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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dermatomyositis (DM) has been associated with geospatial differences in ultraviolet (UV) radiation, but the role of individual determinants of UV exposure prior to diagnosis is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed questionnaire data from 1350 adults in a U.S. national myositis registry (638 with DM, 422 polymyositis [PM], and 290 inclusion body myositis [IBM] diagnosed at ages 18-65 years), examining the likelihood of DM compared with PM and IBM diagnosis, in relation to self-reported sunburn history and job- and hobby-related sun exposures in the year prior to diagnosis. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression adjusted for age, skin tone, and sex, to determine the association of individual UV exposures with DM diagnosis. We also evaluated the proportion of DM by maximum daily ambient UV exposure, based on UV-B erythemal irradiances for participant residence the year prior to diagnosis. RESULTS: DM was associated with sunburn in the year before diagnosis (two or more sunburns, OR=1.77; 95%CI 1.28, 2.43 vs. PM/IBM; one sunburn OR=1.44; 95%CI 1.06, 1.95) and with having elevated job- or hobby-related sun exposure (high OR=1.64; 95%CI 1.08, 2.49 or moderate exposure OR=1.35; 95%CI 1.02, 1.78 vs. low or no exposure). Ambient UV intensity was associated with DM in females (beta=3.97, P=0.046), but not overall. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high or moderate personal exposure to intense sunlight is associated with developing DM compared with other types of myositis. Prospective research on UV exposure as a modifiable risk factor for DM is warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493396

RESUMO

Dermatofibromas are common benign skin lesions, the etiology of which is poorly understood. We identified two unrelated pedigrees in which there was autosomal dominant transmission of multiple dermatofibromas. Whole exome sequencing revealed a rare shared heterozygous missense variant in F13A1 gene encoding factor XIII subunit A, a transglutaminase involved in hemostasis, wound healing, tumor growth, and apoptosis. The variant (p.Lys679Met) has an allele frequency of 0.0002 and is predicted to be a damaging mutation. Recombinant human Lys679Met FXIII-A demonstrated reduced fibrin crosslinking activity in vitro. Of note, treatment of fibroblasts with media containing Lys679Met FXIII-A led to enhanced adhesion, proliferation and type I collagen synthesis. Immunostaining revealed co-localization between FXIII-A and α4ß1 integrins, more prominently for Lys679Met FXIII-A than wild-type. In addition, both the α4ß1 inhibitors and the mutation of the FXIII-A Isoleucine-Leucine-Aspartate-Threonine (ILDT) motif prevented Lys679Met FXIII-A-dependent proliferation and collagen synthesis of fibroblasts. Our data suggest that the Lys679Met mutation may leads to a conformational change in the FXIII-A protein that enhances α4-integrin binding and provide insight into an unexpected role for FXIII-A in the pathobiology of familial dermatofibroma.

3.
Hum Gene Ther ; 30(9): 1067-1078, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288584

RESUMO

Netherton syndrome (NS) is a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder caused by mutations in SPINK5. It is a debilitating condition with notable mortality in the early years of life. There is no curative treatment. We undertook a nonrandomized, open-label, feasibility, and safety study using autologous keratinocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding SPINK5 under the control of the human involucrin promoter. Six NS subjects were recruited, and gene-modified epithelial sheets were successfully generated in three of five subjects. The sheets exhibited expression of correctly sized lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) protein after modification. One subject was grafted with a 20 cm2 gene-modified graft on the left anterior thigh without any adverse complications and was monitored by serial sampling for 12 months. Recovery within the graft area was compared against an area outside by morphology, proviral copy number and expression of the SPINK5 encoded protein, LEKTI, and its downstream target kallikrein 5, which exhibited transient functional correction. The study confirmed the feasibility of generating lentiviral gene-modified epidermal sheets for inherited skin diseases such as NS, but sustained LEKTI expression is likely to require the identification, targeting, and engraftment of long-lived keratinocyte stem cell populations for durable therapeutic effects. Important learning points for the application of gene-modified epidermal sheets are discussed.

