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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444646

RESUMO

A poor understanding of malnutrition burden is a common reason for not prioritizing the care of small and nutritionally at-risk infants aged under-six months (infants u6m). We aimed to estimate the anthropometric deficit prevalence in infants u6m attending health centres, using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF), and to assess the overlap of different individual indicators. We undertook a two-week survey of all infants u6m visiting 18 health centres in two zones of the Oromia region, Ethiopia. We measured weight, length, and MUAC (mid-upper arm circumference) and calculated weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). Overall, 21.7% (95% CI: 19.2; 24.3) of infants u6m presented CIAF, and of these, 10.7% (95% CI: 8.93; 12.7) had multiple anthropometric deficits. Low MUAC overlapped with 47.5% (95% CI: 38.0; 57.3), 43.8% (95% CI: 34.9; 53.1), and 42.6% (95% CI: 36.3; 49.2) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Underweight overlapped with 63.4% (95% CI: 53.6; 72.2), 52.7% (95% CI: 43.4; 61.7), and 59.6% (95% CI: 53.1; 65.9) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Anthropometric deficits, single and multiple, are prevalent in infants attending health centres. WAZ overlaps more with other forms of anthropometric deficits than MUAC.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Magreza
2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256188, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small and nutritionally at-risk infants under 6 months (<6m) are a vulnerable group at increased risk of mortality, morbidity, poor growth and sub-optimal development. Current national and international (World Health Organization) management guidelines focus mainly on infants' needs, yet growing evidence suggests that maternal factors also influence infant outcomes. We aimed to inform future guidelines by exploring the impacts of maternal-focused interventions on infant feeding and growth. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of reviews published since 2008 (PROSPERO, register number CRD 42019141724). We explored five databases and a wide variety of maternal-focused interventions based in low- and middle-income countries. Infant outcomes of interest included anthropometric status, birthweight, infant mortality, breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Given heterogenous interventions, we present a narrative synthesis of the extracted data. RESULTS: We included a total of 55 systematic reviews. Numerous maternal interventions were effective in improving infant growth or feeding outcomes. These included breastfeeding promotion, education, support and counselling interventions. Maternal mental health, while under-researched, showed potential to positively impact infant growth. There was also some evidence for a positive impact of: women's empowerment, m-health technologies, conditional cash transfers, water, sanitation and hygiene and agricultural interventions. Effectiveness was increased when implemented as part of a multi-sectoral program. Antenatal supplementation with macronutrient, multiple micronutrients, Vitamin D, zinc, iron folic acid and possibly calcium, iodine and B12 in deficient women, improved birth outcomes. In contrast, evidence for postnatal supplementation was limited as was evidence directly focusing on small and nutritionally at-risk infants; most reviews focused on the prevention of growth faltering. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest sufficient evidence to justify greater inclusion of mothers in more holistic packages of care for small and nutritionally at-risk infants aged <6m. Context specific approaches are likely needed to support mother-infant dyads and ensure infants survive and thrive.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672692

RESUMO

Small and nutritionally at-risk infants under six months, defined as those with wasting, underweight, or other forms of growth failure, are at high-risk of mortality and morbidity. The World Health Organisation 2013 guidelines on severe acute malnutrition highlight the need to effectively manage this vulnerable group, but programmatic challenges are widely reported. This review aims to inform future management strategies for small and nutritionally at-risk infants under six months in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) by synthesising evidence on existing breastfeeding support packages for all infants under six months. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Global Health databases from inception to 18 July 2018. Intervention of interest were breastfeeding support packages. Studies reporting breastfeeding practices and/or caregivers'/healthcare staffs' knowledge/skills/practices for infants under six months from LMICs were included. Study quality was assessed using NICE quality appraisal checklist for intervention studies. A narrative data synthesis using the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) reporting guideline was conducted and key features of successful programmes identified. Of 15,256 studies initially identified, 41 were eligible for inclusion. They were geographically diverse, representing 22 LMICs. Interventions were mainly targeted at mother-infant pairs and only 7% (n = 3) studies included at-risk infants. Studies were rated to be of good or adequate quality. Twenty studies focused on hospital-based interventions, another 20 on community-based and one study compared both. Among all interventions, breastfeeding counselling (n = 6) and education (n = 6) support packages showed the most positive effect on breastfeeding practices followed by breastfeeding training (n = 4), promotion (n = 4) and peer support (n = 3). Breastfeeding education support (n = 3) also improved caregivers' knowledge/skills/practices. Identified breastfeeding support packages can serve as "primary prevention" interventions for all infants under six months in LMICs. For at-risk infants, these packages need to be adapted and formally tested in future studies. Future work should also examine impacts of breastfeeding support on anthropometry and morbidity outcomes. The review protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018102795).


