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1.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93(4): 325-328, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704779

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dual human immunodeficiency virus/syphilis rapid diagnostic devices can play an important role in prevention efforts. The field performance of the INSTI Multiplex HIV-1/HIV-2/Syphilis Antibody Test (Multiplex) was evaluated. METHODS: Fingerstick whole blood was tested using the rapid test. A fourth-generation HIV laboratory assay and treponemal-specific laboratory assays were used as reference. Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) was used to stratify treponemal results. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 274 patients participated. Sensitivity of the Multiplex for detection of HIV was 98.8% (95% CI, 93.4-100%), and specificity was 100% (95% CI, 98.1-100%). Sensitivity for detection of syphilis antibodies was 56.8% (95% CI, 44.7-68.2%), and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI, 95.7-99.7%). Sensitivity for treponemal antibodies improved with increasing RPR and was 100% (95% CI, 78.2-100%) among samples with RPR titers ≥1:8. CONCLUSIONS: The Multiplex showed excellent performance for detection of HIV antibodies and increasing sensitivity for detection of treponemal antibody with increasing RPR titer.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/métodos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Humanos , Los Angeles , New York , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(1): e3-e4, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216232

RESUMO

Gyrase A genotyping reliably predicts Neisseria gonorrhoeae susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. It is unknown whether concurrent infections at different anatomic sites harbor different susceptibility profiles. We found a 3.2% frequency of discordant gyrase A genotypes among concurrent but anatomically separate N. gonorrhoeae infections diagnosed at 2 laboratories in Los Angeles.


Assuntos
DNA Girase/genética , Genótipo , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/enzimologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Los Angeles , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Mhealth ; 4: 51, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30505849

RESUMO

Background: Commercial sex venues (CSV), bathhouses and sex clubs, have a long history of serving a high-risk population. In those facilities, patrons engage in multiple sexual encounters and often in high-risk sexual behaviors. Designing prevention interventions specifically for CSVs could be an effective way to increase testing and control HIV transmission. Methods: In collaboration with the AIDS Healthcare Foundation (AHF), our team distributed free HIV self-test kits using vending machines located at two CSVs in Los Angeles, California. Test kit dispensing rate was monitored remotely. Patrons receiving a test kit were surveyed regarding their testing experience, test result and follow up. Linkage to care was offered to participants. Results: During 18 months, 1,398 kits were dispensed. The survey was completed by 110 patrons (response rate =7.9%). Among those who reported that they used the test kit (n=96), 17 (17.7%) participants reported a first-time reactive HIV result. At the time of the survey, six participants with reactive results reported seeking confirmatory testing and linkage to care and four had initiated treatment. Two participants requested linkage-to-care assistance. Participants reported valuing the privacy and convenience of the vending machine but were skeptical on the accuracy of their result. The startup cost, including the purchase of two vending machines, was $10,000 and the recurring cost (monitoring, test kits, personnel) was $33.81 per kit vended. Conclusions: While survey response was low, our results demonstrate that an intervention using vending machines and HIV self-test kits in CSVs was acceptable, feasible, used by the CSV patrons and can help identify new HIV cases.

4.
Mhealth ; 4: 40, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363751

RESUMO

Background: In the United States, young men who have sex with men (YMSM) experience a disproportionate burden of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Mobile health (mHealth) interventions, including those that incorporate elements of games ("gamification"), have the potential to improve YMSM engagement in desirable sexual health services and behaviors. Gamification leverages theory and tools from behavioral science to motivate people to engage in a behavior in a context of fun. The objective of the study was to determine whether an intervention using gamification is acceptable to YMSM in California and potentially increases repeat HIV screening. Methods: Eligible YMSM were: (I) 18-26 years, (II) born as and/or self-identified as male, (III) reported male sexual partners, and (IV) lived in a zip code adjacent to one of the two study clinics in Oakland and Hollywood, California. The gamification intervention, Stick To It, had four components: (I) recruitment (clinic-based and online), (II) online enrollment, (III) online activities, and (IV) 'real-world' activities at the clinic. Participants earned points through online activities that could be redeemed for a chance to win prizes during HIV/STI screening and care visits. The primary outcome was intervention acceptability measured with participant engagement data and in-depth interviews. The secondary outcome was the intervention's preliminary effectiveness on repeat HIV screening within 6 months, restricted to the subset of men who provided consent for review of medical records and who had ≥6 months of follow-up. Outcomes were compared to a historical control group of similar YMSM who attended study clinics in the 12 months prior to intervention implementation. Results: Overall, 166 of 313 (53%) eligible YMSM registered. After registration, 93 (56%) participants completed enrollment and 31 (19%) completed ≥1 online activity in the subsequent 6 months. Points were redeemed in clinic by 11% of the 166 users (27% and 5% of those who enrolled in the clinic and online, respectively). Despite moderate engagement, participants provided a positive assessment of the program in interviews, reporting that the inclusion of game elements was motivating. The analysis of repeat HIV testing was assessed among 31 YMSM who consented to medical record review and who had ≥6 months of follow-up. During follow-up, 15 (48%) received ≥2 HIV tests compared to 157 (30%) of a historical comparison group of 517 similar YMSM who lived in the same zip codes and who received care at the same clinics before the intervention (OR =2.15, 95% CI: 1.03-4.47, P=0.04). Conclusions: Engagement in the intervention was modest, with YMSM who enrolled in a clinic more actively engaged than YMSM who enrolled online. Among the subset of participants recruited in the clinic, repeat HIV screening was higher than a comparison group of similar YMSM attending the same clinic in the prior year.

5.
Health Promot Pract ; 19(3): 400-410, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28656775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Performers in the adult film industry are routinely exposed to bloodborne pathogens. In 2012, public health advocates in Los Angeles County convinced voters to pass a ballot initiative-Measure B-to mandate condom use on adult film sets. This article presents a case study of the advocacy coalition's strategies used to achieve greater workplace safety using the advocacy coalition framework. METHOD: The authors were given access to all memoranda, market research, and campaign tools used to promote Measure B. To reconstruct adult film industry counterefforts, the authors reviewed trade publications, social media, and blog posts. RESULTS: When legislative efforts failed, advocates engaged in a step-by-step strategy built around voters to achieve passage of a ballot initiative mandating condom use for all adult films produced in Los Angeles County. Although the industry immediately filed a lawsuit after passage of Measure B, its constitutionality has been upheld. CONCLUSIONS: Measure B passed because public health advocates were able to assemble scientific evidence, build public support, counter false claims, and maintain consistent messages throughout the campaign. The adult film industry lacked social capital, cohesion, and nimbleness. To bolster regulatory efforts, appealing to voters to favor safe workplaces may be an effective advocacy strategy for other industries.


Assuntos
Literatura Erótica , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Sexo Seguro , Adulto , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Los Angeles , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Marketing Social
6.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0189515, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the concordance between clinic-collected extra-genital specimens and self-collected mailed-in extra-genital specimens among participants seeking sexually transmitted infection testing at a free clinic in Hollywood, CA. METHODS: A convenience sample of 210 men who have sex with men were enrolled between February 29, 2016 and December 21, 2016 and received mail-in testing kits for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). All testing was performed using the GeneXpert® CT/NG (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). RESULTS: From the 210 mail-in kits distributed, 149 mail-in kits (71.0%) were returned to the laboratory, resulting in 145 pairs (clinic-collected and mail-in) of rectal test results and 148 pairs of pharyngeal test results for both CT and NG detection. The concordance was 95.0% for all CT rectal tests, 99.3% for all CT pharyngeal tests, 95.7% for all NG rectal tests, and 97.2% for all NG pharyngeal tests. CONCLUSION: Roughly two-thirds of mail-in test kits were returned and concordance was generally high, however more than one-third of positive results were missed in mail-in samples. The prevalence of potential false-negative results among mail-in samples warrants caution when implementing mail-in STI testing strategies.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Homossexualidade Masculina , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Faringe/microbiologia , Serviços Postais , Reto/microbiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Estados Unidos
7.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 6(7): e140, 2017 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, young men who have sex with men (YMSM) remain disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Although routine HIV/STI screening is pivotal to the timely diagnosis of HIV and STIs, initiation of appropriate treatment, and reduced onward disease transmission, repeat screening is underused. Novel interventions that incorporate elements of games, an approach known as gamification, have the potential to increase routinization of HIV/STI screening among YMSM. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to test the hypothesis that an incentive-based intervention that incorporates elements of gamification can increase routine HIV/STI screening among YMSM in California. METHODS: The study consists of a formative research phase to develop the intervention and an implementation phase where the intervention is piloted in a controlled research setting. In the formative research phase, we use an iterative development process to design the intervention, including gathering information about the feasibility, acceptability, and expected effectiveness of potential game elements (eg, points, leaderboards, rewards). These activities include staff interviews, focus group discussions with members of the target population, and team meetings to strategize and develop the intervention. The final intervention is called Stick To It and consists of 3 components: (1) online enrollment, (2) Web-based activities consisting primarily of quizzes and a countdown "timer" to facilitate screening reminders, and (3) in-person activities that occur at 2 sexual health clinics. Participants earn points through the Web-based activities that are then redeemed for chances to win various prizes during clinic visits. The pilot study is a quasi-experimental study with a minimum of 60 intervention group participants recruited at the clinics, at community-based events, and online. We will compare outcomes in the intervention group with a historical control group consisting of individuals meeting the inclusion criteria who attended study clinics in the 12 months prior to intervention implementation. Eligible participants in the pilot study (1) are 18 to 26 years old, (2) were born or identify as male, 3) report male sexual partners, and 4) have a zip code of residence within defined areas in the vicinity of 1 of the 2 implementation sites. The primary outcome is repeat HIV/STI screening within 6 months. RESULTS: This is an ongoing research study with initial results expected in the fourth quarter of 2017. CONCLUSIONS: We will develop and pilot test a gamification intervention to encourage YMSM to be regularly screened for HIV/STIs. The results from this research will provide preliminary evidence about the potential effectiveness of using gamification to amplify health-related behavioral change interventions. Further, the research aims to determine the processes that are essential to developing and implementing future health-related gamification interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02946164; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02946164 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ri3G4HwD).

