Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 296
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982285

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive chronic disease and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Until recently, the cardiovascular safety and efficacy of antihyperglycemic drugs remained uncertain. However, after the changes in regulatory guidance in 2008, a wealth of data has been generated, expanding the focus of the treatment of diabetes from blood glucose control to the prevention of macro-and microvascular complications and improvement in mortality. This article will review cardiovascular outcome trials of antihyperglycemic agents and provide overview of ongoing trials.

3.
Circulation ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983236

RESUMO

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) are associated with both diabetes and its related comorbidities including hypertension, obesity, and heart failure (HF). SGLT2i have been shown to lower blood pressure, reduce weight, have salutary effects on left ventricular remodeling and reduce hospitalization for HF and cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We therefore investigated whether SGLT2i may also reduce the risk of AF/AFL. Methods: DECLARE-TIMI 58 studied the efficacy and safety of the SGLT2i dapagliflozin versus placebo in 17160 patients with T2DM and either multiple risk factors for (MRF, n=10186) or known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD, n=6974). Here, we explore the effect of dapagliflozin on the first and total number of AF/AFL events in patients with (n=1,116) and without prevalent AF/AFL using Cox and negative binomial models, respectively. AF/AFL events were identified by search of the safety database using the MedDRA Preferred Terms ("atrial fibrillation", "atrial flutter"). Results: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of AF/AFL events by 19% (264 versus 325 events, 7.8 versus 9.6 events per 1000 patient-years, hazard ratio 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95, P=0.009). The reduction in AF/AFL events was consistent regardless of presence or absence of a history of AF/AFL at baseline (Prior AF/AFL: HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58-1.09, No AF/AFL: HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.98; P-INT 0.89). Similarly, presence of ASCVD (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.04) versus MRF (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62-0.99; P-INT 0.72), or a history of HF (HF: HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.55-1.11, No HF: HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97; P-INT 0.88) did not modify the reduction in AF/AFL events observed with dapagliflozin. Moreover, there was no effect modification by sex, history of ischemic stroke, HbA1c, body mass index, blood pressure, or eGFR (all P-INT>0.20). Dapagliflozin also reduced the total number (first and recurrent) of AF/AFL events (337 versus 432; incidence rate ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.64-0.92, P=0.005). Conclusions: Dapagliflozin decreased the incidence of reported episodes of AF/AFL adverse events in high-risk patients with T2DM. This effect was consistent regardless of the patients' prior history of AF, ASCVD, or HF. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01730534.

5.
Circulation ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992065

RESUMO

Responding to concerns about the potential for increased risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, specifically myocardial infarction, associated with certain glucose-lowering therapies, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency issued guidance to the pharmaceutical industry in 2008. Glucose-lowering therapies were primarily granted regulatory approval from smaller studies that have demonstrated reductions in glycated hemoglobin concentration. Such studies were overall underpowered and of insufficient duration to show any effect on CV outcomes. The 2008 guidance aimed to ensure CV safety of new glucose-lowering therapies to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This resulted in a plethora of new CV outcome trials, most designed primarily as placebo-controlled noninferiority trials, but with many also powered for superiority. Several of these outcome trials demonstrated CV benefits of the newer agents, resulting in the first-ever CV protection indications for glucose-lowering therapies. Determining whether the guidance continues to have value in its current form is critically important as we move forward after the first decade of implementation. In February 2018, a think tank comprising representatives from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies convened to consider the guidance in light of the findings of the completed CV outcome trials. The group made several recommendations for future regulatory guidance and for CV outcome trials regarding glucose-lowering therapies. These recommendations include requiring only the 1.3 noninferiority margin for regulatory approval, conducting trials for longer durations, considering studying glucose-lowering therapies as first-line management of type 2 diabetes, considering heart failure or kidney outcomes within the primary outcome, considering head-to-head active comparator trials, increasing the diversity of patients enrolled, evaluating strategies to streamline registries and the study of unselected populations, and identifying ways to improve translation of trial results to general practice.

6.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(1): 53-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667706

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD) severity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and insulin with the risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), mortality, and severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high cardiovascular (CV) risk are not known. This secondary, pooled analysis of data from the DEVOTE trial examined whether baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) categories were associated with a higher risk of these outcomes. METHODS: DEVOTE was a treat-to-target, double-blind trial involving 7637 patients with T2D at high CV risk who were randomized to once-daily treatment with either insulin degludec (degludec) or insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100). Patients with estimated GFR data at baseline (n = 7522) were analyzed following stratification into four GFR categories. RESULTS: The risks of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality increased with worsening baseline GFR category (P < 0.05), with a trend towards higher rates of severe hypoglycemia. Patients with prior CVD, CKD (estimated GFR < 60 mL/min/m2), or both were at higher risk of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality. Only CKD was associated with a higher rate of severe hypoglycemia, and the risk of MACE was higher in patients with CVD than in those with CKD (P  = 0.0003). There were no significant interactions between randomized treatment and GFR category. CONCLUSION: The risks of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality were higher with lower baseline GFR and with prior CVD, CKD, or both. The relative effects of degludec versus glargine U100 on outcomes were consistent across baseline GFR categories, suggesting that the lower rate of severe hypoglycemia associated with degludec use versus glargine U100 use was independent of baseline GFR category. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk.

7.
Am Heart J ; 219: 47-57, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whether obesity affects outcomes among those with T2D and atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) remains uncertain. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and ASCVD outcomes among TECOS participants with T2D and ASCVD. METHODS: BMI categories were defined as underweight/normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), obese class I (30-34.9 kg/m2), obese class II (35-39.9 kg/m2), and obese class III (≥ 40 kg/m2). Asian-specific BMI categories were applied to Asian participants. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations between baseline BMI and a composite CV outcome (CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina). RESULTS: For 14,534 TECOS patients with available BMI, mean age was 65.5 years; 29.3% were female, 32.0% non-White, and 23.1% insulin-treated, with median 3 years' follow-up. At baseline, 11.6% (n = 1686) were underweight/normal weight, 38.1% (n = 5532) overweight, 32.2% (n = 4683) obese class I, 12.4% (n = 1806) obese class II, and 5.7% (n = 827) obese class III. The composite CV outcome occurred in 11.4% (n = 1663) of participants; the outcome risk was lower, compared with under/normal weight, in overweight (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.98) and obese class I (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.93) individuals. Obesity was not associated with worse glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of TECOS participants with ASCVD and T2D were overweight or obese, yet overweight or obese class I individuals had lower CV risk than those who were under/normal weight. These results suggest the presence of an obesity paradox, but this paradox may reflect an epidemiological artifact rather than a true negative association between normal weight and clinical outcomes.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 468-475, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data regarding the effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the elderly (age ≥65 years) and very elderly (age ≥75 years) are limited. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events (DECLARE)-TIMI 58 assessed cardiac and renal outcomes of dapagliflozin versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. Efficacy and safety outcomes were studied within age subgroups for treatment effect and age-based treatment interaction. RESULTS: Of the 17,160 patients, 9,253 were <65 years of age, 6,811 ≥65 to <75 years, and 1,096 ≥75 years. Dapagliflozin reduced the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure consistently, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.88 (95% CI 0.72, 1.07), 0.77 (0.63, 0.94), and 0.94 (0.65, 1.36) in age-groups <65, ≥65 to <75, and ≥75 years, respectively (interaction P value 0.5277). Overall, dapagliflozin did not significantly decrease the rates of major adverse cardiovascular events, with HR 0.93 (95% CI 0.81, 1.08), 0.97 (0.83, 1.13), and 0.84 (0.61, 1.15) in age-groups <65, ≥65 to <75, and ≥75 years, respectively (interaction P value 0.7352). The relative risk reduction for the secondary prespecified cardiorenal composite outcome ranged from 18% to 28% in the different age-groups with no heterogeneity. Major hypoglycemia was less frequent with dapagliflozin versus placebo, with HR 0.97 (95% CI 0.58, 1.64), 0.50 (0.29, 0.84), and 0.68 (0.29, 1.57) in age-groups <65, ≥65 to <75, and ≥75 years, respectively (interaction P value 0.2107). Safety outcomes, including fractures, volume depletion, cancer, urinary tract infections, and amputations were balanced with dapagliflozin versus placebo, and acute kidney injury was reduced, all regardless of age. Genital infections that were serious or led to discontinuation of the study drug and diabetic ketoacidosis were uncommon, yet more frequent with dapagliflozin versus placebo, without heterogeneity (interaction P values 0.1058 and 0.8433, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The overall efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin are consistent regardless of age.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 440-445, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HbA1c levels are increasingly measured in screening for diabetes; we investigated whether HbA1c may simultaneously improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment, using QRISK3, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), and Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scoring systems. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: UK Biobank participants without baseline CVD or known diabetes (n = 357,833) were included. Associations of HbA1c with CVD was assessed using Cox models adjusting for classical risk factors. Predictive utility was determined by the C-index and net reclassification index (NRI). A separate analysis was conducted in 16,596 participants with known baseline diabetes. RESULTS: Incident fatal or nonfatal CVD, as defined in the QRISK3 prediction model, occurred in 12,877 participants over 8.9 years. Of participants, 3.3% (n = 11,665) had prediabetes (42.0-47.9 mmol/mol [6.0-6.4%]) and 0.7% (n = 2,573) had undiagnosed diabetes (≥48.0 mmol/mol [≥6.5%]). In unadjusted models, compared with the reference group (<42.0 mmol/mol [<6.0%]), those with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes were at higher CVD risk: hazard ratio (HR) 1.83 (95% CI 1.69-1.97) and 2.26 (95% CI 1.96-2.60), respectively. After adjustment for classical risk factors, these attenuated to HR 1.11 (95% CI 1.03-1.20) and 1.20 (1.04-1.38), respectively. Adding HbA1c to the QRISK3 CVD risk prediction model (C-index 0.7392) yielded a small improvement in discrimination (C-index increase of 0.0004 [95% CI 0.0001-0.0007]). The NRI showed no improvement. Results were similar for models based on the ACC/AHA and SCORE risk models. CONCLUSIONS: The near twofold higher unadjusted risk for CVD in people with prediabetes is driven mainly by abnormal levels of conventional CVD risk factors. While HbA1c adds minimally to cardiovascular risk prediction, those with prediabetes should have their conventional cardiovascular risk factors appropriately measured and managed.

10.
Circulation ; 140(25): 2108-2118, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841369

RESUMO

Following regulatory guidance set forth in 2008 by the US Food and Drug Administration for new drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus, many large randomized, controlled trials have been conducted with the primary goal of assessing the safety of antihyperglycemic medications on the primary end point of major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Heart failure (HF) was not specifically mentioned in the US Food and Drug Administration guidance and therefore it was not a focus of these studies when planned. Several trials subsequently showed the impact of antihyperglycemic drugs on HF outcomes, which were not originally specified as the primary end point of the trials. The most impressive finding has been the substantial and consistent risk reduction in HF hospitalization seen across 4 trials of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. However, to date, these results have not led to regulatory approval of any of these drugs for a HF indication or a recommendation for use by US HF guidelines. It is therefore important to explore to what extent persuasive treatment effects on nonprimary end points can be used to support regulatory claims and guideline recommendations. This topic was discussed by researchers, clinicians, industry sponsors, regulators, and representatives from professional societies, who convened on the US Food and Drug Administration campus on March 6, 2019. This report summarizes these discussions and the key takeaway messages from this meeting.

11.
Circulation ; 140(25): 2047, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841372
12.
Am Heart J ; 218: 57-65, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707329

RESUMO

International differences in management/outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure (HF) are not well characterized. We sought to evaluate geographic variation in treatment and outcomes among these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 14,671 participants in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS), those with HF at baseline and a documented ejection fraction (EF) (N = 1591; 10.8%) were categorized by enrollment region (North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, and Asia Pacific). Cox models were used to examine the association between geographic region and the primary outcome of all-cause mortality (ACM) or hospitalization for HF (hHF) in addition to ACM alone. Analyses were stratified by those with EF <40% or EF ≥40%. The majority of participants with HF were enrolled in Eastern Europe (53%). Overall, 1,267 (79.6%) had EF ≥40%. ß-Blocker (83%) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (86%) use was high across all regions in patients with EF <40%. During a median follow-up of 2.9 years, Eastern European participants had lower rates of ACM/hHF compared with North Americans (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.32-0.64). These differences were seen only in the EF ≥40% subgroup and not the EF <40% subgroup. ACM was similar among Eastern European and North American participants (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.44-1.45). CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation exists in the clinical features and outcomes of HF patients across regions in TECOS. Patients from Eastern Europe had lower risk-adjusted ACM/hHF than those in North America, driven by those with EF ≥40%. These data may inform the design of future international trials.

13.
Am Heart J ; 218: 92-99, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of ß-blocker therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) are unclear. We sought to evaluate associations between ß-blocker use in T2D with ASCVD and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. METHODS: In patients with T2D and ASCVD enrolled in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS), an inverse probability of treatment-weighted Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the association between baseline ß-blocker therapy (at randomization) and the primary CV composite (defined as CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI], non-fatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina), including in subgroups with prior MI and heart failure (HF); other outcomes evaluated included individual components of the primary composite, hospitalization for HF, and severe hypoglycemic events. RESULTS: Of the 14,671 patients randomized, 9322 (64%) were on a ß-blocker at baseline; these patients were more likely to have prior MI or HF. Over a median 3.0 (25th, 75th percentile: 2.2, 3.6) years, the risk of the primary CV composite was significantly higher with baseline ß-blocker use versus no ß-blocker use (4.5 vs. 3.4 events/100-patient years, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.29); no significant interaction was noted for patients with versus without prior MI or HF. Baseline ß-blocker use was not associated with risks for severe hypoglycemic events (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.88-1.48). CONCLUSIONS: In this observational analysis of T2D and ASCVD, baseline ß-blocker use was not associated with risks for severe hypoglycemia yet also was not associated with CV risk reduction over 3 years of follow-up, supporting a randomized examination of chronic ß-blocker therapy in this patient population. (TECOS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00790205).

14.
16.
Diabetes Care ; 42(12): 2298-2306, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a novel, machine learning-derived model to predict the risk of heart failure (HF) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using data from 8,756 patients free at baseline of HF, with <10% missing data, and enrolled in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, we used random survival forest (RSF) methods, a nonparametric decision tree machine learning approach, to identify predictors of incident HF. The RSF model was externally validated in a cohort of individuals with T2DM using the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 4.9 years, 319 patients (3.6%) developed incident HF. The RSF models demonstrated better discrimination than the best performing Cox-based method (C-index 0.77 [95% CI 0.75-0.80] vs. 0.73 [0.70-0.76] respectively) and had acceptable calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic χ2 = 9.63, P = 0.29) in the internal validation data set. From the identified predictors, an integer-based risk score for 5-year HF incidence was created: the WATCH-DM (Weight [BMI], Age, hyperTension, Creatinine, HDL-C, Diabetes control [fasting plasma glucose], QRS Duration, MI, and CABG) risk score. Each 1-unit increment in the risk score was associated with a 24% higher relative risk of HF within 5 years. The cumulative 5-year incidence of HF increased in a graded fashion from 1.1% in quintile 1 (WATCH-DM score ≤7) to 17.4% in quintile 5 (WATCH-DM score ≥14). In the external validation cohort, the RSF-based risk prediction model and the WATCH-DM risk score performed well with good discrimination (C-index = 0.74 and 0.70, respectively), acceptable calibration (P ≥0.20 for both), and broad risk stratification (5-year HF risk range from 2.5 to 18.7% across quintiles 1-5). CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated a novel, machine learning-derived risk score that integrates readily available clinical, laboratory, and electrocardiographic variables to predict the risk of HF among outpatients with T2DM.

