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1.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEOIBD) is characterized by intestinal inflammation affecting infants and children less than 6 years of age. To date, over 60 monogenic etiologies of VEOIBD have been identified, many characterized by highly penetrant recessive or dominant variants in underlying immune and/or epithelial pathways. We sought to identify the genetic cause of VEOIBD in a subset of patients with a unique clinical presentation. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on five families with ten patients who presented with a similar constellation of symptoms including medically refractory infantile-onset IBD, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, and, in the majority, recurrent infections. Genetic etiologies of VEOIBD were assessed and Sanger sequencing was performed to confirm novel genetic findings. Western analysis on PBMCs and functional studies with epithelial cell lines were employed. RESULTS: In each of the 10 patients, we identified damaging heterozygous or biallelic variants in Syntaxin-Binding Protein 3 gene (STXBP3), a protein known to regulate intracellular vesicular trafficking in the syntaxin-binding protein family of molecules, but not associated to date with either VEOIBD or sensorineural hearing loss. These mutations interfere with either intron splicing or protein stability and led to reduced STXBP3 protein expression. Knock-down of STXBP3 in CaCo2 cells resulted in defects in cell polarity. CONCLUSION: Overall, we describe a novel genetic syndrome and identify a critical role for STXBP3 in VEOIBD, sensorineural hearing loss and immune dysregulation.

2.
Science ; 371(6534): 1154-1159, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707263

RESUMO

Alterations of the mycobiota composition associated with Crohn's disease (CD) are challenging to link to defining elements of pathophysiology, such as poor injury repair. Using culture-dependent and -independent methods, we discovered that Debaryomyces hansenii preferentially localized to and was abundant within incompletely healed intestinal wounds of mice and inflamed mucosal tissues of CD human subjects. D. hansenii cultures from injured mice and inflamed CD tissues impaired colonic healing when introduced into injured conventionally raised or gnotobiotic mice. We reisolated D. hansenii from injured areas of these mice, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Mechanistically, D. hansenii impaired mucosal healing through the myeloid cell-specific type 1 interferon-CCL5 axis. Taken together, we have identified a fungus that inhabits inflamed CD tissue and can lead to dysregulated mucosal healing.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , /fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quimiocina CCL5/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Íleo/microbiologia , Íleo/patologia , Inflamação , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Advances in genomic technologies have led to increasing reports of monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here, we systematically review the literature to determine the clinical features, genetic profile, and previously used treatment strategies in monogenic IBD. METHODS: A systematic review of MEDLINE articles published between January 2000 and December 2020 was conducted. A total of 750 individual monogenic IBD cases were identified from 303 eligible articles. RESULTS: The most frequently reported monogenic IBD genes were IL10RA/B, XIAP, CYBB, LRBA, and TTC7A. In total, 63.4% of patients developed IBD before 6 years of age, 17.4% developed IBD between ages 10 and 17.9 years, and 10.9% developed IBD after age 18. There was a substantial difference between these age groups and the underlying monogenic disorders. Only 31.7% had any history of extraintestinal comorbidity (EIC) before IBD onset, but 76.0% developed at least 1 EIC during their clinical course. The most common EICs were atypical infection (44.7%), dermatologic abnormality (38.4%), and autoimmunity (21.9%). Bowel surgery, biologic therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were performed in 27.1%, 32.9%, and 23.1% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Monogenic IBD cases, although rare, have varied extraintestinal comorbidities and limited treatment options including surgery and transplant. Early identification and improved understanding of the characteristics of the genes and underlying disease processes in monogenic IBD is important for effective management.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e043584, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the extent of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and the factors associated with seroprevalence across a diverse cohort of healthcare workers. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of healthcare workers, including SARS-CoV-2 serology testing and participant questionnaires. SETTINGS: A multisite healthcare delivery system located in Los Angeles County. PARTICIPANTS: A diverse and unselected population of adults (n=6062) employed in a multisite healthcare delivery system located in Los Angeles County, including individuals with direct patient contact and others with non-patient-oriented work functions. MAIN OUTCOMES: Using Bayesian and multivariate analyses, we estimated seroprevalence and factors associated with seropositivity and antibody levels, including pre-existing demographic and clinical characteristics; potential COVID-19 illness-related exposures; and symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: We observed a seroprevalence rate of 4.1%, with anosmia as the most prominently associated self-reported symptom (OR 11.04, p<0.001) in addition to fever (OR 2.02, p=0.002) and myalgias (OR 1.65, p=0.035). After adjusting for potential confounders, seroprevalence was also associated with Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.98, p=0.001) and African-American race (OR 2.02, p=0.027) as well as contact with a COVID-19-diagnosed individual in the household (OR 5.73, p<0.001) or clinical work setting (OR 1.76, p=0.002). Importantly, African-American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with antibody positivity even after adjusting for personal COVID-19 diagnosis status, suggesting the contribution of unmeasured structural or societal factors. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The demographic factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among our healthcare workers underscore the importance of exposure sources beyond the workplace. The size and diversity of our study population, combined with robust survey and modelling techniques, provide a vibrant picture of the demographic factors, exposures and symptoms that can identify individuals with susceptibility as well as potential to mount an immune response to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , /imunologia
5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(5): 356-369, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555323

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut. Genetic association studies have identified the highly variable human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region as the strongest susceptibility locus for IBD and specifically DRB1*01:03 as a determining factor for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, for most of the association signal such as delineation could not be made because of tight structures of linkage disequilibrium within the HLA. The aim of this study was therefore to further characterize the HLA signal using a transethnic approach. We performed a comprehensive fine mapping of single HLA alleles in UC in a cohort of 9272 individuals with African American, East Asian, Puerto Rican, Indian and Iranian descent and 40 691 previously analyzed Caucasians, additionally analyzing whole HLA haplotypes. We computationally characterized the binding of associated HLA alleles to human self-peptides and analyzed the physicochemical properties of the HLA proteins and predicted self-peptidomes. Highlighting alleles of the HLA-DRB1*15 group and their correlated HLA-DQ-DR haplotypes, we not only identified consistent associations (regarding effects directions/magnitudes) across different ethnicities but also identified population-specific signals (regarding differences in allele frequencies). We observed that DRB1*01:03 is mostly present in individuals of Western European descent and hardly present in non-Caucasian individuals. We found peptides predicted to bind to risk HLA alleles to be rich in positively charged amino acids. We conclude that the HLA plays an important role for UC susceptibility across different ethnicities. This research further implicates specific features of peptides that are predicted to bind risk and protective HLA proteins.

6.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who were under mesalamine treatment develop adverse reactions called "mesalamine allergy," which includes high fever and worsening diarrhea. Currently, there is no method to predict mesalamine allergy. Pharmacogenomic approaches may help identify these patients. Here we analyzed the genetic background of mesalamine intolerance in the first genome-wide association study of Japanese patients with IBD. METHODS: Two independent pharmacogenetic IBD cohorts were analyzed: the MENDEL (n = 1523; as a discovery set) and the Tohoku (n = 788; as a replication set) cohorts. Genome-wide association studies were performed in each population, followed by a meta-analysis. In addition, we constructed a polygenic risk score model and combined genetic and clinical factors to model mesalamine intolerance. RESULTS: In the combined cohort, mesalamine-induced fever and/or diarrhea was significantly more frequent in ulcerative colitis vs Crohn's disease. The genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis identified one significant association between rs144384547 (upstream of RGS17) and mesalamine-induced fever and diarrhea (P = 7.21e-09; odds ratio = 11.2). The estimated heritability of mesalamine allergy was 25.4%, suggesting a significant correlation with the genetic background. Furthermore, a polygenic risk score model was built to predict mesalamine allergy (P = 2.95e-2). The combined genetic/clinical prediction model yielded a higher area under the curve than did the polygenic risk score or clinical model alone (area under the curve, 0.89; sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 90.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Mesalamine allergy was more common in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease. We identified a novel genetic association with and developed a combined clinical/genetic model for this adverse event.

