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Mol Psychiatry ; 25(2): 283-296, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745239


Adverse posttraumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) are common among civilian trauma survivors and military veterans. These APNS, as traditionally classified, include posttraumatic stress, postconcussion syndrome, depression, and regional or widespread pain. Traditional classifications have come to hamper scientific progress because they artificially fragment APNS into siloed, syndromic diagnoses unmoored to discrete components of brain functioning and studied in isolation. These limitations in classification and ontology slow the discovery of pathophysiologic mechanisms, biobehavioral markers, risk prediction tools, and preventive/treatment interventions. Progress in overcoming these limitations has been challenging because such progress would require studies that both evaluate a broad spectrum of posttraumatic sequelae (to overcome fragmentation) and also perform in-depth biobehavioral evaluation (to index sequelae to domains of brain function). This article summarizes the methods of the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA (AURORA) Study. AURORA conducts a large-scale (n = 5000 target sample) in-depth assessment of APNS development using a state-of-the-art battery of self-report, neurocognitive, physiologic, digital phenotyping, psychophysical, neuroimaging, and genomic assessments, beginning in the early aftermath of trauma and continuing for 1 year. The goals of AURORA are to achieve improved phenotypes, prediction tools, and understanding of molecular mechanisms to inform the future development and testing of preventive and treatment interventions.

J Emerg Med ; 43(5): 883-8, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19944550


BACKGROUND: In Massachusetts, patients with chronic alcohol dependence can be committed to 30 days of mandatory inpatient alcohol detoxification (MAD). STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of MAD on the number of emergency department (ED) visits, hospital admissions, and emergency medical service (EMS) transports. METHODS: This retrospective study identified patients in our urban ED committed to MAD. We compared the number of ED visits and admissions to our hospital and Boston EMS transports to any facility in the 1, 3, and 6 months pre- and post-MAD, excluding the 30-day MAD period. Paired t tests were used for analysis of mean values across time. RESULTS: Ten subjects were enrolled. Comparing pre- and post-MAD, the mean number of ED visits fell 6.5 to 2.7 (p = 0.05) in the first month, 14.2 to 9.3 (p = 0.18) in 3 months, and 25.6 to 17.7 (p = 0.15) in 6 months. Mean number of hospital admissions declined: 1.3 to 0.1 (p = 0.03) in 1 month, 2.3 to 0.9 (p = 0.06) in 3 months, and 3.2 to 1.9 (p = 0.08) in 6 months. Mean number of EMS transports fell 4.6 to 2.3 (p = 0.21) in the first month, 9.2 to 5.6 (p = 0.14) in 3 months, and 13.9 to 10.0 (p = 0.26) in 6 months pre- and post-MAD. CONCLUSIONS: MAD was associated with an immediate reduction in ED visits and hospital admissions that did not remain statistically significant long term, and a non-significant reduction in EMS transports.

Alcoolismo/terapia , Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos
Ann Emerg Med ; 58(3): 225-234.e1, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21570157


STUDY OBJECTIVE: Health care reform in Massachusetts improved access to health insurance, but the extent to which reform affected utilization of the emergency department (ED) for conditions potentially amenable to primary care is unclear. Our objective is to determine the relationship between health reform and ED use for low-severity conditions. METHODS: We studied ED visits, using a convenience sample of 11 Massachusetts hospitals for identical 9-month periods before and after health care reform legislation was implemented in 2006. Individuals most affected by the health reform law (the uninsured and low-income populations covered by the publicly subsidized insurance products) were compared with individuals unlikely to be affected by the legislation (those with Medicare or private insurance). Our main outcome measure was the rate of overall and low-severity ED visits for the study population and the comparison population during the period before and after health reform implementation. RESULTS: Total visits increased from 424,878 in 2006 to 442,102 in 2008. Low-severity visits among publicly subsidized or uninsured patients decreased from 43.8% to 41.2% of total visits for that group (difference=2.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.25% to 2.85%), whereas low-severity visits for privately insured and Medicare patients decreased from 35.7% to 34.9% of total visits for that group (difference=0.8%; 95% CI 0.62% to 0.98%), for a difference in differences of 1.8% (95% CI 1.7% to 1.9%). CONCLUSION: Although overall ED volume continues to increase, Massachusetts health reform was associated with a small but statistically significant decrease in the rate of low-severity visits for those populations most affected by health reform compared with a comparison population of individuals less likely to be affected by the reform. Our findings suggest that access to health insurance is only one of a multitude of factors affecting utilization of the ED.

Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Planos Governamentais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos