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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 168, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal depression is a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality globally. Migrant women, particularly those living in low- and middle-income settings, represent a particularly vulnerable group due to stressors experienced before, during and after migration. The vast majority of global migration flows occurring within and between low- and middle-income regions, yet existing evidence focuses predominantly on migrants in high-income destinations. This study aimed to redress this significant gap in the evidence by determining the prevalence and determinants of perinatal depression among migrant women on the Thai-Myanmar border. METHODS: A cohort of labour migrant and refugee women was followed-up from the first trimester of pregnancy to one month post-partum. Depression status was assessed in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at one month post-partum using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnosis of DSM-IV Disorders. Women diagnosed with depression had immediate access to care. Data on potential demographic, social and clinical associated factors was collected using a questionnaire. Prevalence and incidence of any depressive disorder and moderate-severe depressive disorder was calculated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression using complete case analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of association between exposure variables and depression status. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-eight women participated. Period prevalence (from first trimester of pregnancy to one month post-partum) of moderate-severe perinatal depression was 18.5% (95% CI 15.4-21.9%). Overall, 15.4% (95% CI 11.8-19.6%) of women developed new-onset moderate-severe depression during the study period. Forty-two participants received treatment for depression. Risk factors were interpersonal violence (OR 4.5; 95% CI 1.9-11.1); history of trauma (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.3); self-reported history of depression (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.2); labour migrant status (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0); low social support (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.7); and maternal age (OR 1.1 per year; 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Limitations of the study include that culturally specific manifestations of depression may have been missed. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal depression represents a significant burden among migrant women on the Thai-Myanmar border. Programmes to address the determinants along with early case identification and effective treatment and referral systems are key to addressing perinatal depression in this low-resource setting.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choosing where to give birth can be a matter of life and death for both mother and child. Migrants, registered or unregistered, may face different choices and challenges than non-migrants. Despite this, previous research on the factors migrant women consider when deciding where to give birth is very limited. This paper addresses this gap by examining women's decision making in a respective border and urban locale in Thailand. METHODS: We held focus group discussions [13] with 72 non-Thai pregnant migrant women at non-government clinics in a rural border area and at two hospitals in Chiang Mai, a large city in Northern Thailand in 2018. We asked women where they will go to give birth and to explain the factors that influenced their decision. RESULTS: Women identified getting the relevant documentation necessary to register their child's birth, safe birth and medical advice/quality care, as the top three factors that influenced their care seeking decision making. Language of service, free or low cost care, language of services, proximity to home, and limited alternate options for care were also identified as important considerations. CONCLUSION: Understanding factors that migrant women value when choosing where to deliver can help health care providers to create services that are responsive to migrants' preferences and encourage provision of relevant information which may influence patient decision making. The desire to obtain birth documentation for their child appears to be important for migrants who understand the importance of personal documentation for the lives of their children. Healthcare institutions may wish to introduce processes to facilitate obtaining documentation for pregnant migrant women and their newborns.

4.
Malar J ; 19(1): 40, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) call for increased gender equity and reduction in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Plasmodium vivax infections in pregnancy are associated with maternal anaemia and increased adverse perinatal outcomes. Providing radical cure for women with 8-aminoquinolines (e.g., primaquine) is hindered by gender-specific complexities. CASE PRESENTATION: A symptomatic episode of vivax malaria at 18 weeks of gestation in a primigravid woman was associated with maternal anaemia, a recurrent asymptomatic P. vivax episode, severe intra-uterine growth restriction with no other identifiable cause and induction to reduce the risk of stillbirth. At 5 months postpartum a qualitative glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) point-of-care test was normal and radical cure with primaquine was prescribed to the mother. A 33% fractional decrease in haematocrit on day 7 of primaquine led to further testing which showed intermediate phenotypic G6PD activity; the G6PD genotype could not be identified. Her infant daughter was well throughout maternal treatment and found to be heterozygous for Mahidol variant. CONCLUSION: Adverse effects of vivax malaria in pregnancy, ineligibility of radical cure for pregnant and postpartum women, and difficulties in diagnosing intermediate levels of G6PD activity multiplied morbidity in this woman. Steps towards meeting the SDG include prevention of malaria in pregnancy, reducing unnecessary exclusion of women from radical cure, and accessible quantitative G6PD screening in P. vivax-endemic settings.

6.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 222(6): 602.e1-602.e15, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reference values for umbilical artery Doppler indices are used clinically to assess fetal well-being. However, many studies that have produced reference charts have important methodologic limitations, and these result in significant heterogeneity of reported reference ranges. OBJECTIVES: To produce international gestational age-specific centiles for umbilical artery Doppler indices based on longitudinal data and the same rigorous methodology used in the original Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. STUDY DESIGN: In Phase II of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project (the INTERBIO-21st Study), we prospectively continued enrolling pregnant women according to the same protocol from 3 of the original populations in Pelotas (Brazil), Nairobi (Kenya), and Oxford (United Kingdom) that had participated in the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study. Women with a singleton pregnancy were recruited at <14 weeks' gestation, confirmed by ultrasound measurement of crown-rump length, and then underwent standardized ultrasound every 5±1 weeks until delivery. From 22 weeks of gestation umbilical artery indices (pulsatility index, resistance index, and systolic/diastolic ratio) were measured in a blinded fashion, using identical equipment and a rigorously standardized protocol. Newborn size at birth was assessed using the international INTERGROWTH-21st Standards, and infants had detailed assessment of growth, nutrition, morbidity, and motor development at 1 and 2 years of age. The appropriateness of pooling data from the 3 study sites was assessed using variance component analysis and standardized site differences. Umbilical artery indices were modeled as functions of the gestational age using an exponential, normal distribution with second-degree fractional polynomial smoothing; goodness of fit for the overall models was assessed. RESULTS: Of the women enrolled at the 3 sites, 1629 were eligible for this study; 431 (27%) met the entry criteria for the construction of normative centiles, similar to the proportion seen in the original fetal growth longitudinal study. They contributed a total of 1243 Doppler measures to the analysis; 74% had 3 measures or more. The healthy low-risk status of the population was confirmed by the low rates of preterm birth (4.9%) and preeclampsia (0.7%). There were no neonatal deaths and satisfactory growth, health, and motor development of the infants at 1 and 2 years of age were documented. Only a very small proportion (2.8%-6.5%) of the variance of Doppler indices was due to between-site differences; in addition, standardized site difference estimates were marginally outside this threshold in only 1 of 27 comparisons, and this supported the decision to pool data from the 3 study sites. All 3 Doppler indices decreased with advancing gestational age. The 3rd, 5th 10th, 50th, 90th, 95th, and 97th centiles according to gestational age for each of the 3 indices are provided, as well as equations to allow calculation of any value as a centile and z scores. The mean pulsatility index according to gestational age = 1.02944 + 77.7456*(gestational age)-2 - 0.000004455*gestational age3. CONCLUSION: We present here international gestational age-specific normative centiles for umbilical artery Doppler indices produced by studying healthy, low-risk pregnant women living in environments with minimal constraints on fetal growth. The centiles complement the existing INTERGROWTH-21st Standards for assessment of fetal well-being.

7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(1): 147-150, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746312

RESUMO

All Plasmodium cases have declined over the last decade in northwestern Thailand along the Myanmar border. During this time, Plasmodium vivax has replaced Plasmodium falciparum as the dominant species. The decline in P. falciparum has been shadowed by a coincidental but delayed decline in P. vivax cases. This may be due to early detection and artemisinin-based therapy, species-specific diagnostics, and bed net usage all of which reduce malaria transmission but not P. vivax relapse. In the absence of widespread primaquine use for radical cure against P. vivax hypnozoites, the decline in P. vivax may be explained by decreased hypnozoite activation of P. vivax relapses triggered by P. falciparum. The observed trends in this region suggest a beneficial effect of decreased P. falciparum transmission on P. vivax incidence, but elimination of P. vivax in a timely manner likely requires radical cure.

8.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(3)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818818

RESUMO

Artemether-lumefantrine antimalarial efficacy in pregnancy could be compromised by reduced drug exposure. Population-based simulations suggested that therapeutic efficacy would be improved if the treatment duration was increased. We assessed the efficacy, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of an extended 5-day regimen of artemether-lumefantrine compared to the standard 3-day treatment in 48 pregnant women and 48 nonpregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an open-label, randomized clinical trial. Babies were assessed at birth and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to characterize the plasma concentration-time profiles of artemether and lumefantrine and their metabolites. Both regimens were highly efficacious (100% PCR-corrected cure rates) and well tolerated. Babies followed up to 1 year had normal development. Parasite clearance half-lives were longer in pregnant women (median [range], 3.30 h [1.39 to 7.83 h]) than in nonpregnant women (2.43 h [1.05 to 6.00 h]) (P=0.005). Pregnant women had lower exposures to artemether and dihydroartemisinin than nonpregnant women, resulting in 1.2% decreased exposure for each additional week of gestational age. By term, these exposures were reduced by 48% compared to nonpregnant patients. The overall exposure to lumefantrine was improved with the extended regimen, with no significant differences in exposures to lumefantrine or desbutyl-lumefantrine between pregnant and nonpregnant women. The extended artemether-lumefantrine regimen was well tolerated and safe and increased the overall antimalarial drug exposure and so could be a promising treatment option in pregnancy in areas with lower rates of malaria transmission and/or emerging drug resistance. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01916954.).

9.
Antivir Ther ; 24(7): 529-540, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), the oral prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), is advocated in pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMCT) with failure of hepatitis B immunoglobulin and vaccination. The pharmacokinetics of TDF monotherapy for PMCT-HBV is important if deployment is to emulate the success of multiple antiretrovirals (ARVs) for PMCT-HIV in resource-constrained settings. METHODS: This systematic review followed a protocol and is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement (PRISMA) guidelines. We included studies that enrolled pregnant women who received oral TDF therapy as monotherapy or in combination with other ARVs: irrespective of the reason for receiving the drug (for example, HIV, HBV or pre-exposure prophylaxis); and reported pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) and last measurable plasma concentration (Clast) of TFV were decreased in the second and third trimester compared with first trimester or post-partum. In none of the manuscripts was the non-pregnant HBV threshold of Cmax of 300 ng/ml reached, but the 50% effective concentration (EC50) of TFV is lower for treatment of HBV compared with HIV. The TFV concentration in breastfed infants was 0.03% of the recommended infant dose. CONCLUSIONS: Most knowledge of pharmacokinetics of TFV in pregnancy results from studies on HIV involving multiple ARVs. Increased TFV clearance occurred in the second and third trimester when optimal TFV concentrations are required to maximize suppression of HBV in the window before birth. Dose or duration adjustments will be better conceptualized with concurrent analysis of the pharmacokinetics of TFV monotherapy and hepatitis B pharmacodynamics in pregnancy.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e026449, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude of relationships of early life factors with child development in low/middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Meta-analyses of standardised mean differences (SMDs) estimated from published and unpublished data. DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline, bibliographies of key articles and reviews, and grey literature to identify studies from LMICs that collected data on early life exposures and child development. The most recent search was done on 4 November 2014. We then invited the first authors of the publications and investigators of unpublished studies to participate in the study. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Studies that assessed at least one domain of child development in at least 100 children under 7 years of age and collected at least one early life factor of interest were included in the study. ANALYSES: Linear regression models were used to assess SMDs in child development by parental and child factors within each study. We then produced pooled estimates across studies using random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: We retrieved data from 21 studies including 20 882 children across 13 LMICs, to assess the associations of exposure to 14 major risk factors with child development. Children of mothers with secondary schooling had 0.14 SD (95% CI 0.05 to 0.25) higher cognitive scores compared with children whose mothers had primary education. Preterm birth was associated with 0.14 SD (-0.24 to -0.05) and 0.23 SD (-0.42 to -0.03) reductions in cognitive and motor scores, respectively. Maternal short stature, anaemia in infancy and lack of access to clean water and sanitation had significant negative associations with cognitive and motor development with effects ranging from -0.18 to -0.10 SDs. CONCLUSIONS: Differential parental, environmental and nutritional factors contribute to disparities in child development across LMICs. Targeting these factors from prepregnancy through childhood may improve health and development of children.

11.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e027503, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444179

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women are more vulnerable to malaria leading to adverse impact on both mothers and fetuses. However, knowledge on the efficacy and safety of antimalarials in pregnancy is limited by the paucity of randomised control trials and the lack of standardised protocols in this special subpopulation. Pooling individual patient data (IPD) for meta-analysis could address in part these limitations to summarise accurately the currently available evidence on treatment efficacy and risk factors for treatment failure. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To assess the treatment efficacy of artemisinin-based and quinine-based treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in pregnancy, seven databases (Medline, Embase, Global Health, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science and Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde) and two clinical trial registries (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrial.gov) were searched. Both interventional and observational cohort studies following up for at least 28 days will be included. IPD of the identified eligible published or unpublished studies will be sought by inviting principal investigators. Raw IPD will be shared through the web-based secure platform developed by the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network using the established methodology. The primary objective is to compare the risk of PCR-corrected treatment failure among different treatments and to find the risk factors. One-stage IPD meta-analysis by Cox model with shared frailty will be conducted. A risk of bias assessment will be conducted to address the impact of unshared potential data and of the quality of individual studies. Potential limitations include difficulty in acquiring the IPD and heterogeneity of the study designs due to the lack of standard. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This IPD meta-analysis consists of secondary analyses of existing anonymous data and meets the criteria for waiver of ethics review by the Oxford Tropical Research Ethics Committee. The results of this IPD meta-analysis will be disseminated through open-access publications at peer-reviewed journals. The study results will lead to a better understanding of malaria treatment in pregnancy, which can be used for clinical decision-making and conducting further studies. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018104013.

12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(7): ofz264, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281861

RESUMO

Background: Follow-up for 28-42 days is recommended by the World Health Organization to assess antimalarial drug efficacy for nonpregnant populations. This study aimed to determine the optimal duration for pregnant women, as no specific guidance currently exists. Methods: The distributions of time to recrudescence (treatment failure), confirmed by polymerase chain reaction genotyping for different antimalarial drugs in pregnancy, were analyzed by accelerated failure time models using secondary data on microscopically confirmed recurrent falciparum malaria collected in prospective studies on the Thailand-Myanmar border between 1994 and 2010. Results: Of 946 paired isolates from 703 women, the median duration of follow-up for each genotyped recurrence (interquartile range) was 129 (83-174) days, with 429 polymerase chain reaction-confirmed recrudescent. Five different treatments were evaluated, and 382 Plasmodium falciparum recrudescences were identified as eligible. With log-logistic models adjusted for baseline parasitemia, the predicted cumulative proportions of all the recrudescences that were detected by 28 days were 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65%-74%) for quinine monotherapy (n = 295), 66% (95% CI, 53%-76%) for artesunate monotherapy (n = 43), 62% (95% CI, 42%-79%) for artemether-lumefantrine (AL; n = 19), 46% (95% CI, 26%-67%) for artesunate with clindamycin (n = 19), and 34% (95% CI, 11%-67%) for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP; n = 6). Corresponding figures by day 42 were 89% (95% CI, 77%-95%) for AL and 71% (95% CI, 38%-91%) for DP. Follow-up for 63 days was predicted to detect ≥95% of all recrudescence, except for DP. Conclusions: In low-transmission settings, antimalarial drug efficacy assessments in pregnancy require longer follow-up than for nonpregnant populations.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194796

RESUMO

Health literacy is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of health outcomes, but definition, measurement tools, and interventions are lacking. Conceptual frameworks must include both individual and health-systems domains which, in combination, determine an individual's health literacy. Validated tools lack applicability in marginalized populations with very low educational levels, such as migrant worker communities on the Myanmar-Thailand border. We undertake a comprehensive health literacy assessment following a case study of a recent public health campaign promoting preconceptual folic acid uptake in this community. A mixed-methods design utilized quantitative analysis of the prevalence and predictors of low Health literacy, and focus group discussions to gather qualitative data from women about proposed and actual posters used in the campaign. Health literacy was measured with a locally developed tool that has been used in surveys of the population since 1995. Health literacy was low, with 194/525 (37.0%) of tested women demonstrating adequate health literacy, despite 63.1% (331/525) self-reporting being literate. Only one third of women had completed 4th grade or above and reported grade level attained in school was more predictive of health literacy than self-reported literacy. Focus group discussions revealed that low literacy, preconceived associations, and traditional health beliefs (individual domain) interacted with complex images, subtle concepts, and taboo images on posters (health-systems domain) to cause widespread misunderstandings of the visuals used in the campaign. The final poster still required explanation for clarity. Low health literacy is prevalent among pregnant women from this migrant community and barriers to communication are significant and complex. Public health posters need piloting prior to implementation as unanticipated misperceptions are common and difficult to overcome. Verbal communication remains a key method of messaging with individuals of low health literacy and educational system strengthening and audiovisual messaging are critical for improvement of health outcomes.