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Aconselhamento/métodos , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Mães/educação , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Apoio Social
4.
Matern Child Nutr ; 17(2): e13107, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145990

RESUMO

Systematic reviews have highlighted that repeated severe wasting after receiving treatment is likely to be common, but standardised measurement is needed urgently. The Council of Research & Technical Advice for Acute Malnutrition (CORTASAM) released recommendations on standard measurement of relapse (wasting within 6 months after exiting treatment as per recommended discharge criteria), regression (wasting within 6 months after exiting treatment before reaching recommended discharge criteria) and reoccurrence (wasting after 6 months of exit from treatment as per recommended discharge criteria). We provide a theoretical framework of post-treatment relapse and regression to severe wasting to guide discussions, risk factor analyses, and development and evaluations of interventions. This framework highlights that there are factors that may impact risk of relapse and regression in addition to the impact of contextual factors associated with incidence and reoccurrence of severe wasting more generally. Factors hypothesised to be associated with relapse and regression relate specifically to the nutrition and health status of the child on admission to, during and exit from treatment and treatment interventions, platforms and approaches as well as type of exit from treatment (e.g., before reaching recommended criteria). These factors influence whether children reach full recovery, and poorer nutritional and immunological status at exit from treatment are more proximate determinants of risk of severe wasting after treatment, although post-treatment interventions may modify risks. The evidence base for many of these factors is weak. Our framework can guide research to improve our understanding of risks of relapse and regression and how to prevent them and inform programmes on what data to collect to evaluate relapse. Implementation research is needed to operationalise results in programmes and reduce post-treatment severe wasting at scale.

5.
Phys Ther ; 101(2)2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) is an important non-pharmacological treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study investigated the determinants of PA engagement and awareness of the World Health Organization (WHO) PA guidelines in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: Study participants were 101 patients with NAFLD (median age: 54 [IQR = 15] y; 53 men and 48 women) who completed 4 questionnaires: (1) a PA guideline awareness questionnaire; (2) a PA questionnaire assessing PA levels; and (3) 2 questionnaires assessing perceived barriers and motivators for engaging in PA. Binary logistic regression was performed to assess predictors of PA levels. RESULTS: Twenty-four percent of participants correctly identified the recommended WHO weekly PA guidelines, and 39% adhered to the guidelines. Lack of willpower, time, and energy were the most frequently cited barrier domains. Scores for lack of willpower (odds ratio [OR] = 1.445, 95% CI = 1.088-1.919) and lack of resources (OR = 1.378, 95% CI = 1.003-1.893), and reporting 3 or more "significant" barrier domains (OR = 5.348, 95% CI = 1.792-15.873) were significant predictors of PA levels. Maintaining health and fitness was the most cited motivator domain and was a significant predictor (OR = 2.551, 95% CI = 1.253-5.208) of PA levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the lack of awareness of the WHO PA guidelines and the key determinants of PA participation in patients with NAFLD. Determinants of PA should be identified at the individual level to create a personalized approach for PA maintenance for people with NAFLD to promote lifelong participation in PA. IMPACT: This study closes a gap in the published data on the determinants of PA engagement in patients with NAFLD. LAY SUMMARY: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of global mortality and contributes to many chronic inflammatory diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). People with NAFLD engage in less physical activity compared with people who are healthy, and this study provides new information that clinicians can use to help these patients increase their physical activity participation.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
7.
PeerJ ; 8: e9175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974089