8.
Sex Transm Dis ; 44(7): 398-400, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604481

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections are frequently asymptomatic, requiring highly accurate diagnostic tests and proper management to prevent further transmission. We compared two nucleic acid tests, Xpert® CT/NG (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) point-of-care platform and at an offsite clinical laboratory with Aptima Combo 2® (Hologic, Inc., San Diego, CA) assay, for the detection of extragenital infection in patients at an STI clinic in Hollywood, CA.We calculated concordance between the two assays and used the exact binomial method to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each specimen type and pathogen.The concordance between the two assays was 97.7% (95% CI: 95.7%,99.0%) for 393 paired CT rectal results, 98.2% (95% CI: 96.4%,99.3%) for 391 paired NG rectal results and 98.4% (95% CI: 96.8%,99.4%) for 448 paired NG pharyngeal results.The performance of Xpert® CT/NG assay in point-of-care testing in extragenital specimens was highly similar to the laboratory-based platform.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Faringe/microbiologia , Reto/microbiologia , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Intervalos de Confiança , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Homem , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
9.
J Infect Dis ; 214(5): 689-96, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27296847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; vaccination is recommended for US males, including MSM through age 26 years. We assessed evidence of HPV among vaccine-eligible MSM and transgender women to monitor vaccine impact. METHODS: During 2012-2014, MSM aged 18-26 years at select clinics completed a computer-assisted self-interview regarding sexual behavior, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and vaccinations. Self-collected anal swab and oral rinse specimens were tested for HPV DNA (37 types) by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction; serum was tested for HPV antibodies (4 types) by a multiplexed virus-like particle-based immunoglobulin G direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Among 922 vaccine-eligible participants, the mean age was 23 years, and the mean number of lifetime sex partners was 37. Among 834 without HIV infection, any anal HPV was detected in 69.4% and any oral HPV in 8.4%, yet only 8.5% had evidence of exposure to all quadrivalent vaccine types. In multivariate analysis, HPV prevalence varied significantly (P < .05) by HIV status, sexual orientation, and lifetime number of sex partners, but not by race/ethnicity. DISCUSSIONS: Most young MSM lacked evidence of current or past infection with all vaccine-type HPV types, suggesting that they could benefit from vaccination. The impact of vaccination among MSM may be assessed by monitoring HPV prevalence, including in self-collected specimens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Canal Anal/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/virologia , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Aust Fam Physician ; 43(8): 507, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25114982

RESUMO

There is a paucity of Australian state-based data on the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin are not notifiable diseases and are not collected by the state and territory cancer registries. In a 2002 survey, the Australian age-standardised incidence per 100,000 persons for NMSC was 1170 (BCC 884, SCC 387), with a higher incidence in the northern latitudes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos
11.
J Forensic Nurs ; 9(2): 92-100, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24158130

RESUMO

In this paper we examine the background and context for training related to working with people with personality disorders in England. People with a diagnosis of personality disorder often feel excluded from mainstream health, social and employment contexts, and sometimes experience negative and stigmatizing attitudes from people, including health and social care workers. An evaluation of a program of workshops for forensic nurses and other practitioners was carried out to ascertain how effective the workshops were in challenging attitudes and also in potentially promoting better practice in working with this client group. The evaluation was designed utilizing the principles of illuminative evaluation and involved an analysis of workshop evaluation forms and telephone interviews with course participants. The course received very positive evaluations and participants described how it challenged their beliefs, promoting therapeutic optimism, understanding, and more positive partnerships. Key factors in achieving this were adopting a team approach to the training and service user participation in the workshops. Drawing on our experiences and a wide range of literature, we illustrate the importance of service user involvement in teaching and promoting more positive attitudes, and we outline further areas for investigation.