4.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326396

RESUMO

Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a debilitating genodermatosis caused by loss-of-function mutations in COL7A1 encoding type VII collagen (C7), the main component of anchoring fibrils at the dermal-epidermal junction. With no curative treatments presently available, retrovirally transduced autologous epidermal grafts and intradermal lentivirally engineered fibroblast injections are being investigated. Alternative approaches aim to infuse allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to provide a more generalized treatment for RDEB. We investigated whether healthy human MSCs could be engineered to overexpress C7 and correct RDEB in a human:murine chimeric model. Initially, engineered MSCs incorporated ex vivo into RDEB grafts, their presence confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, revealed recovery of function of the dermal-epidermal junction with no signs of blister formation. Importantly, the detection of anchoring fibrils by transmission electron microscopy corroborated structural recovery. Next, MSCs cotransduced to express C7 and luciferase were delivered intradermally into grafted RDEB skin, resulting in localized MSC persistence with deposition of de novo C7 at the site. Notably, C7 expression was sufficient to restore anchoring fibril density to normal levels. In contrast, intravenously injected engineered MSCs were undetectable within grafts and lacked anchoring fibril reconstitution. Our data suggest that although localized correction may be achievable using engineered MSCs, strategies for systemic administration require further modeling.

5.
Matrix Biol ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302245

RESUMO

Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease due to monoallelic gain-of-function mutations in KRT5 or KRT14. Although autosomal recessive forms of EBS have been associated with mutations in at least 10 genes, recessive EBS due to homozygous biallelic KRT5 mutations has not been reported previously; it has been hypothesized that it would result in prenatal lethality. We sought the genetic causes of EB in a cohort of 512 distinct EB families by performing whole exome sequencing (WES) and using an EB-targeting next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel of 21 genes. The pathogenicity and consequences of the mutations were determined by expression profiling and at tissue and ultrastructural levels. Two pathogenic, homozygous missense variants of KRT5 in two patients with generalized EBS and a homozygous null mutation in a patient who died as a neonate from complications of EB were found. The two missense mutations disrupted keratin 5 expression on immunofluorescence microscopy, and the human "knock-out" of KRT5 showed no RNA and protein expression. Collectively, these findings identify biallelic KRT5 mutations with a phenotypic spectrum varying from mild, localized and generalized to perinatal lethal, expanding the genotypic profile of autosomal recessive EBS.