RESUMO

Background: Infants under 6 months (U6M) contribute a significant proportion of the burden and mortality of severe malnutrition globally. Evidence of underlying aetiology in this population is sparse, but it is known that the group includes ex-preterm and low birthweight (LBW) infants. They represent a unique population given their dependence on breastmilk or a safe, secure alternative. Nutrition agencies and health providers struggle to make programming decisions on which interventions should be provided to this group based upon the 2013 WHO Guidelines for the 'Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Infants and Young Children' since there are no published interventional trial data focussed on this population. Interim guidance for this group might be informed by evidence of safety and efficacy in adjacent population groups. Methodology: A narrative literature review was performed of systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials of antimicrobial and micronutrient interventions (antibiotics, deworming, vitamin A, vitamin D, iron, zinc, folic acid and oral rehydration solution (ORS) for malnutrition) across the population groups of low birthweight/preterm infants, infants under 6 months, infants and children over 6 months with acute malnutrition or through supplementation to breastfeeding mothers. Outcomes of interest were safety and efficacy, in terms of mortality and morbidity. Results: Ninety-four articles were identified for inclusion within this review. None of these studied interventions exclusively in severely malnourished infants U6M. 64% reported on the safety of studied interventions. Significant heterogeneity was identified in definitions of study populations, interventions provided, and outcomes studied. The evidence for efficacy and safety across population groups is reviewed and presented for the interventions listed. Conclusions: The direct evidence base for medical interventions for severely malnourished infants U6M is sparse. Our review identifies a specific need for accurate micronutrient profiling and interventional studies of micronutrients and oral fluid management of diarrhoea amongst infants U6M meeting anthropometric criteria for severe malnutrition. Indirect evidence presented in this review may help shape interim policy and programming decisions as well as the future research agenda for the management of infants U6M identified as malnourished.

8.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660020

RESUMO

(1) Introduction: Current evidence on managing infants under six months with growth failure or other nutrition-related risk is sparse and low quality. This review aims to inform research priorities to fill this evidence gap, focusing on breastfeeding practices. (2) Methods: We searched PubMed, CINAHL Plus, and Cochrane Library for studies on feeding interventions that aim to restore or improve the volume or quality of breastmilk and breastfeeding when breastfeeding practices are sub-optimal or prematurely stopped. We included studies from both low- and middle-income countries and high-income countries. (3) Results: Forty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were from high-income countries (n = 35, 74.5%) and included infants who were at risk of growth failure at birth (preterm infants/small for gestational age) and newborns with early growth faltering. Interventions included formula fortification or supplementation (n = 31, 66%), enteral feeds (n = 8, 17%), cup feeding (n = 2, 4.2%), and other (n = 6, 12.8%). Outcomes included anthropometric change (n = 40, 85.1%), reported feeding practices (n = 16, 34%), morbidity (n = 11, 23.4%), and mortality (n = 5, 10.6%). Of 31 studies that assessed formula fortification or supplementation, 30 reported anthropometric changes (n = 17 no effect, n = 9 positive, n = 4 mixed), seven morbidity (n = 3 no effect, n = 2 positive, n = 2 negative), five feeding (n = 2 positive, n = 2 no effect, n = 1 negative), and four mortality (n = 3 no effect, n = 1 negative). Of eight studies that assessed enteral feed interventions, seven reported anthropometric changes (n = 4 positive, n = 3 no effect), five feeding practices (n = 2 positive, n = 2 no effect, n = 1 negative), four morbidity (n = 4 no effect), and one reported mortality (n = 1 no effect). Overall, interventions with positive effects on feeding practices were cup feeding compared to bottle-feeding among preterm; nasogastric tube feed compared to bottle-feeding among low birth weight preterm; and early progressive feeding compared to delayed feeding among extremely low birth weight preterm. Bovine/cow milk feeding and high volume feeding interventions had an unfavourable effect, while electric breast pump and Galactagogue had a mixed effect. Regarding anthropometric outcomes, overall, macronutrient fortified formula, cream supplementation, and fortified human milk formula had a positive effect (weight gain) on preterm infants. Interventions comparing human breastmilk/donor milk with formula had mixed effects. Overall, only human milk compared to formula intervention had a positive effect on morbidity among preterm infants, while none of the interventions had any positive effect on mortality. Bovine/cow milk supplementation had unfavourable effects on both morbidity and mortality. (4) Conclusion: Future research should prioritise low- and middle-income countries, include infants presenting with growth failure in the post-neonatal period and record effects on morbidity and mortality outcomes.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Nutrição Enteral , Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alimentação Artificial , Insuficiência de Crescimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Leite Humano , Ganho de Peso
9.
F1000Res ; 9: 1310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628437