14.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1621589, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203791

RESUMO

Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is typically due to iron deficiency (IDA) but remains a complex and pervasive problem, particularly in low resource settings. At clinics on the Myanmar-Thailand border, a protocol was developed to guide treatment by health workers in antenatal care (ANC). Objective: To evaluate the clinical use of a protocol to treat anaemia in pregnancy. Methods: The design was a descriptive retrospective analysis of antenatal data obtained during the use of a standard anaemia treatment protocol. Two consecutive haematocrits (HCT) <30% prompted a change from routine prophylaxis to treatment doses of haematinics. Endpoints were anaemia at delivery (most recent HCT before delivery <30%) and timeliness of treatment initiation. Women whose HCT failed to respond to the treatment were investigated. Results: From August 2007 to July 2012, a median [IQR] of five [4-11] HCT measurements per woman resulted in the treatment of anaemia in 20.7% (2,246/10,886) of pregnancies. Anaemia at delivery was present in 22.8% (511/2,246) of treated women and 1.4% (123/8,640) who remained on prophylaxis. Human error resulted in a failure to start treatment in 97 anaemic women (4.1%, denominator 2,343 (2,246 + 97)). Fluctuation of HCT around the cut-point of 30% was the major problem with the protocol accounting for half of the cases where treatment was delayed greater than 4 weeks. Delay in treatment was associated with a 1.5 fold higher odds of anaemia at delivery (95% CI 1.18, 1.97). Conclusion: There was high compliance to the protocol by the health workers. An important outcome of this evaluation was that the clinical definition of anaemia was changed to diminish missed opportunities for initiating treatment. Reduction of anaemia in pregnancy requires early ANC attendance, prompt treatment at the first HCT <30%, and support for health workers.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1560115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154995

RESUMO

Problems in growth and undernutrition manifest in early infancy, with suboptimal breastfeeding and inadequate complementary feeding remaining strong risk factors for chronic undernutrition in infants. No published studies exist on educational interventions to improve infant feeding practices among refugees or displaced persons in low and middle-income (LMIC) settings. The objective of this study was to create and pilot educational materials for home-based counseling of refugee mothers along the Thailand-Myanmar border to improve appropriate infant feeding and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) behaviors. Mothers of infants received counseling on appropriate infant feeding and WASH practices on a monthly basis for a total of six months from infant age three months until nine months. Educational materials were designed to feature a basic script for health workers and photos of locally available, appropriate foods. Of the 20 mothers participating in this pilot, infant feeding and WASH behaviors improved within 1 to 2 months of the first visit, including exclusive breastfeeding, minimum acceptable diet, and safe disposal of infant stool. This pilot demonstrates improvement in maternal infant feeding and WASH practices in a small set of refugee mothers, providing evidence for counseling measures to improve infant health in vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Higiene/educação , Saúde do Lactente , Mães/educação , Mães/psicologia , Refugiados/educação , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Mianmar , Saneamento , Seio Sagital Superior , Tailândia
16.
Br J Nutr ; 121(12): 1413-1423, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006391

RESUMO

The objective of the present study is to summarise trends in under- and over-nutrition in pregnant women on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Refugees contributed data from 1986 to 2016 and migrants from 1999 to 2016 for weight at first antenatal consultation. BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) data were available during 2004-2016 when height was routinely measured. Risk factors for low and high BMI were analysed for <18·5 kg/m2 or ≥23 kg/m2, respectively. A total of 48 062 pregnancies over 30 years were available for weight analysis and 14 646 pregnancies over 13 years (2004-2016) had BMI measured in first trimester (<14 weeks' gestational age). Mean weight at first antenatal consultation in any trimester increased over the 30-year period by 2·0 to 5·2 kg for all women. First trimester BMI has been increasing on average by 0·5 kg/m2 for refugees and 0·6 kg/m2 for migrants, every 5 years. The proportion of women with low BMI in the first trimester decreased from 16·7 to 12·7 % for refugees and 23·1 to 20·2 % for migrants, whereas high BMI increased markedly from 16·9 to 33·2 % for refugees and 12·3 to 28·4 % for migrants. Multivariate analysis demonstrated low BMI as positively associated with being Burman, Muslim, primigravid, having malaria during pregnancy and smoking, and negatively associated with refugee as opposed to migrant status. High BMI was positively associated with being Muslim and literate, and negatively associated with age, primigravida, malaria, anaemia and smoking. Mean GWG was 10·0 (sd 3·4), 9·5 (sd 3·6) and 8·3 (sd 4·3) kg, for low, normal and high WHO BMI categories for Asians, respectively.

