.55, 95% CI: 1.09-28.23, p=0.04), with evidence of a dose-response effect. Moreover, participants in TAU were twice as likely to visit emergency services compared to those in the Horyzons group (39% vs. 19%; OR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.86, p=0.03, number needed to treat, NNT=5). There was a non-significant trend for lower hospitalizations due to psychosis in the Horyzons group vs. TAU (13% vs. 27%; OR=0.36, 95% CI: 0.11-1.08, p=0.07, NNT=7). So, although we did not find a significant effect of Horyzons on social functioning compared with TAU, the intervention was effective in improving vocational or educational attainment, a core component of social recovery, and in reducing usage of hospital emergency services, a key aim of specialized first-episode psychosis services. Horyzons holds significant promise as an engaging and sustainable intervention to provide effective vocational and relapse prevention support for young people with first-episode psychosis beyond specialist services.

14.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 86: 102005, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810885

RESUMO

Intervention at the earliest illness stage, in ultra or clinical high-risk individuals, or indicated prevention, currently represents the most promising strategy to ameliorate, delay or prevent psychosis. We review the current state of evidence and conduct a broad-spectrum meta-analysis of various outcomes: transition to psychosis, attenuated positive and negative psychotic symptoms, mania, depression, anxiety, general psychopathology, symptom-related distress, functioning, quality of life, and treatment acceptability. 26 randomized controlled trials were included. Meta-analytically pooled interventions reduced transition rate (risk ratio [RR] = 0.57, 95%CI 0.41-0.81) and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms at 12-months (standardized mean difference = -0.15, 95%CI = -0.28--0.01). When stratified by intervention type (pharmacological, psychological), only the pooled effect of psychological interventions on transition rate was significant. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was associated with a reduction in incidence at 12-months (RR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.33-0.82) and 18-48-months (RR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.42-0.84), but not 6-months. Findings at 12-months and 18-48-months were robust in sensitivity and subgroup analyses. All other outcomes were non-significant. To date, effects of trialed treatments are specific to transition and, a lesser extent, attenuated positive symptoms, highlighting the future need to target other symptom domains and functional outcomes. Sound evidence supports CBT in reducing transition and the value of intervening at this illness stage. STUDY REGISTRATION: Research Registry ID: reviewregistry907.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Risco
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive symptoms are common in young people receiving mental health treatment and are associated with poorer outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Neuropsychological Symptoms Self-Report (NSSR), an eight-item measure recently developed to provide a snapshot of young people's perceived change in cognitive functioning in relation to mental health treatment. METHOD: The sample included 633 youth aged 12-25 years (Mage  = 18.2, 66.5% female, 88.6% Australian-born) who had sought mental health treatment in primary headspace services. At three-month follow-up, participants completed the NSSR and self-report measures of depression and anxiety. RESULTS: Excellent internal consistency was found: Cronbach's alpha = 0.93. The NSSR had negative correlations with self-reported anxiety (r = -.33, p < .001) and depression (r = -.48, p < .001) symptoms, suggesting a link with affective symptoms, but still independence of constructs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a single-factor model. Item response theory (IRT) analysis suggested good model fit (homogeneity, data integrity, scalability, local independence and monotonicity) for all items. There was some evidence of measurement noninvariance (for item thresholds) by sex and age, but not diagnosis. IRT models also supported briefer six- and three-item versions of the NSSR. CONCLUSION: In busy clinical practice, clinicians need a rapid and reliable method for determining whether cognitive symptoms are of concern and in need of further assessment and treatment. Study findings support the NSSR as a brief, psychometrically sound measure for assessing subjective cognitive functioning in adolescents and young adults receiving mental health treatment.

16.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 55(5): 506-516, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Effective treatment of depression is a key target for suicide prevention strategies. However, only around one-third of young people with suicide risk respond to evidence-based treatments. Understanding the trajectory of suicidal ideation, as a marker of suicide risk, over the course of evidence-based treatment for depression might provide insight into more targeted and effective treatments. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from the multicentre Youth Depression Alleviation-Combined Treatment trial. A total of 153 young people aged 15-25 years diagnosed with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to either cognitive behavioural therapy plus fluoxetine or cognitive behavioural therapy plus placebo. Participants were assessed for depression and suicidal ideation at baseline and at weeks 4, 8 and 12. RESULTS: Using group-based trajectory modelling, we identified two distinct depression trajectories. The first (Improving; 54.9%; n = 83) comprised those who experienced a consistent decline in depression symptoms. The second (Persisting; 45.1%; n = 70) comprised those who, despite treatment, still had clinically significant levels of depression by the end of treatment. For suicidal ideation, we identified four distinct trajectories: Non-clinical (15.5%; n = 20), Low Improving (47.1%; n = 75), High Improving (24.8%; n = 38) and High Persisting (12.7%; n = 20). Treatment allocation was not significantly associated with trajectory membership for either depression or suicidal ideation. CONCLUSION: Understanding the course of depression and suicidal ideation during treatment has important implications for managing suicide risk. The findings suggest that there is an identifiable group of young people for whom enhanced psychological and/or pharmacological intervention might be required to ensure a better treatment response. Specific interventions for those with suicidal ideation may also be prudent from the outset. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Youth Depression Alleviation-Combined Treatment trial was prospectively registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612001281886).