7.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is unclear whether pre-pouch ileitis heralds an aggressive inflammatory pouch disease in patients with ileal-pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). We compared outcomes of patients with pouchitis and concomitant pre-pouch ileitis to those with pouchitis alone. METHODS: Patients undergoing IPAA surgery for inflammatory bowel disease who subsequently developed pouchitis with concomitant pre-pouch ileitis (pre-pouch ileitis group) were matched by year of IPAA surgery and pre-operative diagnosis (ulcerative colitis or inflammatory bowel disease-unclassified) with patients who developed pouchitis alone (pouchitis group). Primary outcomes were development of Crohn's disease (CD)-like complications (non-anastomotic strictures or perianal disease >6 months after ileostomy closure) and pouch failure. Secondary outcomes were need for surgical/endoscopic interventions and immunosuppressive therapy. Log-rank test was used to compare outcome-free survival and Cox regression was performed to identify predictors of outcomes. RESULTS: There were 66 patients in each group. CD-like complications and pouch failure developed in 36.4% and 7.6% patients in pre-pouch ileitis group and 10.6% and 1.5% in pouchitis group, respectively. CD-like complications-free survival (log-rank p=0.0002) and pouch failure-free survival (log-rank p=0.046) were significantly lower in the pre-pouch ileitis group. Pre-pouch ileitis group had a higher risk of requiring surgical/endoscopic interventions (log-rank p=0.0005) and immunosuppressive therapy (log-rank p<0.0001). Pre-pouch ileitis was independently associated with an increased risk of CD-like complications (HR 3.8; p=0.0007), need for surgical/endoscopic interventions (HR 4.1; p=0.002) and immunosuppressive therapy (HR 5.0; p=0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pouch ileitis is associated with a higher risk of complicated disease and pouch failure than pouchitis. It should be considered a feature of CD.

8.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The host receptor for SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly expressed in small bowel (SB). Our aim was to identify factors influencing intestinal ACE2 expression in Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and non-inflammatory bowel disease (non-IBD) controls. METHODS: Using bulk RNA-seq or microarray transcriptomics from tissue samples (4 SB and 2 colonic cohorts; CD=495; UC=387; non-IBD=94), we analyzed the relationship of ACE2 with demographics, disease activity and prognosis. We examined the outcome of anti-TNF and anti-IL12/IL-23 treatment on SB and colonic ACE2 expression in three clinical trials. Univariate and multivariate regression models were fitted. RESULTS: ACE2 levels were consistently reduced in SB CD and elevated in colonic UC, when compared to non-IBD controls. Elevated SB ACE2 was also associated with demographic features (age and elevated BMI) associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes. Within CD, SB ACE2 was reduced in patients subsequently developing complicated disease. Within UC, colonic ACE2 was elevated in active disease and in patients subsequently requiring anti-TNF rescue therapy. SB and colonic ACE2 expression in active CD and UC were restored by anti-cytokine therapy, most notably in responders. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced SB, but elevated colonic ACE2 levels in IBD are associated with inflammation and severe disease but normalized following anti-cytokine therapy suggesting compartmentalization of ACE2-related biology in SB and colonic inflammation. The restoration of ACE2 expression with anti-cytokine therapy may be important in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection and potentially explain reports of reduced morbidity from COVID-19 in IBD patients treated with anti-cytokines.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The largest cause of mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains thromboembolic disease (TED). Recent reports have demonstrated that both monogenic and polygenic factors contribute to TED and 10% of healthy subjects are genetically at high risk for TED. Our aim was to utilize whole-exome sequencing and genome-wide genotyping to determine the proportion of IBD patients genetically at risk for TED and investigate the effect of genetic risk of TED in IBD. METHODS: The TED polygenic risk score was calculated from genome-wide genotyping. Thrombophilia pathogenic variants were extracted from whole-exome sequencing. In total, 792 IBD patients had both whole-exome sequencing and genotyping data. We defined patients at genetically high risk for TED if they had a high TED polygenic risk score or carried at least 1 thrombophilia pathogenic variant. RESULTS: We identified 122 of 792 IBD patients (15.4%) as genetically high risk for TED. Among 715 of 792 subjects whose documented TED status were available, 63 of the 715 patients (8.8%) had TED events. Genetic TED risk was significantly associated with increased TED event (odds ratio, 2.5; P = .0036). In addition, we confirmed an additive effect of monogenic and polygenic risk on TED (P = .0048). Patients with high TED genetic risk more frequently had thrombosis at multiple sites (78% vs 42%, odds ratio, 3.96; P = .048). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk (both poly- and monogenic) was significantly associated with TED history. Our results suggest that genetic traits identify approximately 1 in 7 patients with IBD who will experience 2.5-fold or greater risk for TED.

11.
Cell ; 183(3): 666-683.e17, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991841

RESUMO

A mysterious feature of Crohn's disease (CD) is the extra-intestinal manifestation of "creeping fat" (CrF), defined as expansion of mesenteric adipose tissue around the inflamed and fibrotic intestine. In the current study, we explore whether microbial translocation in CD serves as a central cue for CrF development. We discovered a subset of mucosal-associated gut bacteria that consistently translocated and remained viable in CrF in CD ileal surgical resections, and identified Clostridium innocuum as a signature of this consortium with strain variation between mucosal and adipose isolates, suggesting preference for lipid-rich environments. Single-cell RNA sequencing characterized CrF as both pro-fibrotic and pro-adipogenic with a rich milieu of activated immune cells responding to microbial stimuli, which we confirm in gnotobiotic mice colonized with C. innocuum. Ex vivo validation of expression patterns suggests C. innocuum stimulates tissue remodeling via M2 macrophages, leading to an adipose tissue barrier that serves to prevent systemic dissemination of bacteria.