7.
JCI Insight ; 4(11)2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167965

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDRecessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe form of skin fragility disorder due to mutations in COL7A1 encoding basement membrane type VII collagen (C7), the main constituent of anchoring fibrils (AFs) in skin. We developed a self-inactivating lentiviral platform encoding a codon-optimized COL7A1 cDNA under the control of a human phosphoglycerate kinase promoter for phase I evaluation.METHODSIn this single-center, open-label phase I trial, 4 adults with RDEB each received 3 intradermal injections (~1 × 106 cells/cm2 of intact skin) of COL7A1-modified autologous fibroblasts and were followed up for 12 months. The primary outcome was safety, including autoimmune reactions against recombinant C7. Secondary outcomes included C7 expression, AF morphology, and presence of transgene in the injected skin.RESULTSGene-modified fibroblasts were well tolerated, without serious adverse reactions or autoimmune reactions against recombinant C7. Regarding efficacy, there was a significant (P < 0.05) 1.26-fold to 26.10-fold increase in C7 mean fluorescence intensity in the injected skin compared with noninjected skin in 3 of 4 subjects, with a sustained increase up to 12 months in 2 of 4 subjects. The presence of transgene (codon-optimized COL7A1 cDNA) was demonstrated in the injected skin at month 12 in 1 subject, but no new mature AFs were detected.CONCLUSIONTo our knowledge, this is the first human study demonstrating safety and potential efficacy of lentiviral fibroblast gene therapy with the presence of COL7A1 transgene and subsequent C7 restoration in vivo in treated skin at 1 year after gene therapy. These data provide a rationale for phase II studies for further clinical evaluation.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClincalTrials.gov NCT02493816.FUNDINGCure EB, Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Research Association (UK), UK NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, and Fondation René Touraine Short-Exchange Award.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(2): 470-481, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, complex, and highly heritable inflammatory skin disease. Genome-wide association studies offer opportunities to identify molecular targets for drug development. A risk locus on chromosome 11q13.5 lies between 2 candidate genes, EMSY and LRRC32 (leucine-rich repeat-containing 32) but the functional mechanisms affecting risk of AD remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We sought to apply a combination of genomic and molecular analytic techniques to investigate which genes are responsible for genetic risk at this locus and to define mechanisms contributing to atopic skin disease. METHODS: We used interrogation of available genomic and chromosome conformation data in keratinocytes, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown in skin organotypic culture and functional assessment of barrier parameters, mass spectrometric global proteomic analysis and quantitative lipid analysis, electron microscopy of organotypic skin, and immunohistochemistry of human skin samples. RESULTS: Genomic data indicate active promoters in the genome-wide association study locus and upstream of EMSY; EMSY, LRRC32, and intergenic variants all appear to be within a single topologically associating domain. siRNA-knockdown of EMSY in organotypic culture leads to enhanced development of barrier function, reflecting increased expression of structural and functional proteins, including filaggrin and filaggrin-2, as well as long-chain ceramides. Conversely, overexpression of EMSY in keratinocytes leads to a reduction in markers of barrier formation. Skin biopsy samples from patients with AD show greater EMSY staining in the nucleus, which is consistent with an increased functional effect of this transcriptional control protein. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate an important role for EMSY in transcriptional regulation and skin barrier formation, supporting EMSY inhibition as a therapeutic approach.

9.
Environ Res ; 175: 100-107, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chemicals benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are neuroactive. Exposures often co-occur because they share common sources. We examined neurologic effects of environmental BTEX exposure among U.S. Gulf coast residents taking into account concomitant exposures. METHODS: We measured blood concentrations of BTEX in 690 Gulf state residents. Neurologic symptoms were ascertained via telephone interview. We used log-binomial regression to estimate associations between blood BTEX levels and self-reported neurologic symptoms independently for the presence of any neurologic, central (CNS), or peripheral nervous system (PNS) symptoms. We estimated associations in single chemical models mutually adjusted for co-occurring BTEX and used weighted quantile sum regression to model associations between the combined BTEX mixture and neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: Half (49%) of participants reported at least one neurologic symptom. Each BTEX chemical was associated with increased CNS and PNS symptoms in single-chemical models comparing the highest to lowest quartile of exposure. After adjusting for coexposures, benzene was associated with CNS symptoms among all participants (PR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.57) and among nonsmokers (PR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.35, 3.91). After adjusting for coexposures, associations with toluene were apparent only for reporting multiple PNS symptoms (PR = 2.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 4.16). In mixture analyses, a one-quartile increase in BTEX exposure was associated with neurologic symptoms (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.98). The weighted quantile sum index weighted benzene most heavily, which was consistent with single chemical analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing blood benzene concentration was associated with increased prevalence of CNS symptoms. In this sample, BTEX-associated neurologic effects are likely driven by exposure to benzene and, to a lesser extent, toluene.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(11): 3384-3391, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846478

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is the leading cause of death in patients with the severe generalized form of the genetic disease recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). Although emerging data are identifying why patients suffer this fatal complication, therapies for treatment of RDEB SCC are in urgent need.Experimental Design: We previously identified polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as a therapeutic target in skin SCC, including RDEB SCC. Here, we undertake a screen of 6 compounds originally designated as PLK1 inhibitors, and detail the efficacy of the lead compound, the multipathway allosteric inhibitor ON-01910, for targeting RDEB SCC in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: ON-01910 (or rigosertib) exhibited significant specificity for RDEB SCC: in culture rigosertib induced apoptosis in 10 of 10 RDEB SCC keratinocyte populations while only slowing the growth of normal primary skin cells at doses 2 orders of magnitude higher. Furthermore, rigosertib significantly inhibited the growth of two RDEB SCC in murine xenograft studies with no apparent toxicity. Mechanistically, rigosertib has been shown to inhibit multiple signaling pathways. Comparison of PLK1 siRNA with MEK inhibition, AKT inhibition, and the microtubule-disrupting agent vinblastine in RDEB SCC shows that only PLK1 reduction exhibits a similar sensitivity profile to rigosertib. CONCLUSIONS: These data support a "first in RDEB" phase II clinical trial of rigosertib to assess tumor targeting in patients with late stage, metastatic, and/or unresectable SCC.

