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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818322

RESUMO

This study explored relations between COVID-19 news source, trust in COVID-19 information source, and COVID-19 health literacy in 194 STEM-oriented adolescents and young adults from the US and the UK. Analyses suggest that adolescents use both traditional news (e.g., TV or newspapers) and social media news to acquire information about COVID-19 and have average levels of COVID-19 health literacy. Hierarchical linear regression analyses suggest that the association between traditional news media and COVID-19 health literacy depends on participants' level of trust in their government leader. For youth in both the US and the UK who used traditional media for information about COVID-19 and who have higher trust in their respective government leader (i.e., former US President Donald Trump and UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson) had lower COVID-19 health literacy. Results highlight how youth are learning about the pandemic and the importance of not only considering their information source, but also their levels of trust in their government leaders.

2.
Front Psychol ; 12: 641695, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040559

RESUMO

Women are drastically underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and this underrepresentation has been linked to gender stereotypes and ability related beliefs. One way to remedy this may be to challenge male bias gender stereotypes around STEM by cultivating equitable beliefs that both female and male can excel in STEM. The present study implemented a growth mindset intervention to promote children's incremental ability beliefs and investigate the relation between the intervention and children's gender stereotypes in an informal science learning site. Participants (n = 143, female n = 77, male n = 66, 5-12-years-old, M age = 8.6, SD = 1.7) were visitors to a science museum who took part in an interactive space science show. Participants who were exposed to a growth mindset intervention, compared to the participants in the control condition, reported significantly less gender stereotyping around STEM by reporting equitably in the stereotype awareness measure. Relatedly, participants in the control condition reported male bias gender stereotype in the stereotype awareness measure. Further, children between 5 and 8-years-old reported greater male bias stereotypes awareness and stereotype flexibility in space science compared to children between 9 and 12-years-old. Lastly, children demonstrated in-group bias in STEM ability. Male participants reported gender bias favoring males' ability in stereotype flexibility and awareness measures, while female participants reported bias toward females' ability in stereotype flexibility and awareness measures. These findings document the importance of a growth mindset intervention in buffering against STEM gender stereotyping amongst children, as well as the significant role a growth mindset intervention can play within an informal science learning site.

3.
Front Psychol ; 12: 635839, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868104

RESUMO

Informal science learning sites (ISLS) create opportunities for children to learn about science outside of the classroom. This study analyzed children's learning behaviors in ISLS using video recordings of family visits to a zoo, children's museum, or aquarium. Furthermore, parent behaviors, features of the exhibits and the presence of an educator were also examined in relation to children's behaviors. Participants included 63 children (60.3% female) and 44 parents in 31 family groups. Results showed that parents' science questions and explanations were positively related to children observing the exhibit. Parents' science explanations were also negatively related to children's science explanations. Furthermore, children were more likely to provide science explanations when the exhibit was not interactive. Lastly there were no differences in children's behaviors based on whether an educator was present at the exhibit. This study provides further evidence that children's interactions with others and their environment are important for children's learning behaviors.

4.
Front Psychol ; 12: 503237, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841221

RESUMO

Interest in science and math plays an important role in encouraging STEM motivation and career aspirations. This interest decreases for girls between late childhood and adolescence. Relatedly, positive mentoring experiences with female teachers can protect girls against losing interest. The present study examines whether visitors to informal science learning sites (ISLS; science centers, zoos, and aquariums) differ in their expressed science and math interest, as well as their science and math stereotypes following an interaction with either a male or female educator. Participants (n = 364; early childhood, n = 151, M age = 6.73; late childhood, n = 136, M age = 10.01; adolescence, n = 59, M age = 13.92) were visitors to one of four ISLS in the United States and United Kingdom. Following an interaction with a male or female educator, they reported their math and science interest and responded to math and science gender stereotype measures. Female participants reported greater interest in math following an interaction with a female educator, compared to when they interacted with a male educator. In turn, female participants who interacted with a female educator were less likely to report male-biased math gender stereotypes. Self-reported science interest did not differ as a function of educator gender. Together these findings suggest that, when aiming to encourage STEM interest and challenge gender stereotypes in informal settings, we must consider the importance of the gender of educators and learners.

5.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(2): 314-323, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804294

RESUMO

Adolescence represents a developmental period of waning academic motivation, particularly in STEM domains. To combat this, better understanding the factors that might foster STEM motivation and interest is of importance. Social factors like social competencies and feelings of belonging become increasingly important in adolescence. The current study investigated structural relations between social competencies, feelings of belonging to an informal STEM learning program, math and science efficacy and interest in a sample of 268 adolescents (Mage = 15.25; 66.8% girls; 42.5% White British or European American, 25.7% South Asian British or Asian American, 15.7% Afro-Caribbean Black British or African American 5.6% Bi-racial, and 3.0% other). Adolescents were recruited from six different informal learning sites (e.g., science museums, zoos, or aquariums) in the United States (n = 147) and the United Kingdom (n = 121). The results revealed positive relations between social competencies and belonging, and between belonging and math and science efficacy and interest. Further, the results also indicated a positive indirect effect of social competencies on efficacy and interest, via belonging. These findings have implications for guiding informal STEM programming in ways that can enhance STEM motivation and interest.