12.
Front Physiol ; 11: 503, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670075

RESUMO

Background: Cardiac Bridging Integrator 1 (cBIN1) is a membrane deformation protein that generates calcium microdomains at cardiomyocyte t-tubules, whose transcription is reduced in heart failure, and is released into blood. cBIN1 score (CS), an inverse index of plasma cBIN1, measures cellular myocardial remodeling. In patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), CS diagnoses ambulatory heart failure and prognosticates hospitalization. The performance of CS has not been tested in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods and Results: CS was determined from plasma of patients recruited in a prospective study. Two comparative cohorts consisted of 158 ambulatory HFrEF patients (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%, 57 ± 10 years, 80% men) and 115 age and sex matched volunteers with no known history of HF. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations were also analyzed for comparison. CS follows a normal distribution with a median of 0 in the controls, which increases to a median of 1.9 (p < 0.0001) in HFrEF patients. CS correlates with clinically assessed New York Heart Association Class (p = 0.007). During 1-year follow-up, a high CS (≥ 1.9) in patients predicts increased cardiovascular events (43% vs. 26%, p = 0.01, hazard ratio 1.9). Compared to a model with demographics, clinical risk factors, and NT-proBNP, adding CS to the model improved the overall continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI 0.64; 95% CI 0.18-1.10; p = 0.006). Although performance for diagnosis and prognosis was similar to CS, NT-proBNP did not prognosticate between patients whose NT-proBNP values were > 400 pg/ml. Conclusion: CS, which is mechanistically distinct from NT-proBNP, successfully differentiates myocardial health between patients with HFrEF and matched controls. A high CS reflects advanced NYHA stage, pathologic cardiac muscle remodeling, and predicts 1-year risk of cardiovascular events in ambulatory HFrEF patients. CS is a marker of myocardial remodeling in HFrEF patients, independent of volume status.

13.
medRxiv ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511625

RESUMO

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 ( ACE2 ) has been identified as the host receptor for SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which has infected millions world-wide and likely caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. Utilizing transcriptomic data from four cohorts taken from Crohn's disease (CD) and non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) subjects, we observed evidence of increased ACE2 mRNA in ileum with demographic features that have been associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19 including age and raised BMI. ACE2 was downregulated in CD compared to controls in independent cohorts. Within CD, ACE2 expression was reduced in inflamed ileal tissue and also remarkably, from uninvolved tissue in patients with a worse prognosis in both adult and pediatric cohorts. In active CD, small bowel ACE2 expression was restored by anti-TNF therapy particularly in anti-TNF responders. Collectively our data suggest that ACE2 downregulation is associated with inflammation and worse outcomes in CD.

14.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(8): 1177-1187, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To clarify the genetic background of ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Japanese population, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a population-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. METHODS: We performed a GWAS and replication study including 1676 UC patients and 2381 healthy controls. The probability of colectomy was compared between genotypes of rs117506082, the top hit SNP at HLA loci, by the Kaplan-Meier method. We studied serum expression of miR-622, a newly identified candidate gene, from 32 UC patients and 8 healthy controls by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In the GWAS, only the HLA loci showed genome-wide significant associations with UC (rs117506082, P = 6.69E-28). Seven nominally significant regions included 2 known loci, IL23R (rs76418789, P = 6.29E-7) and IRF8 (rs16940202, P = 1.03E-6), and 5 novel loci: MIR622 (rs9560575, P = 8.23E-7), 14q31 (rs117618617, P = 1.53E-6), KAT6B (rs12260609, P = 1.81E-6), PAX3-CCDC140-SGPP2 (rs7589797, P = 2.87E-6), and KCNA2 (rs118020656, P = 4.01E-6). Combined analysis revealed that IL23R p.G149R (rs76418789, P = 9.03E-11; odds ratio [OR], 0.51) had genome-wide significant association with UC. Patients with GG genotype of rs117506082 had a significantly lower probability of total colectomy than those with the GA+AA genotype (P = 1.72E-2). Serum expression of miR-622 in patients with inactive UC tended to be higher than in healthy controls and patients with active UC (inactive UC vs healthy controls, P = 3.03E-02; inactive UC vs active UC, P = 6.44E-02). CONCLUSIONS: IL23R p.G149R is a susceptibility locus for UC in Japanese individuals. The GG genotype of rs117506082 at HLA loci may predict a better clinical course.

