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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(2): 351-363, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited studies have investigated racial/ethnic survival disparities for breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status in a multiethnic population. METHODS: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed associations of race/ethnicity with ER/PR-specific breast cancer mortality in 10,366 California women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1993 to 2009. We evaluated joint associations of race/ethnicity, health care, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors with mortality. RESULTS: Among women with ER/PR+ breast cancer, breast cancer-specific mortality was similar among Hispanic and Asian American women, but higher among African American women [HR, 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.63] compared with non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. Breast cancer-specific mortality was modified by surgery type, hospital type, education, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), smoking history, and alcohol consumption. Among African American women, breast cancer-specific mortality was higher among those treated at nonaccredited hospitals (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21-2.04) and those from lower SES neighborhoods (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.16-1.88) compared with NHW women without these characteristics. Breast cancer-specific mortality was higher among African American women with at least some college education (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.11-1.82) compared with NHW women with similar education. For ER-/PR- disease, breast cancer-specific mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity and associations of race/ethnicity with breast cancer-specific mortality varied only by neighborhood SES among African American women. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic survival disparities are more striking for ER/PR+ than ER-/PR- breast cancer. Social determinants and lifestyle factors may explain some of the survival disparities for ER/PR+ breast cancer. IMPACT: Addressing these factors may help reduce the higher mortality of African American women with ER/PR+ breast cancer.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5116, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037222

RESUMO

Mammographic density (MD) phenotypes are strongly associated with breast cancer risk and highly heritable. In this GWAS meta-analysis of 24,192 women, we identify 31 MD loci at P < 5 × 10-8, tripling the number known to 46. Seventeen identified MD loci also are associated with breast cancer risk in an independent meta-analysis (P < 0.05). Mendelian randomization analyses show that genetic estimates of dense area (DA), nondense area (NDA), and percent density (PD) are all significantly associated with breast cancer risk (P < 0.05). Pathway analyses reveal distinct biological processes involving DA, NDA and PD loci. These findings provide additional insights into the genetic basis of MD phenotypes and their associations with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mamografia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated. METHODS: A pooled analysis of 10,470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16,942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race/ethnicity, age, and education level, and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses. RESULTS: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (two-sided Ptrend <.001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.

4.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(6): e200421, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239218

RESUMO

Importance: Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in multiple studies, but others showed no association. Whether risk reduction extends beyond that provided by pregnancy alone or differs by histotype is unclear. Furthermore, the observed associations between duration and timing of breastfeeding with ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent. Objective: To determine the association between breastfeeding (ie, ever/never, duration, timing) and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Design, Setting, and Participants: A pooled analysis of parous women with ovarian cancer and controls from 13 case-control studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the overall association were calculated using multivariable logistic regression and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations. All data were collected from individual sites from November 1989 to December 2009, and analysis took place from September 2017 to July 2019. Exposures: Data on breastfeeding history, including duration per child breastfed, age at first and last breastfeeding, and years since last breastfeeding were collected by questionnaire or interview and was harmonized across studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Results: A total of 9973 women with ovarian cancer (mean [SD] age, 57.4 [11.1] years) and 13 843 controls (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [11.7] years) were included. Breastfeeding was associated with a 24% lower risk of invasive ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.80). Independent of parity, ever having breastfed was associated with reduction in risk of all invasive ovarian cancers, particularly high-grade serous and endometrioid cancers. For a single breastfeeding episode, mean breastfeeding duration of 1 to 3 months was associated with 18% lower risk (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.88), and breastfeeding for 12 or more months was associated with a 34% lower risk (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.75). More recent breastfeeding was associated with a reduction in risk (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.47-0.66 for <10 years) that persisted for decades (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.90 for ≥30 years; P for trend = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Breastfeeding is associated with a significant decrease in risk of ovarian cancer overall and for the high-grade serous subtype, the most lethal type of ovarian cancer. The findings suggest that breastfeeding is a potentially modifiable factor that may lower risk of ovarian cancer independent of pregnancy alone.

5.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 610-616, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In a review of cancer incidence across continents (GLOBOCAN 2012), data sources from Ghana were classified as Frequencies, the lowest classification for inclusion, signifying the worst data quality for inclusion in the analysis. Recognizing this deficiency, the establishment of a population-based cancer registry was proposed as part of a broader cancer control plan. METHODS: The registry was examined under the following headings: policy, data source, and administrative structure; external support and training; and definition of geographic coverage. RESULTS: The registry was set up based on the Ghana policy document on the strategy for cancer control. The paradigm shift ensured subscription to one data collection software (CanReg 5) in the country. The current approach consists of trained registrars based in the registry who conduct active data abstraction at the departments and units of the hospital and pathologic services. To ensure good governance, an administrative structure was created, including an advisory board, a technical committee, and registry staff. External support for the establishment of the Accra Cancer Registry has come mainly from Stanford University and the African Cancer Registry Network, in collaboration with the University of Ghana. Unlike previous attempts, this registry has a well-defined population made up of nine municipal districts. CONCLUSION: The Accra Cancer Registry was established as a result of the lessons learned from failed previous attempts and aim to provide a model for setting up other cancer registries in Ghana. It will eventually be the focal point where all the national data can be collated.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 1039-1048, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percent density (PD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer that is potentially modifiable by lifestyle factors. PD is a composite of the dense (DA) and nondense (NDA) areas of a mammogram, representing predominantly fibroglandular or fatty tissues, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco use have been associated with increased breast cancer risk. However, their effects on mammographic density (MD) phenotypes are poorly understood. METHODS: We examined associations of alcohol and tobacco use with PD, DA, and NDA in a population-based cohort of 23,456 women screened using full-field digital mammography machines manufactured by Hologic or General Electric. MD was measured using Cumulus. Machine-specific effects were estimated using linear regression, and combined using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Alcohol use was positively associated with PD (P trend = 0.01), unassociated with DA (P trend = 0.23), and inversely associated with NDA (P trend = 0.02) adjusting for age, body mass index, reproductive factors, physical activity, and family history of breast cancer. In contrast, tobacco use was inversely associated with PD (P trend = 0.0008), unassociated with DA (P trend = 0.93), and positively associated with NDA (P trend<0.0001). These trends were stronger in normal and overweight women than in obese women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that associations of alcohol and tobacco use with PD result more from their associations with NDA than DA. IMPACT: PD and NDA may mediate the association of alcohol drinking, but not tobacco smoking, with increased breast cancer risk. Further studies are needed to elucidate the modifiable lifestyle factors that influence breast tissue composition, and the important role of the fatty tissues on breast health.

7.
Eur Urol ; 77(5): 563-572, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program study #553 was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy added to the standard of care (SOC) for patients who are at high risk for relapse after prostatectomy. OBJECTIVE: To test whether addition of chemotherapy to surgery for high-risk prostate cancer improves progression-free survival (PFS). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Eligible patients after prostatectomy were randomized to the SOC group with observation or to the chemotherapy group with docetaxel and prednisone administered every 3 wk for six cycles. Randomization was stratified for prostate-specific antigen, Gleason, tumor stage, and surgical margin status. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary endpoint was PFS. Secondary endpoints included overall, prostate cancer-specific, and metastasis-free survival, and time to androgen deprivation therapy. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 298 of the planned 636 patients were randomized. The median follow-up was 59.1 mo (0.2-103.7 mo). For the primary endpoint, the two groups did not statistically differ in PFS (median 55.5 mo in the chemotherapy group and 42.2 mo in the SOC group; test adjusted for site via gamma frailty p=0.21; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-1.11; p=0.18). Prespecified subgroup analyses showed benefit in PFS for patients with tumor stage ≥T3b (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.92; p=0.022) and patients with Gleason score ≤7 (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.99; p=0.046). Secondary endpoint analyses are hampered by low event rates. The most common adverse events (≥grade 3 related or possibly related to chemotherapy) included neutropenia (43%), hyperglycemia (20%), and fatigue (5%), with febrile neutropenia in 2%. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk prostate cancer using docetaxel and prednisone did not lead to statistically significant improvement in PFS for the intention-to-treat population as a whole. The analysis was challenged by lower power due to accrual limitation. Subgroup analyses suggest potential benefit for patients with Gleason grade ≤7 and stage≥pT3b (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00132301). PATIENT SUMMARY: In this randomized trial, we tested whether addition of chemotherapy to surgery for high-risk prostate cancer decreased the risk of prostate-specific antigen rise after surgery. We found no benefit from docetaxel given after radical prostatectomy, although some subgroups of patients may benefit.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 146(11): 2987-2998, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

9.
Ghana Med J ; 53(1): 52-58, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138944

RESUMO

Background: Africans have an increased risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared to other races. Reports from Africa are few and involve small cohorts, but suggest significant epidemiological and clinical differences from Caucasian patients. Objective: This report describes the clinic-pathological features of MM patients in Ghana at diagnosis, and the factors affecting their survival. Methods: A retrospective review of 169 MM cases diagnosed in a Ghanaian tertiary hospital from 2002-2016. Results: Median age was 58 years, with 29% ≤50 years. One-third presented >12 months after onset of symptoms, which included bone pain (96%), anaemia (67%), weight loss (55%) and fractures (44%). Myeloma-related tissue impairment included hypercalcaemia (36%), renal impairment (33%), severe anaemia (52%) and osteolytic lesions (76%); 51.3% of patients were diagnosed in ISS Stage III. Median survival was 33 months; 1-year and 5-year overall survival were 51.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Neither the age at diagnosis nor the duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis correlated with prognosis. Median survival improved with early ISS stage, haemoglobin >8g/dL, plasmacytosis <20%, and normal creatinine and calcium levels. Conclusion: Early onset and late stage presentation are common at diagnosis of MM patients in Ghana, but do not affect survival. Studies into genetic associations are recommended. Funding: None.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/etiologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/complicações , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/biossíntese
11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1144-1154, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865217

RESUMO

Breast density is a modifiable factor that is strongly associated with breast cancer risk. We sought to understand the influence of newer technologies of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) on breast density research and to determine whether results are comparable across studies using FFDM and previous studies using traditional film-screen mammography. We studied 24,840 screening-age (40-74 years) non-Hispanic white women who were participants in the Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health of Kaiser Permanente Northern California and underwent screening mammography with either Hologic (Hologic, Inc., Marlborough, Massachusetts) or General Electric (General Electric Company, Boston, Massachusetts) FFDM machines between 2003 and 2013. We estimated the associations of parity, age at first birth, age at menarche, and menopausal status with percent density and dense area as measured by a single radiological technologist using Cumulus software (Canto Software, Inc., San Francisco, California). We found that associations between reproductive factors and mammographic density measured using processed FFDM images were generally similar in magnitude and direction to those from prior studies using film mammography. Estimated associations for both types of FFDM machines were in the same direction. There was some evidence of heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect sizes by machine type, which we accounted for using random-effects meta-analysis when combining results. Our findings demonstrate the robustness of quantitative mammographic density measurements across FFDM and film mammography platforms.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mamografia/métodos , História Reprodutiva , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade
12.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 28(1): 309-320, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812439

RESUMO

Personal predictive models for disease development play important roles in chronic disease prevention. The performance of these models is evaluated by applying them to the baseline covariates of participants in external cohort studies, with model predictions compared to subjects' subsequent disease incidence. However, the covariate distribution among participants in a validation cohort may differ from that of the population for which the model will be used. Since estimates of predictive model performance depend on the distribution of covariates among the subjects to which it is applied, such differences can cause misleading estimates of model performance in the target population. We propose a method for addressing this problem by weighting the cohort subjects to make their covariate distribution better match that of the target population. Simulations show that the method provides accurate estimates of model performance in the target population, while un-weighted estimates may not. We illustrate the method by applying it to evaluate an ovarian cancer prediction model targeted to US women, using cohort data from participants in the California Teachers Study. The methods can be implemented using open-source code for public use as the R-package RMAP (Risk Model Assessment Package) available at http://stanford.edu/~ggong/rmap/ .


Assuntos
Estudos de Coortes , Epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto , Calibragem , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Viés de Seleção , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(3): 307-320, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in relation to clinical features of epithelial ovarian cancer, histologic subtypes, and overall survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted centralized immunohistochemical staining, semi-quantitative scoring, and survival analysis in 5263 patients participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. Patients were diagnosed between January 1, 1978, and December 31, 2014, including 2865 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs), with more than 12,000 person-years of follow-up time. Tissue microarrays were stained for MyD88 and TLR4, and staining intensity was classified using a 2-tiered system for each marker (weak vs strong). RESULTS: Expression of MyD88 and TLR4 was similar in all histotypes except clear cell ovarian cancer, which showed reduced expression compared with other histotypes (P<.001 for both). In HGSOC, strong MyD88 expression was modestly associated with shortened overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26; P=.04) but was also associated with advanced stage (P<.001). The expression of TLR4 was not associated with survival. In low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC), strong expression of both MyD88 and TLR4 was associated with favorable survival (HR [95% CI], 0.49 [0.29-0.84] and 0.44 [0.21-0.89], respectively; P=.009 and P=.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: Results are consistent with an association between strong MyD88 staining and advanced stage and poorer survival in HGSOC and demonstrate correlation between strong MyD88 and TLR4 staining and improved survival in LGSOC, highlighting the biological differences between the 2 serous histotypes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos
15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(2): 460-472, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211900

RESUMO

Background: Ovarian cancer incidence differs substantially by race/ethnicity, but the reasons for this are not well understood. Data were pooled from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES) and 11 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) to examine racial/ethnic differences in epidemiological characteristics with suspected involvement in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) aetiology. Methods: We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate associations for 17 reproductive, hormonal and lifestyle characteristics and EOC risk by race/ethnicity among 10 924 women with invasive EOC (8918 Non-Hispanic Whites, 433 Hispanics, 911 Blacks, 662 Asian/Pacific Islanders) and 16 150 controls (13 619 Non-Hispanic Whites, 533 Hispanics, 1233 Blacks, 765 Asian/Pacific Islanders). Likelihood ratio tests were used to evaluate heterogeneity in the risk factor associations by race/ethnicity. Results: We observed statistically significant racial/ethnic heterogeneity for hysterectomy and EOC risk (P = 0.008), where the largest odds ratio (OR) was observed in Black women [OR = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.34-2.02] compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Although not statistically significant, the associations for parity, first-degree family history of ovarian or breast cancer, and endometriosis varied by race/ethnicity. Asian/Pacific Islanders had the greatest magnitude of association for parity (≥3 births: OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.28-0.54), and Black women had the largest ORs for family history (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.42-2.21) and endometriosis (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.65-3.55). Conclusions: Although racial/ethnic heterogeneity was observed for hysterectomy, our findings support the validity of EOC risk factors across all racial/ethnic groups, and further suggest that any racial/ethnic population with a higher prevalence of a modifiable risk factor should be targeted to disseminate information about prevention.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Paridade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Probabilidade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Oncotarget ; 8(31): 50930-50940, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881617

RESUMO

We analyzed whole exome sequencing data in germline DNA from 412 high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project and identified 5,517 genes harboring a predicted deleterious germline coding mutation in at least one HGSOC case. Gene-set enrichment analysis showed enrichment for genes involved in DNA repair (p = 1.8×10-3). Twelve DNA repair genes - APEX1, APLF, ATX, EME1, FANCL, FANCM, MAD2L2, PARP2, PARP3, POLN, RAD54L and SMUG1 - were prioritized for targeted sequencing in up to 3,107 HGSOC cases, 1,491 cases of other epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) subtypes and 3,368 unaffected controls of European origin. We estimated mutation prevalence for each gene and tested for associations with disease risk. Mutations were identified in both cases and controls in all genes except MAD2L2, where we found no evidence of mutations in controls. In FANCM we observed a higher mutation frequency in HGSOC cases compared to controls (29/3,107 cases, 0.96 percent; 13/3,368 controls, 0.38 percent; P=0.008) with little evidence for association with other subtypes (6/1,491, 0.40 percent; P=0.82). The relative risk of HGSOC associated with deleterious FANCM mutations was estimated to be 2.5 (95% CI 1.3 - 5.0; P=0.006). In summary, whole exome sequencing of EOC cases with large-scale replication in case-control studies has identified FANCM as a likely novel susceptibility gene for HGSOC, with mutations associated with a moderate increase in risk. These data may have clinical implications for risk prediction and prevention approaches for high-grade serous ovarian cancer in the future and a significant impact on reducing disease mortality.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(9): 1450-1458, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28698185

RESUMO

Background: High mammographic density is strongly associated with increased breast cancer risk. Some, but not all, risk factors for breast cancer are also associated with higher mammographic density.Methods: The study cohort (N = 24,840) was drawn from the Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health of Kaiser Permanente Northern California and included non-Hispanic white females ages 40 to 74 years with a full-field digital mammogram (FFDM). Percent density (PD) and dense area (DA) were measured by a radiological technologist using Cumulus. The association of age at menarche and late adolescent body mass index (BMI) with PD and DA were modeled using linear regression adjusted for confounders.Results: Age at menarche and late adolescent BMI were negatively correlated. Age at menarche was positively associated with PD (P value for trend <0.0001) and DA (P value for trend <0.0001) in fully adjusted models. Compared with the reference category of ages 12 to 13 years at menarche, menarche at age >16 years was associated with an increase in PD of 1.47% (95% CI, 0.69-2.25) and an increase in DA of 1.59 cm2 (95% CI, 0.48-2.70). Late adolescent BMI was inversely associated with PD (P < 0.0001) and DA (P < 0.0001) in fully adjusted models.Conclusions: Age at menarche and late adolescent BMI are both associated with Cumulus measures of mammographic density on processed FFDM images.Impact: Age at menarche and late adolescent BMI may act through different pathways. The long-term effects of age at menarche on cancer risk may be mediated through factors besides mammographic density. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1450-8. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Mama/patologia , Mamografia/métodos , Menarca/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Br J Cancer ; 116(4): 524-535, 2017 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28103614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 18 loci associated with serous ovarian cancer (SOC) susceptibility but the biological mechanisms driving these findings remain poorly characterised. Germline cancer risk loci may be enriched for target genes of transcription factors (TFs) critical to somatic tumorigenesis. METHODS: All 615 TF-target sets from the Molecular Signatures Database were evaluated using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and three GWAS for SOC risk: discovery (2196 cases/4396 controls), replication (7035 cases/21 693 controls; independent from discovery), and combined (9627 cases/30 845 controls; including additional individuals). RESULTS: The PAX8-target gene set was ranked 1/615 in the discovery (PGSEA<0.001; FDR=0.21), 7/615 in the replication (PGSEA=0.004; FDR=0.37), and 1/615 in the combined (PGSEA<0.001; FDR=0.21) studies. Adding other genes reported to interact with PAX8 in the literature to the PAX8-target set and applying an alternative to GSEA, interval enrichment, further confirmed this association (P=0.006). Fifteen of the 157 genes from this expanded PAX8 pathway were near eight loci associated with SOC risk at P<10-5 (including six with P<5 × 10-8). The pathway was also associated with differential gene expression after shRNA-mediated silencing of PAX8 in HeyA8 (PGSEA=0.025) and IGROV1 (PGSEA=0.004) SOC cells and several PAX8 targets near SOC risk loci demonstrated in vitro transcriptomic perturbation. CONCLUSIONS: Putative PAX8 target genes are enriched for common SOC risk variants. This finding from our agnostic evaluation is of particular interest given that PAX8 is well-established as a specific marker for the cell of origin of SOC.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Análise em Microsséries , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Int J Cancer ; 140(11): 2422-2435, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063166

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is associated with ovarian cancer survival overall or for the different histotypes is unestablished. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the association between cigarette smoking and survival differs according to strata of ovarian cancer stage at diagnosis. In a large pooled analysis, we evaluated the association between various measures of cigarette smoking and survival among women with epithelial ovarian cancer. We obtained data from 19 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC), including 9,114 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted study-specific hazard ratios (HRs), which were combined into pooled hazard ratios (pHR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under random effects models. Overall, 5,149 (57%) women died during a median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Among women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, both current (pHR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.08-1.28) and former smokers (pHR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.18) had worse survival compared with never smoking women. In histotype-stratified analyses, associations were observed for mucinous (current smoking: pHR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.01-3.65) and serous histotypes (current smoking: pHR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00-1.23; former smoking: pHR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.20). Further, our results suggested that current smoking has a greater impact on survival among women with localized than disseminated disease. The identification of cigarette smoking as a modifiable factor associated with survival has potential clinical importance as a focus area to improve ovarian cancer prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Radiology ; 282(2): 348-355, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27598536

RESUMO

Purpose To compare three metrics of breast density on full-field digital mammographic (FFDM) images as predictors of future breast cancer risk. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved study included 125 women with invasive breast cancer and 274 age- and race-matched control subjects who underwent screening FFDM during 2004-2013 and provided informed consent. The percentage of density and dense area were assessed semiautomatically with software (Cumulus 4.0; University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada), and volumetric percentage of density and dense volume were assessed automatically with software (Volpara; Volpara Solutions, Wellington, New Zealand). Clinical Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classifications of breast density were extracted from mammography reports. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression stratified according to age and race and adjusted for body mass index, parity, and menopausal status, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was computed. Results The adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for each standard deviation increment of the percentage of density, dense area, volumetric percentage of density, and dense volume were 1.61 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.19), 1.49 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.92), 1.54 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.10), and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.80), respectively. Odds ratios for women with extremely dense breasts compared with those with scattered areas of fibroglandular density were 2.06 (95% CI: 0.85, 4.97) and 2.05 (95% CI: 0.90, 4.64) for BI-RADS and Volpara density classifications, respectively. Clinical BI-RADS was more accurate (AUC, 0.68; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.74) than Volpara (AUC, 0.64; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.70) and continuous measures of percentage of density (AUC, 0.66; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.72), dense area (AUC, 0.66; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.72), volumetric percentage of density (AUC, 0.64; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.70), and density volume (AUC, 0.65; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71), although the AUC differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Mammographic density on FFDM images was positively associated with breast cancer risk by using the computer assisted methods and BI-RADS. BI-RADS classification was as accurate as computer-assisted methods for discrimination of patients from control subjects. © RSNA, 2016.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mamografia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Software
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