18.
J Pregnancy ; 2019: 8435019, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931155

RESUMO

Objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was believed to have minimal impact on pregnancy outcomes apart from the risk of perinatal transmission. In more recent years, there have been reports of adverse associations, most consistently preterm birth (PTB), but this is in the context of high rates of caesarean section. The aim of this study was to explore the association of HBV on pregnancy outcomes in marginalized, low-income populations on the Myanmar-Thailand border. Methods: HBsAg positive (+) point of care rapid detection tests results were confirmed by immunoassays. Women with a confirmed HBsAg status, HIV- and syphilis-negative at first antenatal care screening, singleton fetus and known pregnancy outcome (Aug-2012 to Dec-2016) were included. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between HBV group (controls HBsAg negative, HBsAg+/HBeAg-, or HBsAg+/HBeAg+) and pregnancy outcome and comorbidity. Results: Most women were tested, 15,046/15,114 (99.6%) for HBV. The inclusion criteria were not met for 4,089/15,046 (27.2%) women due mainly to unavailability of pregnancy outcome and nonconfirmation of HBsAg+. In evaluable women 687/11,025 (6.2%) were HBsAg+, with 476/11,025 (4.3%) HBsAg+/HBeAg- and 211/11,025 (1.9%) were HBsAg+/HBeAg+. The caesarean section rate was low at 522/8,963 (5.8%). No significant associations were observed between pregnancy comorbidities or adverse pregnancy outcomes and HBV status. Conclusions: The results highlight the disease burden of HBV in women on the Myanmar-Thailand border and support original reports of a lack of significant associations with HBsAg+ irrespective of HBeAg status, for comorbidity, and pregnancy outcomes in deliveries supervised by skilled birth attendants.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tailândia/epidemiologia
19.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e023417, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth (PTB) results from heterogeneous influences and is a major contributor to neonatal mortality and morbidity that continues to have adverse effects on infants beyond the neonatal period. This protocol describes the procedures to determine molecular signatures predictive of PTB through high-frequency sampling during pregnancy, at delivery and the postpartum period. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Four hundred first trimester pregnant women from either Myanmar or Thailand of either Karen or Burman ethnicity, with a viable, singleton pregnancy will be enrolled in this non-interventional, prospective pregnancy birth cohort study and will be followed through to the postpartum period. Fortnightly finger prick capillary blood sampling will allow the monitoring of genome-wide transcript abundance in whole blood. Collection of stool samples and vaginal swabs each trimester, at delivery and postpartum will allow monitoring of intestinal and vaginal microbial composition. In a nested case-control analysis, perturbations of transcript abundance in capillary blood as well as longitudinal changes of the gut, vaginal and oral microbiome will be compared between mothers giving birth to preterm and matched cases giving birth to term neonates. Placenta tissue of preterm and term neonates will be used to determine bacterial colonisation as well as for the establishment of coding and non-coding RNA profiles. In addition, RNA profiles of circulating, non-coding RNA in cord blood serum will be compared with those of maternal peripheral blood serum at time of delivery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research protocol that aims to detect perturbations in molecular trajectories preceding adverse pregnancy outcomes was approved by the ethics committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand (Ethics Reference: TMEC 15-062), the Oxford Tropical Research Ethics Committee (Ethics Reference: OxTREC: 33-15) and the local Tak Province Community Ethics Advisory Board. The results of this cooperative project will be disseminated in multiple publications staggered over time in international peer-reviewed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02797327; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Vagina/microbiologia
20.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 110, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271889

RESUMO

Background: Screening and monitoring serum bilirubin (SBR) in neonates is crucial to prevent neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH)-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. A lack of resources is often a barrier for measuring SBR in developing countries. Reliable, cost-effective, easy to use point-of-care (POC) SBR tests are needed. This study aimed to evaluate the technical accuracy and usability of the Bilistick System (BS), a new bilirubin POC test, in a tropical setting. Methods: This was a mixed-methods study, including laboratory validation of the BS, direct observation of technical procedures as performed by the midwives and midwives' assessment of the device's easiness of use through focus group discussions (FGD) and a self-administered questionnaire. The study was conducted in a field clinic of the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit along the Thailand-Myanmar border between January and December 2017. Results: A total of 173 samples were tested at a median age of 4 days. BS generated an error message-providing no SBR readout-in 48.6% of the tests performed. For the tests that yielded a result, the correlation coefficient (95% CI) between BS and routine laboratory bilirubinometer SBR was 0.87 (0.77-0.93). The accuracy decreased with increasing haematocrit and at higher humidity (≥75%). Direct observation of the operators using the device and analysis of the focus group discussions and questionnaires indicated that the BS was considered easy to use and required limited training. Conclusions: This evaluation showed that the BS, in its current formulation, does not provide reliable results for measuring SBR in a tropical, low-resource setting  but has acceptable usability features.

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