RESUMO

Background: Many small and malnourished infants under 6 months of age have problems with breastfeeding and restoring effective exclusive breastfeeding is a common treatment goal. Assessment is a critical first step of case management, but most malnutrition guidelines do not specify how best to do this. We aimed to identify breastfeeding assessment tools for use in assessing at-risk and malnourished infants in resource-poor settings. Methods: We systematically searched: Medline and Embase; Web of Knowledge; Cochrane Reviews; Eldis and Google Scholar databases. Also the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), CAse REport guidelines, Emergency Nutrition Network, and Field Exchange websites. Assessment tool content was analysed using a framework describing breastfeeding 'domains' (baby's behaviour; mother's behaviour; position; latching; effective feeding; breast health; baby's health; mother's view of  feed; number, timing and length of feeds). Results: We identified 29 breastfeeding assessment tools and 45 validation studies. Eight tools had not been validated. Evidence underpinning most tools was low quality and mainly from high-income countries and hospital settings. The most comprehensive tools were the Breastfeeding, Evaluation and Education Tool, UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative tools and CARE training package. The tool with the strongest evidence was the WHO/UNICEF B-R-E-A-S-T-Feed Observation Form. Conclusions: Despite many possible tools, there is currently no one gold standard. For assessing malnourished infants in resource-poor settings, UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative tools, Module IFE and the WHO/UNICEF B-R-E-A-S-T-Feed Observation Form are the best available tools but could be improved by adding questions from other tools. Allowing for context, one tool for rapid community-based assessment plus a more detailed one for clinic/hospital assessment might help optimally identify breastfeeding problems and the support required. Further research is important to refine existing tools and develop new ones. Rigorous testing, especially against outcomes such as breastfeeding status and growth, is key.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desnutrição , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
PeerJ ; 6: e5848, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024756

RESUMO

Background: Tackling malnutrition is a global health priority, helping children both survive and thrive. Acute malnutrition (wasting) in infants aged under 6 months (u6m) is often neglected. Worldwide, some 8.5 million infants u6m are affected yet recent World Health Organization malnutrition guidelines highlight numerous evidence gaps on how to best manage them. To inform future research, policy and programming, we aimed to identify risk factors associated with infant u6m wasting. Methods: We did secondary data analysis of nationally representative, cross sectional Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in the last 10 years. We compared wasted infants u6m (weight-for-length <-2 z-scores) vs. non-wasted (weight-for-length ≥-2 z-score). We used simple and adjusted (for infant age, sex, socio-economic status) logistic regression to calculate odds of wasting associated with risk factors spanning three broad categories: household-related; maternal-related; infant-related. Results: We analysed 16,123 infants u6m from 20 countries. Multiple risk factors were statistically associated with wasting. These included: poverty (Odds ratio, OR 1.22 (95% CI [1.01-1.48], p = 0.04)); low maternal body mass index (adjusted OR 1.53(1.29-1.80, p < 0.001); small infant size at birth (aOR 1.32(1.10-1.58, p < 0.01)); delayed start of breastfeeding (aOR 1.31(1.13-1.51, p < 0.001)); prelacteal feed (aOR 1.34(1.18-1.53, p < 0.001)); recent history of diarrhoea (aOR 1.37(1.12-1.67, p < 0.01)); mother disempowered (experiences violence; does not make decisions about health issues; does not engage with health services such as antenatal care, does not give birth in a health facility). 'Protective' factors associated with significantly decreased odds of infant u6m wasting included: educated mother (OR 0.64(0.54-0.76, p < 0.001)); mother in work (OR 0.82(0.72-0.94, p < 0.01)); currently breastfed (aOR 0.62(0.42-0.91, p = 0.02)), exclusively breastfed (aOR 0.84(0.73-0.97, p = 0.02). Discussion: Infant u6m wasting is a complex, multifactorial problem associated with many risk factors; knowing them will help shape international and national management strategies. Whilst our observational study cannot prove causation, many factors identified are biologically plausible and/or socially important. They should be considered when assessing and managing infants u6m. Although supporting breastfeeding is core to future interventions, this alone is unlikely to be sufficient; strategies should involve multiple sectors, beyond just health and nutrition. By noting our results, future intervention studies could focus resources and maximise chances of achieving impact.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213523, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization currently defines severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in infants aged under 6 months of age using weight-for-length Z score (WLZ). Given widespread use of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for identifying SAM in older children and weight-for-age (WAZ) for growth monitoring, there is increasing debate about the optimal anthropometric criteria to best identify infants u6m at-risk of mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine the discriminatory value for mortality during the first 12 months of life of anthropometry taken at birth and at age two months (approximate age of routine vaccination). DESIGN: Data were analyzed from a birth cohort recruited between April and December of 2004 at four health facilities within Bansalogho District in Burkina Faso. Infants were followed up for 12 months. Mortality risks were estimated using hazards ratios (HR). Discriminatory value was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Of 1,103 infants, 227 (21%) were low birthweight (LBW). During 12 months, 86 (7.8%) infants died; 38 (44%) among the LBW group. At birth, MUAC<9.0cm, weight<2.5kg, length<44.2cm and incalculable WLZ were associated with mortality. Sixty (70%) deaths occurred after the age of two months; 26 (43%) among LBW infants. At age two months, any MUAC <11.5cm, weight <3.8kg (WAZ<-3) and length <52.4cm (LAZ<-3) were associated with risk of mortality. WLZ was not associated with mortality at any threshold. Birth weight did not modify the effect of the association between month two MUAC and one-year mortality (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: Infants at heightened risk of mortality and are better identified during early infancy by MUAC or WFA than by WLZ. LBW infants with low anthropometry at the age of routine immunizations remain at elevated risk than normal birth weight (NBW)infants and require intervention. Effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and coverage of applying proposed thresholds should be investigated as a priority to inform policy and practice.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Vacinação , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
12.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15(1): e12642, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971955