15.
Gastroenterology ; 158(8): 2208-2220, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A proportion of infants and young children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have subtypes associated with a single gene variant (monogenic IBD). We aimed to determine the prevalence of monogenic disease in a cohort of pediatric patients with IBD. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing analyses of blood samples from an unselected cohort of 1005 children with IBD, aged 0-18 years (median age at diagnosis, 11.96 years) at a single center in Canada and their family members (2305 samples total). Variants believed to cause IBD were validated using Sanger sequencing. Biopsies from patients were analyzed by immunofluorescence and histochemical analyses. RESULTS: We identified 40 rare variants associated with 21 monogenic genes among 31 of the 1005 children with IBD (including 5 variants in XIAP, 3 in DOCK8, and 2 each in FOXP3, GUCY2C, and LRBA). These variants occurred in 7.8% of children younger than 6 years and 2.3% of children aged 6-18 years. Of the 17 patients with monogenic Crohn's disease, 35% had abdominal pain, 24% had nonbloody loose stool, 18% had vomiting, 18% had weight loss, and 5% had intermittent bloody loose stool. The 14 patients with monogenic ulcerative colitis or IBD-unclassified received their diagnosis at a younger age, and their most predominant feature was bloody loose stool (78%). Features associated with monogenic IBD, compared to cases of IBD not associated with a single variant, were age of onset younger than 2 years (odds ratio [OR], 6.30; P = .020), family history of autoimmune disease (OR, 5.12; P = .002), extra-intestinal manifestations (OR, 15.36; P < .0001), and surgery (OR, 3.42; P = .042). Seventeen patients had variants in genes that could be corrected with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: In whole-exome sequencing analyses of more than 1000 children with IBD at a single center, we found that 3% had rare variants in genes previously associated with pediatric IBD. These were associated with different IBD phenotypes, and 1% of the patients had variants that could be potentially corrected with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Monogenic IBD is rare, but should be considered in analysis of all patients with pediatric onset of IBD.

16.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(6): 820-842, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833544

RESUMO

Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) is defined as IBD presenting before 6 years of age. When compared with IBD diagnosed in older children, VEO-IBD has some distinct characteristics such as a higher likelihood of an underlying monogenic etiology or primary immune deficiency. In addition, patients with VEO-IBD have a higher incidence of inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBD-U) as compared with older-onset IBD. In some populations, VEO-IBD represents the age group with the fastest growing incidence of IBD. There are contradicting reports on whether VEO-IBD is more resistant to conventional medical interventions. There is a strong need for ongoing research in the field of VEO-IBD to provide optimized management of these complex patients. Here, we provide an approach to diagnosis and management of patients with VEO-IBD. These recommendations are based on expert opinion from members of the VEO-IBD Consortium (www.VEOIBD.org). We highlight the importance of monogenic etiologies, underlying immune deficiencies, and provide a comprehensive description of monogenic etiologies identified to date that are responsible for VEO-IBD.

17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 6: 170, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380382

RESUMO

Background: Current Crohn's disease (CD) therapies focus on suppressing immune function and come with consequent risk, such as infection and cancer. Notwithstanding, most CD patients still experience disease progression. There is a need for new CD treatment strategies that offer better health outcomes for patients. Aims: To assess safety, efficacy, and tolerability of a novel microbial-derived immunotherapy, QBECO, that aims to restore rather than suppress immune function in CD. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 68 patients with moderate-to-severe CD. Primary endpoints: safety and Week 8 clinical improvement. Secondary endpoints: Week 8 clinical response and remission. Week 8 responders continued blinded treatment through Week 16; non-responders received open-label QBECO from Weeks 9-16. Exploratory analyses included immune biomarker and genotype assessments. Results: QBECO was well-tolerated. Mean reduction in Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score was -68 for QBECO vs. -31 for placebo at Week 8. Improvement with QBECO continued through Week 16 (-130 CDAI reduction). Week 8 QBECO clinical response, improvement and remission rates were 41.2%, 32.4%, 29.4% vs. 26.5%, 23.5%, 23.5% for placebo. TNFα inhibitor-naïve subjects achieved higher response rates at Week 8 with QBECO (64%) vs. placebo (26%). Specific immune biomarkers were identified that linked to QBECO response. Conclusion: This proof-of-concept study supports further investigation for the use of QBECO as a novel immunotherapy approach for CD. Biomarker analyses suggests it may be feasible to personalize CD treatment with QBECO. Larger trials are now needed to confirm clinical improvement and the unique biological findings. Clinical Trial Number: NCT01809275 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01809275).