13.
J Trauma Stress ; 32(2): 196-205, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913348

RESUMO

A large body of research has linked disaster exposure to adverse mental and physical health outcomes. Few studies, however, have explored the cumulative impact of exposure to multiple disasters. Participants (N = 8,366) from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study were classified as having been exposed to both, either, or neither Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DHOS). Participants also reported on a range of mental and physical health symptoms. Logistic regression models found that participants who were exposed to both disasters had significantly higher odds of probable generalized anxiety disorder, odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, 95% CI [1.52, 1.96]; major depression, OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.32, 1.77]; and posttraumatic stress disorder, OR = 2.51, 95% CI [2.03, 3.10], than participants who were exposed to only one disaster, ps < .001. Additionally, a linear regression model found that participants who were exposed to both disasters had significantly more physical health symptoms at the time of the spill than those who were exposed to only one disaster, B = 0.99, SE = .20, p < .001. The results indicate that cumulative disaster exposure confers enhanced risk for adverse mental and physical health outcomes. The findings demonstrate that screening for prior exposure among disaster-affected individuals might identify those at greatest risk for adverse health outcomes.

14.
Nat Immunol ; 20(3): 350-361, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718914

RESUMO

Despite the known importance of zinc for human immunity, molecular insights into its roles have remained limited. Here we report a novel autosomal recessive disease characterized by absent B cells, agammaglobulinemia and early onset infections in five unrelated families. The immunodeficiency results from hypomorphic mutations of SLC39A7, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter ZIP7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis we have precisely modeled ZIP7 deficiency in mice. Homozygosity for a null allele caused embryonic death, but hypomorphic alleles reproduced the block in B cell development seen in patients. B cells from mutant mice exhibited a diminished concentration of cytoplasmic free zinc, increased phosphatase activity and decreased phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of the pre-B cell and B cell receptors. Our findings highlight a specific role for cytosolic Zn2+ in modulating B cell receptor signal strength and positive selection.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Pré-Escolar , Citosol/imunologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Linhagem , Zinco/metabolismo
15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 2184-2194, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649404

RESUMO

CONTEXT: During puberty, LH pulse frequency increases during sleep; in women, LH pulse frequency slows during sleep in the early/middle follicular phase (FP) of the menstrual cycle. The origin and significance of this developmental transition are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between progesterone (P4) exposure, sleep-related slowing of LH pulses in the FP, and the intercycle FSH rise, which promotes folliculogenesis, in early postmenarchal girls. METHODS: 23 girls (gynecologic age 0.4 to 3.5 years) underwent hormone measurements and pelvic ultrasounds during two consecutive cycles and one frequent blood sampling study with concurrent polysomnography during the FP. RESULTS: Subjects demonstrated one of four patterns during cycle 1 that represent a continuum of P4 exposure: ovulatory cycles with normal or short luteal phase lengths or anovulatory cycles ± follicle luteinization. Peak serum P4 and urine pregnanediol (Pd) in cycle 1 were inversely correlated with LH pulse frequency during sleep in the FP of cycle 2 (r = -0.5; P = 0.02 for both). The intercycle FSH rise and folliculogenesis in cycle 2 were maintained after anovulatory cycles without P4 or Pd exposure or nocturnal slowing of LH pulse frequency in the FP. CONCLUSIONS: During late puberty, rising P4 levels from follicle luteinization and ovulation may promote a slower LH pulse frequency during sleep in the FP. However, a normal FSH rise and follicle growth can occur in the absence of P4-associated slowing. These studies therefore suggest that an immature LH secretory pattern during sleep is unlikely to contribute to menstrual irregularity in the early postmenarchal years.