Assuntos
Motivação , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Matemática , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
6.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2020(172): 125-134, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920910

RESUMO

Developmental science research often involves research questions developed by academic teams, which are tested within community or educational settings. In this piece, we outline the importance of research-practice partnerships, which involve both research and practice-based partners collaborating at each stage of the research process. We articulate challenges and benefits of these partnerships for developmental science research, identify relevant research frameworks that may inform these partnerships, and provide an example of an ongoing research-practice partnership.


Assuntos
Ciências Biocomportamentais , Colaboração Intersetorial , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Ciências Biocomportamentais/organização & administração , Ciências Biocomportamentais/normas , Engenharia/educação , Humanos , Matemática/educação , Desenvolvimento de Programas/normas , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/organização & administração , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/normas , Ciência/educação , Tecnologia/educação
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701956

RESUMO

This study explored topic interest, perceived learning and actual recall of exhibit content in 979 children and adolescents and 1,184 adults who visited informal science learning sites and interacted with an adult or youth educator or just the exhibit itself as part of family visits to the sites. Children in early childhood reported greater topic interest and perceived learning, but actually recalled less content, than participants in middle childhood or adolescence. Youth visitors reported greater interest after interacting with a youth educator than just the exhibit, and perceived that they learn more if they interact with an educator (youth or adult). Participants in middle childhood recall more when they encounter a youth educator. Adult visitors reported greater interest after interaction with a youth educator than with the exhibit alone or an adult educator. They also perceived that they learn more if they interact with an educator (youth or adult) than just the exhibit and perceived that they learned more if they interacted with a youth educator than an adult educator. Results highlight the benefits of educators in informal science learning sites and document the importance of attention to developmental needs.


Assuntos
Docentes , Aprendizagem , Ciência/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Appl Dev Psychol ; 67: 101109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255884

RESUMO

Stereotypes about science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) are associated with reduced STEM engagement amongst girls and women. The present study examined these stereotypes from early childhood through adolescence within informal science learning sites (ISLS; science museums, zoos, aquariums). Further, the study explored whether interactions with male or female educators influenced STEM stereotypes. Participants (n = 997, female = 572) were ISLS visitors in the UK and USA who either interacted with an educator, or no educator. With age participants were more likely to report that "both boys and girls" are "usually", "should" be, and "can" be good at STEM. Independent of age, male participants reported that their own gender group "should" be good at STEM. Educator interactions did not influence stereotype responses. These results highlight early childhood as a key developmental window in which to challenge ideas about who can and should be proficient in STEM.

9.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 195: 104845, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276151

RESUMO

Women are drastically underrepresented within computer science, which is in part informed by societal ideas of who can and should belong in the sciences. Less is known about how children evaluate their peers who challenge gendered expectations of who can and should take part in computer science. The current study asked children (N = 213; 110 girls) in middle childhood (Mage = 8.71 years; n = 108) and late childhood (Mage = 10.56 years; n = 105) to evaluate a gender-matched peer who challenged a group norm related to either computer science (male-gendered domain) or biology (less male-gendered domain). Male participants most negatively evaluated a peer who wanted to take part in a biology activity when the rest of the group wanted to do a programming activity. Furthermore, male participants expected their group to negatively evaluate this deviant peer in the programming condition. Mediation analysis revealed that for boys in the computer science condition, perceived group evaluation predicted individual evaluation. Female participants, in contrast, did not negatively evaluate someone who challenged a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) peer group norm. This study demonstrates that male peer groups may perpetuate the idea that computer science is for men through negative evaluation of in-group members who challenge those ideas and, in turn, maintain their dominant position as the high-status group. Achieving equity in the computer science field will require a greater understanding of these peer group norms.


Assuntos
Papel de Gênero , Grupo Associado , Ciência , Percepção Social/psicologia , Tecnologia , Criança , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Normas Sociais
10.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 38(4): 529-542, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464607

RESUMO

Coordinating complex social and moral concerns when allocating resources is a key issue in late childhood and early adolescence. This study explored resource allocation in three goal contexts that required children to focus to differing degrees on moral and group concerns. Children (9-11-years, Mage = 9.84, n = 190) and adolescents (14-16-years, Mage = 14.92, n = 154) were informed their school peer group held an in-group norm (competition, cooperation). Participants allocated resources between their in-group and an outgroup within one of three goal contexts (prosocial, learning-focused, and group-focused). Participants allocated in favour of their in-group to achieve a prosocial goal but attenuated this when the goal was focused on learning and cooperation. Adolescents, more than children, reasoned about the goals of resource allocation to justify their decisions. From 9 years old, children begin to coordinate peer group norms and goal information when deciding how to allocate resources within intergroup contexts.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Processos Grupais , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Grupo Associado
11.
Child Dev ; 90(6): e703-e717, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781129