Assuntos
Educação Continuada/métodos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Inglaterra , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Psicologia/educação
12.
J Chem Phys ; 138(9): 094305, 2013 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23485292

RESUMO

The periodic torsional, electric dipole moment (EDM) functions µ(φ) = ∑m = 0pmcos (m + 1∕2)φ, of the atmospherically significant molecules HOOH and ClOOCl, have been derived from calculations at the CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster singles and doubles model, plus a noniterative triples correction) level of electronic-structure theory with augmented, correlation-consistent basis sets extrapolated to the approximate complete basis set limit. The µ(φ) of HOOH, defined by {pm} = {3.0979, -0.0301, -0.0058} D, is used to calculate squared transition EDMs that compare well with those previously derived using the experimental torsional line intensities. The µ(φ) of ClOOCl, defined by µ(φ) = {1.1935, 0.1163, 0.1341, -0.0040, -0.0099} D, requires a longer Fourier expansion because, in the range of dihedral angles from the cis (φ = 0) to the trans (φ = π) transition structures, three inflection points are found for ClOOCl, but only one for HOOH. The permanent EDM calculated for HOOH, 1.754 D, is in close agreement with the value deduced from experiment. Compared to HOOH, the permanent EDM vector calculated for ClOOCl is directed analogously, but has a significantly smaller magnitude, 0.700 D.

13.
Aust Fam Physician ; 41(3): 125-6, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22396925

RESUMO

A woman, 84 years of age, presented to our southeastern Queensland general practice for removal of an engorged tick from her right external auditory meatus, thought to have been present for several days. She re-presented 3 days later with a right facial nerve palsy that affected her frontalis muscle only (Figure 1). The facial nerve palsy resolved spontaneously over the next 7 days (Figure 2).


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Carrapatos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Queensland
14.
J Chem Phys ; 130(17): 176101, 2009 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19425814
15.
J Sci Med Sport ; 12(1): 156-63, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17928266

RESUMO

This methods paper outlines the overall design of a community-based multidisciplinary longitudinal study with the intent to stimulate interest and communication from scientists and practitioners studying the role of physical activity in preventive medicine. In adults, lack of regular exercise is a major risk factor in the development of chronic degenerative diseases and is a major contributor to obesity, and now we have evidence that many of our children are not sufficiently active to prevent early symptoms of chronic disease. The lifestyle of our kids (LOOK) study investigates how early physical activity contributes to health and development, utilizing a longitudinal design and a cohort of eight hundred and thirty 7-8-year-old (grade 2) school children followed to age 11-12 years (grade 6), their average family income being very close to that of Australia. We will test two hypotheses, that (a) the quantity and quality of physical activity undertaken by primary school children will influence their psychological and physical health and development; (b) compared with existing practices in primary schools, a physical education program administered by visiting specialists will enhance health and development, and lead to a more positive perception of physical activity. To test the first hypothesis we will monitor all children longitudinally over the 4 years. To test the second we will involve an intervention group of 430 children who receive two 50min physical education classes every week from visiting specialists and a control group of 400 who continue with their usual primary school physical education with their class-room teachers. At the end of grades 2, 4, and 6 we will measure several areas of health and development including blood risk factors for chronic disease, cardiovascular structure and function, physical fitness, psychological characteristics and perceptions of physical activity, bone structure and strength, motor control, body composition, nutritional intake, influence of teachers and family, and academic performance.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Autoavaliação
16.
J Chem Phys ; 122(13): 134312, 2005 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15847470

RESUMO

Using higher levels of wave-function-based electronic structure theory than previously applied, as well as density functional theory (B-LYP and B3-LYP functionals), all theoretical models conclude that three ONOOH conformers are stationary point minima, in disagreement with some of the previous studies that we survey. In order of increasing energy, these are the cis-cis, cis-perp, and trans-perp conformers. Basis sets including diffuse functions seem to be needed to obtain a qualitatively correct representation of the internal rotation potential energy surface at higher levels of theory. Internal rotation about the peroxide bond involving the cis-cis, cis-gauche transition structure (TS), cis-perp, and cis-trans TS conformers is studied in detail. To help ascertain the relative stability of the cis-perp conformer, multireference configuration interaction energy calculations are carried out, and rule of thumb estimates of multireference character in the ground-state wave functions of the ONOOH conformers are considered. CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ physical properties (geometries, rotational constants, electric dipole moments, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities) are compared with the analogous experimental data wherever possible, and also with density functional theory. Where such experimental data are nonexistent, the CCSD(T) and B3-LYP results are useful representations. For example, the electric dipole moment |mu(e)| of the cis-cis conformer is predicted to be 0.97+/-0.03 D. CCSD(T) energies, extrapolated to the aug-cc-pVNZ limit, are employed in isodesmic reaction schemes to derive zero Kelvin heats of formation and bond dissociation energies of the ONOOH stationary point minima. In agreement with recent gas-phase experiments, the peroxide bond dissociation energies of the cis-cis and trans-perp conformers are calculated as 19.3+/-0.4 and 16.0+/-0.4 kcalmol, respectively. The lowest energy cis-cis conformer is less stable than nitric acid by 28.1+/-0.4 kcalmol at 0 K.

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