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Suicídio , Adolescente , Austrália , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ideação Suicida
17.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 344-356, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545668

RESUMO

Over a quarter of a century ago, the formulation of the "at risk mental state" and operational criteria to prospectively identify individuals at "clinical" or "ultra-high risk" (UHR) for psychosis created a global wave of research momentum aimed at predicting and preventing first-episode psychosis. A substantial number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted to determine if transition to psychosis could be delayed or even prevented. The efficacy of a range of interventions was examined, with standard meta-analyses clearly indicating that these could at least delay transition for 1-2 years and that outcomes improve. Recently, network meta-analyses have attempted to identify the most effective intervention. These highlighted the fact that no one form of intervention is superior to the rest, a finding interpreted in such a way as to create doubts concerning the value of intervening. These doubts have been reinforced by a subsequent Cochrane review which judged the quality of the evidence as low or very low. Here, we report a narrative review of findings from RCTs and meta-analyses on the efficacy of interventions in UHR. We also critique the network meta-analyses and the Cochrane review, and indicate that many of the trials were of the highest possible quality for such research, and were published in top ranked psychiatry journals, which demand such quality. Although outcomes vary, and the UHR group is clearly heterogeneous, we highlight the clinical benefits of psychosocial treatment. The next generation of clinical trials seek to elucidate the optimal type, duration and sequence of interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Transtornos Psicóticos/prevenção & controle
18.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 15(6): 1793-1798, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538110

RESUMO

AIM: Investigating biological processes in at-risk individuals may help elucidate the aetiological mechanisms underlying psychosis development, refine prediction models and improve intervention strategies. This study examined the associations between sleep disturbances, chronotype, depressive and psychotic symptoms in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis. METHODS: A sample of 81 ultra-high risk patients completed clinical interviews and self-report assessments of chronotype and sleep during the Neurapro clinical trial. Mixed regression was used to investigate the cross-sectional associations between symptoms and sleep disturbances/chronotype. RESULTS: Sleep disturbances were significantly associated with increased depressive and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms. Greater preference for eveningness was significantly associated with increased negative symptoms, but not with depressive or attenuated positive psychotic symptoms. CONCLUSION: Sleep disturbances and chronotype may impact the emerging psychopathology experienced by ultra-high risk individuals. Further, the preliminary relationship observed between greater preference for eveningness and negative symptoms offers a unique opportunity to treat negative symptoms through chronobiological approaches.

19.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 56(6): 943-952, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Migrant status is one of the most replicated and robust risk factors for developing a psychotic disorder. This study aimed to determine whether migrant status in people identified as Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis (UHR) was associated with risk of transitioning to a full-threshold psychotic disorder. METHODS: Hazard ratios for the risk of transition were calculated from five large UHR cohorts (n = 2166) and were used to conduct a meta-analysis using the generic inverse-variance method using a random-effects model. RESULTS: 2166 UHR young people, with a mean age of 19.1 years (SD ± 4.5) were included, of whom 221 (10.7%) were first-generation migrants. A total of 357 young people transitioned to psychosis over a median follow-up time of 417 days (I.Q.R.147-756 days), representing 17.0% of the cohort. The risk of transition to a full-threshold disorder was not increased for first-generation migrants, (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.62-1.89); however, there was a high level of heterogeneity between studies The hazard ratio for second-generation migrants to transition to a full-threshold psychotic disorder compared to the remainder of the native-born population was 1.03 (95% CI 0.70-1.51). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis did not find a statistically significant association between migrant status and an increased risk for transition to a full-threshold psychotic disorder; however, several methodological issues could explain this finding. Further research should focus on examining the risk of specific migrant groups and also ensuring that migrant populations are adequately represented within UHR clinics.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 19-28, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434729

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The distinction between the schizophrenia spectrum and other types of disorders may be clinically relevant in terms of its predictive validity as suggested by studies showing schizophrenia spectrum patients have more unfavourable outcomes compared to other psychotic disorders. The present study aimed to investigate whether basic self-disturbances and neurocognitive processes that have been linked to psychosis risk have discriminative power for schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients presenting with first episode psychosis (FEP) and at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR). METHODS: 38 FEP patients, 48 UHR patients, and 33 healthy controls were assessed for basic self-disturbances (using the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience, EASE, interview), source monitoring and aberrant salience (behavioural tasks to measure neurocognitive constructs). Clinical groups were divided into patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and those with other non-spectrum disorders and were further compared on measures controlling for symptom severity and age. RESULTS: Basic self-disturbances distinguished schizophrenia spectrum from non-spectrum disorders in the 'FEP only' sample, F = 19.76, p < 0.001, η2partial = 0.37, and also in the combined UHR/FEP sample, F = 23.56, p < 0.001, η2partial = 0.22. Additionally, some processes related to source monitoring deficits were elevated in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In contrast, the two groups (schizophrenia spectrum vs other diagnoses) performed similarly in aberrant salience tasks. Comparable results were obtained for analyses performed with an FEP/UHR combined sample and the 'FEP only' sample. DISCUSSION: Basic self-disturbances at the phenomenological level and source monitoring deficits on the neurocognitive level may be useful in identifying risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders at the earliest clinical presentation.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
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