18.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(12): 2118-2125, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents, such as infliximab (IFX), have been increasingly used to induce and maintain disease remission in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Despite a considerable non-response rate, little is known about the genetic predictors of response to anti-TNF therapy in CD. Our aim in this study was to investigate the genetic factors associated with response to anti-TNF therapy in patients with CD. METHODS: We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify loci influencing the response to IFX among Korean patients with CD, comprising 42 good responders with mucosal healing and 70 non-responders. The achievement of mucosal healing was assessed by endoscopy and imaging. The functional significance of TRAP1 (TNF receptor associated protein 1) was examined using dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in TRAP1 transgenic mice. RESULTS: The GWAS identified rs2158962, an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of TRAP1, significantly associated with mucosal healing (odds ratio = 4.94; Pcombined  = 1.35 × 10-7 ). In the dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis, TRAP1 transgenic mice showed a better response to IFX than the wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: The TRAP1 gene is associated with mucosal healing in CD patients following IFX therapy. Identifying the genetic predictors of mucosal healing to anti-TNF therapy can prevent patients from exposure to ineffective therapies.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/fisiologia , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Doença de Crohn/genética , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Sistema de Registros , Cicatrização/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nature ; 569(7758): 655-662, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142855

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases, which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, affect several million individuals worldwide. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are complex diseases that are heterogeneous at the clinical, immunological, molecular, genetic, and microbial levels. Individual contributing factors have been the focus of extensive research. As part of the Integrative Human Microbiome Project (HMP2 or iHMP), we followed 132 subjects for one year each to generate integrated longitudinal molecular profiles of host and microbial activity during disease (up to 24 time points each; in total 2,965 stool, biopsy, and blood specimens). Here we present the results, which provide a comprehensive view of functional dysbiosis in the gut microbiome during inflammatory bowel disease activity. We demonstrate a characteristic increase in facultative anaerobes at the expense of obligate anaerobes, as well as molecular disruptions in microbial transcription (for example, among clostridia), metabolite pools (acylcarnitines, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids), and levels of antibodies in host serum. Periods of disease activity were also marked by increases in temporal variability, with characteristic taxonomic, functional, and biochemical shifts. Finally, integrative analysis identified microbial, biochemical, and host factors central to this dysregulation. The study's infrastructure resources, results, and data, which are available through the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Multi'omics Database ( http://ibdmdb.org ), provide the most comprehensive description to date of host and microbial activities in inflammatory bowel diseases.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Animais , Fungos/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Saúde , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/virologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcriptoma , Vírus/patogenicidade
20.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 25(Suppl 2): S31-S39, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095701

RESUMO

Precision medicine is part of five focus areas of the Challenges in IBD research document, which also includes preclinical human IBD mechanisms, environmental triggers, novel technologies, and pragmatic clinical research. The Challenges in IBD Research document provides a comprehensive overview of current gaps in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) research and delivers actionable approaches to address them. It is the result of a multidisciplinary input from scientists, clinicians, patients, and funders, and represents a valuable resource for patient centric research prioritization. In particular, the precision medicine section is focused on highlighting the main gap areas that must be addressed to get closer to treatments tailored to the biological and clinical characteristics of each patient, which is the aim of precision medicine. The main gaps were identified in: 1) understanding and predicting the natural history of IBD: disease susceptibility, activity, and behavior; 2) predicting disease course and treatment response; and 3) optimizing current and developing new molecular technologies. Suggested approaches to bridge these gaps include prospective longitudinal cohort studies to identify and validate precision biomarkers for prognostication of disease course, and prediction and monitoring of treatment response. To achieve this, harmonization across studies is key as well as development of standardized methods and infrastructure. The implementation of state-of-the-art molecular technologies, systems biology and machine learning approaches for multi-omics and clinical data integration and analysis will be also fundamental. Finally, randomized biomarker-stratified trials will be critical to evaluate the clinical utility of validated signatures and biomarkers in improving patient outcomes and cost-effective care.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética
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