RESUMO

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) affects ~4 million infants under 6 months (u6m) worldwide, but evidence underpinning their care is "very low" quality. To inform future research and policy, the objectives of our study were to identify risk factors for infant u6m SAM and describe the clinical and anthropometric outcomes of treatment with current management strategies. We conducted a prospective cohort study in infants u6m in Barisal district, Bangladesh. One group of 77 infants had SAM (weight-for-length Z-score [WLZ] <-3 and/or bipedal oedema); 77 others were "non-SAM" (WLZ ≥-2 to <+2, no oedema, mid-upper-arm circumference ≥125 mm). All were enrolled at 4-8 weeks of age and followed up at 6 months. Maternal education and satisfaction with breastfeeding were among factors associated with SAM. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was shorter at enrolment (3·9 ± 2.1 vs. 5.7 ± 2.2 weeks, P < 0.0001) and at age 6 months (13.2 ± 8.9 vs. 17.4 ± 7.9 weeks; P = 0.003) among SAM infants. Despite referral, only 13 (17%) reported for inpatient care, and at 6 months, 18 (23%) infants with SAM still had SAM, and 3 (3.9%) died. In the non-SAM group, one child developed SAM, and none died. We conclude that current treatment strategies have limited practical effectiveness: poor uptake of inpatient referral being the main reason. World Health Organization recommendations and other intervention strategies of outpatient-focused care for malnourished but clinically stable infants u6m need to be tested. Breastfeeding support is likely central to future treatment strategies but may be insufficient alone. Better case definitions of nutritionally at-risk infants are also needed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Tamanho Corporal , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15(2): e12702, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246929

RESUMO

The objectives of most treatment programs for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children focus on initial recovery only, leaving post-discharge outcomes, such as relapse, poorly understood and undefined. This study aimed to systematically review current literature and conduct secondary data analyses of studies that captured relapse rates, up to 18-month post-discharge, in children following recovery from SAM treatment. The literature search (including PubMed and Google Scholar) built upon two recent reviews to identify a variety of up-to-date published studies and grey literature. This search yielded 26 articles and programme reports that provided information on relapse. The proportion of children who relapsed after SAM treatment varied greatly from 0% to 37% across varying lengths of time following discharge. The lack of a standard definition of relapse limited comparability even among the few studies that have quantified post-discharge relapse. Inconsistent treatment protocols and poor adherence to protocols likely add to the wide range of relapse reported. Secondary analysis of a database from Malawi found no significant association between potential individual risk factors at admission and discharge, except being an orphan, which resulted in five times greater odds of relapse at 6 months post-discharge (95% CI [1.7, 12.4], P = 0.003). The development of a standard definition of relapse is needed for programme implementers and researchers. This will allow for assessment of programme quality regarding sustained recovery and better understanding of the contribution of relapse to local and global burden of SAM.


Assuntos
Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recidiva , Índias Ocidentais/epidemiologia
14.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 6(3): 552-564, 2018 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A stubborn persistence of child severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and continued gaps in program coverage have made identifying methods for expanding detection, diagnosis, and treatment of SAM an urgent public health need. There is growing consensus that making mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) use more widely accessible among caregivers and community health workers (CHWs) is an important next step in further decentralizing SAM care and increasing program coverage, including the ability of CHWs to treat uncomplicated SAM in community settings. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to summarize published and operational evidence published since 2000 describing the use of MUAC for detection and diagnosis of SAM in children aged 6-59 months by caregivers and CHWs, and of management of uncomplicated SAM by CHWs, all outside of formal health care settings. We screened 1,072 records, selected 43 records for full-text screening, and identified 22 studies that met our eligibility criteria. We extracted data on a number of items, including study design, strengths, and weaknesses; intervention and control; and key findings and operational lessons. We then synthesized the qualitative findings to inform our conclusions. The issue of treating children classified as SAM based on low weight-for-height, rather than MUAC, at household level, is not addressed in this review. FINDINGS: We found evidence that caregivers are able to use MUAC to detect SAM in their children with minimal risk and many potential benefits to early case detection and coverage. We also found evidence that CHWs are able to correctly use MUAC for SAM detection and diagnosis and to provide a high quality of care in the treatment of uncomplicated SAM when training, supervision, and motivation are adequate. However, the number of published research studies was small, their geographic scope was narrow, and most described intensive, small-scale interventions; thus, findings are not currently generalizable to public-sector health care systems. CONCLUSIONS: Scaling up the use of MUAC by caregivers and CHWs to detect SAM in household and community settings is a promising step toward improving the coverage of SAM detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Further research on scalability, applicability across a wider range of contexts, coverage impact, and cost is needed. The primary use of MUAC for SAM detection should also be explored where appropriate.


Assuntos
Braço/anatomia & histologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Clin Med Insights Pediatr ; 12: 1179556518771698, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760577

RESUMO

Background: World Health Organization guidelines advise community-based care (CBC) for "uncomplicated" severe acute malnutrition (SAM) infants <6 months old (u6m), whereas current national protocols refer to inpatient care. Our aim was to inform and shape future management strategies by understanding caregivers' and different stakeholders' perceptions on malnutrition among infants u6m on barriers/facilitators to future CBC. Methods: The methods used in this study are as follows: in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) in southern Bangladesh, thematic analysis of transcripts, and sample size by data saturation. Results: We conducted 5 FGDs with 29 caregivers, 4 with 29 health care workers, 4 key informant interviews each with community leaders and health supervisors. Five themes emerged. 1) Identification of SAM infants and care-seeking behavior: malnutrition was not noticed until severe, caregivers focused on clinical symptoms. Both allopathic and traditional healers were consulted. (2) Perceived causes of infant malnutrition: underlying illness, poor feeding practices, poverty, and local superstitions. (3) Views and preferences on treatment: hospitals and doctors were perceived as offering the best treatment, health care workers were also important, and respondents highlighted the need care of the caregiver/mother along with the infant. (4) Perceived benefits and risks of CBC: lower cost and greater accessibility were appreciated but worried about quality. (5) Community networks: wider family and social support networks were considered important aspects of care. Conclusions: There is considerable potential for CBC but needs to be better and earlier identification of at-risk infants, strengthening of health systems to avoid community options being perceived as "second best," engagement with families and communities to tackle "upstream" determinants of SAM, and care for mother-infant pairs.

17.
Matern Child Nutr ; 13(3)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27453170

RESUMO

Evidence on the management of acute malnutrition in infants aged less than 6 months (infants <6mo) is scarce. To understand outcomes using current protocols, we analysed a sample of 24 045 children aged 0-60 months from 21 datasets of inpatient therapeutic care programmes in 10 countries. We compared the proportion of admissions, the anthropometric profile at admission and the discharge outcomes between infants <6mo and children aged 6-60 months (older children). Infants <6mo accounted for 12% of admissions. The quality of anthropometric data at admission was more problematic in infants <6mo than in older children with a greater proportion of missing data (a 6.9 percentage point difference for length values, 95% CI: 6.0; 7.9, P < 0.01), anthropometric measures that could not be converted to indices (a 15.6 percentage point difference for weight-for-length z-score values, 95% CI: 14.3; 16.9, P < 0.01) and anthropometric indices that were flagged as outliers (a 2.7 percentage point difference for any anthropometric index being flagged as an outlier, 95% CI: 1.7; 3.8, P < 0.01). A high proportion of both infants <6mo and older children were discharged as recovered. Infants <6mo showed a greater risk of death during treatment (risk ratio 1.30, 95% CI: 1.09; 1.56, P < 0.01). Infants <6mo represent an important proportion of admissions to therapeutic feeding programmes, and there are crucial challenges associated with their care. Systematic compilation and analysis of routine data for infants <6mo is necessary for monitoring programme performance and should be promoted as a tool to monitor the impact of new guidelines on care.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Alta do Paciente , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Antropometria , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Food Nutr Bull ; 36(1 Suppl): S30-4, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25993754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, some 4.7 million infants aged under 6 months are moderately wasted and 3.8 million are severely wasted. Traditionally, they have been over-looked by clinicians, nutritionists, and policy makers. OBJECTIVE: To present evidence and arguments for why treating acute malnutrition in infants under 6 months of age is important and outline some of the key debates and research questions needed to advance their care. METHODS: Narrative review. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Treating malnourished infants under 6 months of age is important to avoid malnutrition-associated mortality in the short-term and adverse health and development outcomes in the long-term. Physiological and pathological differences demand a different approach from that in older children; key among these is a focus on exclusive breastfeeding wherever possible. New World Health Organization guidelines for the management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) include this age group for the first time and are also applicable to management of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Community-based breastfeeding support is the core, but not the sole, treatment. The mother-infant dyad is at the heart of approaches, but wider family and community relationships are also important. An urgent priority is to develop better case definitions; criteria based on mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) are promising but need further research. To effectively move forward, clinical trials of assessment and treatment are needed to bolster the currently sparse evidence base. In the meantime, nutrition surveys and screening at health facilities should routinely include infants under 6 months of age in order to better define the burden and outcomes of acute malnutrition in this age group.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/terapia , Desnutrição/terapia , Doença Aguda , Antropometria , Braço/anatomia & histologia , Aleitamento Materno , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Família , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Mães , Política Nutricional , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/terapia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 86(2): 200-11, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23727511

RESUMO

Dissolvable microneedles offer an attractive delivery system for transdermal drug and vaccine delivery. They are most commonly formed by filling a microneedle mold with liquid formulation using vacuum or centrifugation to overcome the constraints of surface tension and solution viscosity. Here, we demonstrate a novel microneedle fabrication method employing an atomised spray technique that minimises the effects of the liquid surface tension and viscosity when filling molds. This spray method was successfully used to fabricate dissolvable microneedles (DMN) from a wide range of sugars (trehalose, fructose and raffinose) and polymeric materials (polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, carboxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and sodium alginate). Fabrication by spraying produced microneedles with amorphous content using single sugar compositions. These microneedles displayed sharp tips and had complete fidelity to the master silicon template. Using a method to quantify the consistency of DMN penetration into different skin layers, we demonstrate that the material of construction significantly influenced the extent of skin penetration. We demonstrate that this spraying method can be adapted to produce novel laminate-layered as well as horizontally-layered DMN arrays. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the use of an atomising spray, at ambient, mild processing conditions, to create dissolvable microneedle arrays that can possess novel, laminate layering.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Microinjeções/instrumentação , Microinjeções/métodos , Pele/metabolismo , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Agulhas , Polímeros/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Absorção Cutânea , Soluções/química , Suínos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/instrumentação , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos
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