17.
JAMA ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536101

RESUMO

Importance: Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In placebo-controlled cardiovascular safety trials, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin demonstrated noninferiority, but it has not been tested against an active comparator. Objective: This trial assessed cardiovascular outcomes of linagliptin vs glimepiride (sulfonylurea) in patients with relatively early type 2 diabetes and risk factors for or established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, noninferiority trial, with participant screening from November 2010 to December 2012, conducted at 607 hospital and primary care sites in 43 countries involving 6042 participants. Adults with type 2 diabetes, glycated hemoglobin of 6.5% to 8.5%, and elevated cardiovascular risk were eligible for inclusion. Elevated cardiovascular risk was defined as documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, multiple cardiovascular risk factors, aged at least 70 years, and evidence of microvascular complications. Follow-up ended in August 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive 5 mg of linagliptin once daily (n = 3023) or 1 to 4 mg of glimepiride once daily (n = 3010) in addition to usual care. Investigators were encouraged to intensify glycemic treatment, primarily by adding or adjusting metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, or insulin, according to clinical need. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was time to first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke with the aim to establish noninferiority of linagliptin vs glimepiride, defined by the upper limit of the 2-sided 95.47% CI for the hazard ratio (HR) of linagliptin relative to glimepiride of less than 1.3. Results: Of 6042 participants randomized, 6033 (mean age, 64.0 years; 2414 [39.9%] women; mean glycated hemoglobin, 7.2%; median duration of diabetes, 6.3 years; 42% with macrovascular disease; 59% had undergone metformin monotherapy) were treated and analyzed. The median duration of follow-up was 6.3 years. The primary outcome occurred in 356 of 3023 participants (11.8%) in the linagliptin group and 362 of 3010 (12.0%) in the glimepiride group (HR, 0.98 [95.47% CI, 0.84-1.14]; P < .001 for noninferiority), meeting the noninferiority criterion but not superiority (P = .76). Adverse events occurred in 2822 participants (93.4%) in the linagliptin group and 2856 (94.9%) in the glimepiride group, with 15 participants (0.5%) in the linagliptin group vs 16 (0.5%) in the glimepiride group with adjudicated-confirmed acute pancreatitis. At least 1 episode of hypoglycemic adverse events occurred in 320 (10.6%) participants in the linagliptin group and 1132 (37.7%) in the glimepiride group (HR, 0.23 [95% CI, 0.21-0.26]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with relatively early type 2 diabetes and elevated cardiovascular risk, the use of linagliptin compared with glimepiride over a median 6.3 years resulted in a noninferior risk of a composite cardiovascular outcome. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01243424.

18.
Circulation ; 140(18): 1463-1476, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated reduced hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors. However, few of these patients had HF, and those that did were not well-characterized. Thus, the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors in patients with established HF with reduced ejection fraction, including those with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus, remain unknown. METHODS: DEFINE-HF (Dapagliflozin Effects on Biomarkers, Symptoms and Functional Status in Patients with HF with Reduced Ejection Fraction) was an investigator-initiated, multi-center, randomized controlled trial of HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III, estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min/1.73m2, and elevated natriuretic peptides. In total, 263 patients were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks. Dual primary outcomes were (1) mean NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide) and (2) proportion of patients with ≥5-point increase in HF disease-specific health status on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score, or a ≥20% decrease in NT-proBNP. RESULTS: Patient characteristics reflected stable, chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction with high use of optimal medical therapy. There was no significant difference in average 6- and 12-week adjusted NT-proBNP with dapagliflozin versus placebo (1133 pg/dL (95% CI 1036-1238) vs 1191 pg/dL (95% CI 1089-1304), P=0.43). For the second dual-primary outcome of a meaningful improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score or NT-proBNP, 61.5% of dapagliflozin-treated patients met this end point versus 50.4% with placebo (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.03-3.06, nominal P=0.039). This was attributable to both higher proportions of patients with ≥5-point improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score (42.9 vs 32.5%, adjusted OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.98-3.05), and ≥20% reduction in NT-proBNP (44.0 vs 29.4%, adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3) by 12 weeks. Results were consistent among patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other prespecified subgroups (all P values for interaction=NS). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, use of dapagliflozin over 12 weeks did not affect mean NT-proBNP but increased the proportion of patients experiencing clinically meaningful improvements in HF-related health status or natriuretic peptides. Benefits of dapagliflozin on clinically meaningful HF measures appear to extend to patients without type 2 diabetes mellitus. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02653482.