16.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 80(6): e179, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682393
17.
J Invest Dermatol ; 139(7): 1497-1505.e5, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684555

RESUMO

Mutations in the gene encoding collagen VII cause the devastating blistering disease recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). RDEB is characterized by severe skin fragility and nonhealing wounds aggravated by scarring and fibrosis. We previously showed that TSP1 is increased in RDEB fibroblasts. Because transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling is also increased in RDEB, and TSP1 is known to activate TGF-ß, we investigated the role of TSP1 in TGF-ß signaling in RDEB patient cells. Knockdown of TSP1 reduced phosphorylation of smad3 (a downstream target of TGF-ß signaling) in RDEB primary fibroblasts, whereas overexpression of collagen VII reduced phosphorylation of smad3. Furthermore, inhibition of TSP1 binding to the LAP/TGF-ß complex decreased fibrosis in engineered extracellular matrix formed by RDEB fibroblasts, as evaluated by picrosirius red staining and analyses of birefringent collagen fibrillar deposits. We show that collagen VII binds TSP1, which could potentially limit TSP1-LAP association and subsequent TGF-ß activation. Our study suggests a previously unreported mechanism for increased TGF-ß signaling in the absence of collagen VII in RDEB patient skin. Moreover, these data identify TSP1 as a possible target for reducing fibrosis in the tumor-promoting dermal microenvironment of RDEB patients.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5075, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542056

RESUMO

Acne vulgaris is a highly heritable common, chronic inflammatory disease of the skin for which five genetic risk loci have so far been identified. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study of 3823 cases and 16,144 controls followed by meta-analysis with summary statistics from a previous study, with a total sample size of 26,722. We identify 20 independent association signals at 15 risk loci, 12 of which have not been previously implicated in the disease. Likely causal variants disrupt the coding region of WNT10A and a P63 transcription factor binding site in SEMA4B. Risk alleles at the 1q25 locus are associated with increased expression of LAMC2, in which biallelic loss-of-function mutations cause the blistering skin disease epidermolysis bullosa. These findings indicate that variation affecting the structure and maintenance of the skin, in particular the pilosebaceous unit, is a critical aspect of the genetic predisposition to severe acne.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/genética , Acne Vulgar/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patologia , Humanos , Laminina/biossíntese , Laminina/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Propionibacterium acnes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Semaforinas/genética , Pele/patologia , Proteínas Wnt/genética
20.
Matrix Biol ; 2018 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463024

RESUMO

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB), the paradigm of heritable skin fragility disorders, is associated with mutations in as many as 20 distinct genes. One of the clinical variants, recessive dystrophic EB (RDEB), demonstrates sub-lamina densa blistering accompanied by alterations in anchoring fibrils due to mutations in COL7A1. In this study, we characterized a patient with widespread connective tissue abnormalities including skin blistering similar to that in RDEB. Whole exome sequencing, combined with genome-wide homozygosity mapping, identified a homozygous missense mutation in PLOD3 encoding lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3). No mutations in COL7A1, the gene previously associated with RDEB, were detected. The level of LH3 was dramatically reduced in the skin and fibroblast cultures from the patient. The blistering in the skin occurred below the lamina densa and was associated with variable density and morphology of anchoring fibrils. The level of type VII collagen expression in the skin was markedly reduced. Analysis of hydroxylysine and its glycosylated derivatives (galactosyl-hydroxylysine and glucosyl-galactosyl-hydroxylysine) revealed marked reduction in glycosylated hydroxylysine. Collectively, these findings indicate that PLOD3 mutations can result in a dystrophic EB-like phenotype in the spectrum of connective tissue disorders and add it to the list of candidate genes associated with skin fragility.

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