RESUMO

The present study examined how peer group norms influence children's evaluations of deviant ingroup members. Following the manipulation of competitive or cooperative norms, participants (children, Mage  = 8.69; adolescents, Mage  = 13.81; adults, Mage  = 20.89; n = 263) evaluated deviant ingroup members from their own and the group's perspective. Children rated cooperative deviancy positively and believed their group would do the same. Adolescents and adults believed that their group would negatively evaluate cooperative deviancy when their group supported a competitive allocation strategy. Reasoning varied based on norm and participants' agreement with deviancy. Understanding an ingroup may not be favorable toward a cooperative deviant in a competitive context is a developmental challenge requiring the coordination of social and moral norms.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Processos Grupais , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Normas Sociais , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 37(3): 309-322, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548276

RESUMO

Children's and adolescents' resource allocation was examined in a context of inequality between schools and a peer group norm of either equality or equity. Participants (N = 257; children, 7-11 years old and adolescents, 13-16 years old) were inducted into groups with either a lot (advantaged) or few (disadvantaged) art resources, in the context of an art competition. Participants were prescribed an equality (equal distribution) or equity (more resources for disadvantaged groups) norm, before allocating resources between groups. Adolescents, but not children, allocated significantly more resources to their disadvantaged in-group than they did to a disadvantaged out-group, particularly when prescribed an in-group norm of equity. Participants who rectified the inequality referred to the unfair nature of the initial disparity. The findings revealed an important developmental shift between middle childhood and early adolescence regarding the influence of group status and norms on intergroup resource allocation in a competitive context. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children have the capacity to challenge intergroup resource allocation inequalities. Peer group norms can guide resource allocation in situations where inequality is not made salient. What does this study add? A peer group equity norm can guide adolescents to rectify an intergroup inequality. Relative peer group advantage plays an increasingly important role in adolescence. For children, maintaining equality can supersede adherence to a peer group norm.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Processos Grupais , Princípios Morais , Comportamento Social , Normas Sociais , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Dev Psychol ; 54(8): 1499-1506, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952601

RESUMO

The present study investigated age-related changes in the intergroup allocation of resources depending on whether the ingroup norm was competitive or cooperative. Participants included children (Mage = 8.69), adolescents (Mage = 13.81), and adults (Mage = 20.89), (N = 263) who were inducted into simulated groups and informed about an ingroup norm of either cooperation or competition. The goal context for the resource allocation task was either prosocial (to benefit the welfare of animals in a charity event) or group focused (to win a national interschool competition). They were then asked to allocate resources between an ingroup and outgroup, and to justify their allocation. The findings showed that children allocated significantly more resources to their ingroup in order to achieve a prosocial goal, but only when the ingroup norm was competitive. In contrast, adolescents and adults allocated resources equally irrespective of the ingroup norm. These findings showed that children prioritized the moral goal of welfare over that of fairness when their ingroup favored competition, while adolescents and adults always prioritized fairness. Older participants justified their equal allocation with greater reference to the importance of fair competition. This study demonstrated an important developmental shift in how the prioritization of moral goals during intergroup resource allocation is influenced by ingroup norms of competition and cooperation. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Processos Grupais , Alocação de Recursos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Testes Psicológicos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Adulto Jovem
14.
Dev Psychol ; 53(12): 2333-2339, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28933878

RESUMO

Cooperation is a fundamental drive of moral behavior from infancy, yet competitive intergroup contexts can exert a significant influence on resource allocation behavior in childhood. The present study explored how ingroup and outgroup norms of competition and cooperation influenced the allocation of resources between groups among children and adolescents, along with how they reasoned about these allocations. Ingroup norms combined, for the first time, with outgroup norms were manipulated to examine their effect on the development of intergroup resource allocation. Participants aged 8 to 16 years (n = 229) were told that their ingroup and the outgroup held either a competitive or cooperative norm about how they should behave in an arts competition. They then allocated tokens for expenditure in the competition between the 2 teams, and provided social reasoning to justify their chosen allocations. Results showed a negative outgroup norm of competition led to significantly more ingroup bias when the ingroup also held a competitive rather than a cooperative norm. In contrast, a positive outgroup norm of cooperation did not result in significantly less ingroup bias when the ingroup also held a cooperative norm. Additionally, adolescents, unlike children who allocated equally were more likely to make reference to fair competition, a form of moral reasoning, in the competitive compared with the cooperative ingroup norm condition. This study showed that children and adolescents considered both ingroup and outgroup norms simultaneously when making intergroup resource allocations, but that only adolescents varied their reasoning to justify these allocation in line with group norms. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Percepção Social , Pensamento , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Criança , Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança
15.
Child Dev ; 86(4): 1290-1297, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26082195

RESUMO

The present study examined the interactive effects of school norms, peer norms, and accountability on children's intergroup attitudes. Participants (n = 229) aged 5-11 years, in a between-subjects design, were randomly assigned to a peer group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, learned their school either had an inclusion norm or not, and were accountable to either their peer group, teachers, or nobody. Findings indicated, irrespective of age, that an inclusive school norm was less effective when the peer group had an exclusive norm and children were held accountable to their peers or teachers. These findings support social identity development theory (D. Nesdale, 2004, 2007), which expects both the in-group peer and school norm to influence children's intergroup attitudes.

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