19.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 116, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the effects of the DPP-4i sitagliptin on CV outcomes during and after incident MI in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS). METHODS: TECOS randomized 14,671 participants with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) to sitagliptin or placebo, in addition to usual care. For those who had a within-trial MI, we analyzed case fatality, and for those with a nonfatal MI, we examined a composite cardiovascular (CV) outcome (CV death or hospitalization for heart failure [hHF]) by treatment group, using Cox proportional hazards models left-censored at the time of the first within-trial MI, without and with adjustment for potential confounders, in intention-to-treat analyses. RESULTS: During TECOS, 616 participants had ≥ 1 MI (sitagliptin group 300, placebo group 316, HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.81-1.11, P = 0.49), of which 25 were fatal [11 and 14, respectively]). Of the 591 patients with a nonfatal MI, 87 (15%) died subsequently, with 66 (11%) being CV deaths, and 57 (10%) experiencing hHF. The composite outcome occurred in 58 (20.1%; 13.9 per 100 person-years) sitagliptin group participants and 50 (16.6%; 11.7 per 100 person-years) placebo group participants (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.83-1.77, P = 0.32, adjusted HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.83-1.82, P = 0.31). On-treatment sensitivity analyses also showed no significant between-group differences in post-MI outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes and ASCVD experiencing an MI, sitagliptin did not reduce subsequent risk of CV death or hHF, contrary to expectations derived from preclinical animal models. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT00790205.

20.
Lancet ; 394(10204): 1169-1180, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes with previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), particularly those with previous stenting, are at high risk of ischaemic events. These patients are generally treated with aspirin. In this trial, we aimed to investigate if these patients would benefit from treatment with aspirin plus ticagrelor. METHODS: The Effect of Ticagrelor on Health Outcomes in diabEtes Mellitus patients Intervention Study (THEMIS) was a phase 3 randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, done in 1315 sites in 42 countries. Patients were eligible if 50 years or older, with type 2 diabetes, receiving anti-hyperglycaemic drugs for at least 6 months, with stable coronary artery disease, and one of three other mutually non-exclusive criteria: a history of previous PCI or of coronary artery bypass grafting, or documentation of angiographic stenosis of 50% or more in at least one coronary artery. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either ticagrelor or placebo, by use of an interactive voice-response or web-response system. The THEMIS-PCI trial comprised a prespecified subgroup of patients with previous PCI. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (measured in the intention-to-treat population). FINDINGS: Between Feb 17, 2014, and May 24, 2016, 11 154 patients (58% of the overall THEMIS trial) with a history of previous PCI were enrolled in the THEMIS-PCI trial. Median follow-up was 3·3 years (IQR 2·8-3·8). In the previous PCI group, fewer patients receiving ticagrelor had a primary efficacy outcome event than in the placebo group (404 [7·3%] of 5558 vs 480 [8·6%] of 5596; HR 0·85 [95% CI 0·74-0·97], p=0·013). The same effect was not observed in patients without PCI (p=0·76, pinteraction=0·16). The proportion of patients with cardiovascular death was similar in both treatment groups (174 [3·1%] with ticagrelor vs 183 (3·3%) with placebo; HR 0·96 [95% CI 0·78-1·18], p=0·68), as well as all-cause death (282 [5·1%] vs 323 [5·8%]; 0·88 [0·75-1·03], p=0·11). TIMI major bleeding occurred in 111 (2·0%) of 5536 patients receiving ticagrelor and 62 (1·1%) of 5564 patients receiving placebo (HR 2·03 [95% CI 1·48-2·76], p<0·0001), and fatal bleeding in 6 (0·1%) of 5536 patients with ticagrelor and 6 (0·1%) of 5564 with placebo (1·13 [0·36-3·50], p=0·83). Intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 33 (0·6%) and 31 (0·6%) patients (1·21 [0·74-1·97], p=0·45). Ticagrelor improved net clinical benefit: 519/5558 (9·3%) versus 617/5596 (11·0%), HR=0·85, 95% CI 0·75-0·95, p=0·005, in contrast to patients without PCI where it did not, pinteraction=0·012. Benefit was present irrespective of time from most recent PCI. INTERPRETATION: In patients with diabetes, stable coronary artery disease, and previous PCI, ticagrelor added to aspirin reduced cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, although with increased major bleeding. In that large, easily identified population, ticagrelor provided a favourable net clinical benefit (more than in patients without history of PCI). This effect shows that long-term therapy with ticagrelor in addition to aspirin should be considered in patients with diabetes and a history of PCI who have tolerated antiplatelet therapy, have high ischaemic risk, and low bleeding risk. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA