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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 310, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748543

RESUMO

Chronic pain is a complex trait that is moderately heritable and genetically, as well as phenotypically, correlated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Use of the conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) approach, which leverages pleiotropy identified from existing GWAS outputs, has been successful in discovering novel associated variants in related phenotypes. Here, genome-wide association study outputs for both von Korff chronic pain grade and for MDD were used to identify variants meeting a cFDR threshold for each outcome phenotype separately, as well as a conjunctional cFDR (ccFDR) threshold for both phenotypes together. Using a moderately conservative threshold, we identified a total of 11 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), six of which were associated with chronic pain grade and nine of which were associated with MDD. Four SNPs on chromosome 14 were associated with both chronic pain grade and MDD. SNPs associated only with chronic pain grade were located within SLC16A7 on chromosome 12. SNPs associated only with MDD were located either in a gene-dense region on chromosome 1 harbouring LINC01360, LRRIQ3, FPGT and FPGT-TNNI3K, or within/close to LRFN5 on chromosome 14. The SNPs associated with both outcomes were also located within LRFN5. Several of the SNPs on chromosomes 1 and 14 were identified as being associated with expression levels of nearby genes in the brain and central nervous system. Overall, using the cFDR approach, we identified several novel genetic loci associated with chronic pain and we describe likely pleiotropic effects of a recently identified MDD locus on chronic pain.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748690

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are common, complex psychiatric disorders with twin heritabilities of 30-60%. We conducted a genome-wide association study of Lifetime Anxiety Disorder (ncase = 25 453, ncontrol = 58 113) and an additional analysis of Current Anxiety Symptoms (ncase = 19 012, ncontrol = 58 113). The liability scale common variant heritability estimate for Lifetime Anxiety Disorder was 26%, and for Current Anxiety Symptoms was 31%. Five novel genome-wide significant loci were identified including an intergenic region on chromosome 9 that has previously been associated with neuroticism, and a locus overlapping the BDNF receptor gene, NTRK2. Anxiety showed significant positive genetic correlations with depression and insomnia as well as coronary artery disease, mirroring findings from epidemiological studies. We conclude that common genetic variation accounts for a substantive proportion of the genetic architecture underlying anxiety.

3.
Behav Res Ther ; 123: 103503, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common, debilitating and costly. These disorders are influenced by multiple risk factors, from genes to psychological vulnerabilities and environmental stressors, but research is hampered by a lack of sufficiently large comprehensive studies. We are recruiting 40,000 individuals with lifetime depression or anxiety and broad assessment of risks to facilitate future research. METHODS: The Genetic Links to Anxiety and Depression (GLAD) Study (www.gladstudy.org.uk) recruits individuals with depression or anxiety into the NIHR Mental Health BioResource. Participants invited to join the study (via media campaigns) provide demographic, environmental and genetic data, and consent for medical record linkage and recontact. RESULTS: Online recruitment was effective; 42,531 participants consented and 27,776 completed the questionnaire by end of July 2019. Participants' questionnaire data identified very high rates of recurrent depression, severe anxiety, and comorbidity. Participants reported high rates of treatment receipt. The age profile of the sample is biased toward young adults, with higher recruitment of females and the more educated, especially at younger ages. DISCUSSION: This paper describes the study methodology and descriptive data for GLAD, which represents a large, recontactable resource that will enable future research into risks, outcomes, and treatment for anxiety and depression.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 15(11): e1008104, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738745

RESUMO

'Epigenetic age acceleration' is a valuable biomarker of ageing, predictive of morbidity and mortality, but for which the underlying biological mechanisms are not well established. Two commonly used measures, derived from DNA methylation, are Horvath-based (Horvath-EAA) and Hannum-based (Hannum-EAA) epigenetic age acceleration. We conducted genome-wide association studies of Horvath-EAA and Hannum-EAA in 13,493 unrelated individuals of European ancestry, to elucidate genetic determinants of differential epigenetic ageing. We identified ten independent SNPs associated with Horvath-EAA, five of which are novel. We also report 21 Horvath-EAA-associated genes including several involved in metabolism (NHLRC, TPMT) and immune system pathways (TRIM59, EDARADD). GWAS of Hannum-EAA identified one associated variant (rs1005277), and implicated 12 genes including several involved in innate immune system pathways (UBE2D3, MANBA, TRIM46), with metabolic functions (UBE2D3, MANBA), or linked to lifespan regulation (CISD2). Both measures had nominal inverse genetic correlations with father's age at death, a rough proxy for lifespan. Nominally significant genetic correlations between Hannum-EAA and lifestyle factors including smoking behaviours and education support the hypothesis that Hannum-based epigenetic ageing is sensitive to variations in environment, whereas Horvath-EAA is a more stable cellular ageing process. We identified novel SNPs and genes associated with epigenetic age acceleration, and highlighted differences in the genetic architecture of Horvath-based and Hannum-based epigenetic ageing measures. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying individual differences in the rate of epigenetic ageing could help explain different trajectories of age-related decline.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767999

RESUMO

Alcohol use and smoking are leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to influence individual differences in the use of these substances. In the present study we tested whether genetic factors, modelled alongside common family environment, explained phenotypic variance in alcohol use and smoking behaviour in the Generation Scotland (GS) family sample of up to 19,377 individuals. SNP and pedigree-associated effects combined explained between 18 and 41% of the variance in substance use. Shared couple effects explained a significant amount of variance across all substance use traits, particularly alcohol intake, for which 38% of the phenotypic variance was explained. We tested whether the within-couple substance use associations were due to assortative mating by testing the association between partner polygenic risk scores in 34,987 couple pairs from the UK Biobank (UKB). No significant association between partner polygenic risk scores were observed. Associations between an individual's alcohol PRS (b = 0.05, S.E. = 0.006, p < 2 × 10-16) and smoking status PRS (b = 0.05, S.E. = 0.005, p < 2 × 10-16) were found with their partner's phenotype. In support of this, G carriers of a functional ADH1B polymorphism (rs1229984), known to be associated with greater alcohol intake, were found to consume less alcohol if they had a partner who carried an A allele at this SNP. Together these results show that the shared couple environment contributes significantly to patterns of substance use. It is unclear whether this is due to shared environmental factors, assortative mating, or indirect genetic effects. Future studies would benefit from longitudinal data and larger sample sizes to assess this further.

6.
Bipolar Disord ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current research suggests significant disruptions in functional brain networks in individuals with mood disorder, and in those at familial risk. Studies of structural brain networks provide important insights into synchronized maturational change but have received less attention. We aimed to investigate developmental relationships of large-scale brain networks in mood disorder using structural covariance (SC) analyses. METHODS: We conducted SC analysis of baseline structural imaging data from 121 at the time of scanning unaffected high risk (HR) individuals (29 later developed mood disorder after a median time of 4.95 years), and 89 healthy controls (C-well) with no familial risk from the Scottish Bipolar Family Study (age 15-27, 64% female). Voxel-wise analyses of covariance were conducted to compare the associations between each seed region in visual, auditory, motor, speech, semantic, executive-control, salience and default-mode networks and the whole brain signal. SC maps were compared for (a) HR(all) versus C-well individuals, and (b) between those who remained well (HR-well), versus those who subsequently developed mood disorder (HR-MD), and C-well. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between HR(all) and C-well individuals. On splitting the HR group based on subsequent clinical outcome, the HR-MD group however displayed greater baseline SC in the salience and executive-control network, and HR-well individuals showed less SC in the salience network, compared to C-well, respectively (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate differences in network-level inter-regional relationships, especially within the salience network, which precede onset of mood disorder in those at familial risk.

7.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder and neuroticism (Neu) share a large genetic basis. We sought to determine whether this shared basis could be decomposed to identify genetic factors that are specific to depression. METHODS: We analysed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of depression (from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, 23andMe and UK Biobank) and compared them with GWAS of Neu (from UK Biobank). First, we used a pairwise GWAS analysis to classify variants as associated with only depression, with only Neu or with both. Second, we estimated partial genetic correlations to test whether the depression's genetic link with other phenotypes was explained by shared overlap with Neu. RESULTS: We found evidence that most genomic regions (25/37) associated with depression are likely to be shared with Neu. The overlapping common genetic variance of depression and Neu was genetically correlated primarily with psychiatric disorders. We found that the genetic contributions to depression, that were not shared with Neu, were positively correlated with metabolic phenotypes and cardiovascular disease, and negatively correlated with the personality trait conscientiousness. After removing shared genetic overlap with Neu, depression still had a specific association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, coronary artery disease and age of first birth. Independent of depression, Neu had specific genetic correlates in ulcerative colitis, pubertal growth, anorexia and education. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that, while genetic risk factors for depression are largely shared with Neu, there are also non-Neu-related features of depression that may be useful for further patient or phenotypic stratification.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649322

RESUMO

Observational studies suggest that lower educational attainment (EA) may be associated with risky alcohol use behaviors; however, these findings may be biased by confounding and reverse causality. We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using summary statistics from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with >780,000 participants to assess the causal effects of EA on alcohol use behaviors and alcohol dependence (AD). Fifty-three independent genome-wide significant SNPs previously associated with EA were tested for association with alcohol use behaviors. We show that while genetic instruments associated with increased EA are not associated with total amount of weekly drinks, they are associated with reduced frequency of binge drinking ≥6 drinks (ßIVW = -0.198, 95% CI, -0.297 to -0.099, PIVW = 9.14 × 10-5), reduced total drinks consumed per drinking day (ßIVW = -0.207, 95% CI, -0.293 to -0.120, PIVW = 2.87 × 10-6), as well as lower weekly distilled spirits intake (ßIVW = -0.148, 95% CI, -0.188 to -0.107, PIVW = 6.24 × 10-13). Conversely, genetic instruments for increased EA were associated with increased alcohol intake frequency (ßIVW = 0.331, 95% CI, 0.267-0.396, PIVW = 4.62 × 10-24), and increased weekly white wine (ßIVW = 0.199, 95% CI, 0.159-0.238, PIVW = 7.96 × 10-23) and red wine intake (ßIVW = 0.204, 95% CI, 0.161-0.248, PIVW = 6.67 × 10-20). Genetic instruments associated with increased EA reduced AD risk: an additional 3.61 years schooling reduced the risk by ~50% (ORIVW = 0.508, 95% CI, 0.315-0.819, PIVW = 5.52 × 10-3). Consistency of results across complementary MR methods accommodating different assumptions about genetic pleiotropy strengthened causal inference. Our findings suggest EA may have important effects on alcohol consumption patterns and may provide potential mechanisms explaining reported associations between EA and adverse health outcomes.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659249

RESUMO

Correlations between pain phenotypes and psychiatric traits such as depression and the personality trait of neuroticism are not fully understood. In this study, we estimated the genetic correlations of eight pain phenotypes (defined by the UK Biobank, n = 151,922-226,683) with depressive symptoms, major depressive disorders and neuroticism using the the cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) method integrated in the LD Hub. We also used the LDSC software to calculate the genetic correlations among pain phenotypes. All pain phenotypes, except hip pain and knee pain, had significant and positive genetic correlations with depressive symptoms, major depressive disorders and neuroticism. All pain phenotypes were heritable, with pain all over the body showing the highest heritability (h2 = 0.31, standard error = 0.072). Many pain phenotypes had positive and significant genetic correlations with each other indicating shared genetic mechanisms. Our results suggest that pain, neuroticism and depression share partially overlapping genetic risk factors.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630168

RESUMO

Methylation levels measured at defined sites across the genome have recently been shown to be correlated with an individual's chronological age. Age acceleration, or the difference between age estimated from DNA methylation status and chronological age, has been proposed as a novel biomarker of aging. In this study, the cross-sectional association between two different measures of age acceleration and cognitive function was investigated using whole blood samples from 2,157 African-American participants 47-70 years of age in the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Cognition was evaluated using three domain-specific tests. A significant inverse association between a one-year increase in age acceleration calculated using a blood-based age predictor and scores on the Word Fluency Test was found using a general linear model adjusted for chronological age, gender, and years of education (ß = -0.140 words; p = 0.001) and after adding other potential confounding variables (ß = -0.104 words, p = 0.023). The results were replicated in 1,670 European participants in the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (fully adjusted model: ß = -0.199 words; p = 0.034). A significant association was also identified in a trans-ethnic meta-analysis across cohorts that included an additional 708 European American ARIC study participants (fully adjusted model: ß = -0.110 words, p = 0.003). There were no associations found using an estimate of age acceleration derived from multiple tissues. These findings provide evidence that age acceleration is a correlate of performance on a test of verbal fluency in middle-aged adults.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 24(11): 1641-1654, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481758

RESUMO

Although the underlying neurobiology of major mental illness (MMI) remains unknown, emerging evidence implicates a role for oligodendrocyte-myelin abnormalities. Here, we took advantage of a large family carrying a balanced t(1;11) translocation, which substantially increases risk of MMI, to undertake both diffusion tensor imaging and cellular studies to evaluate the consequences of the t(1;11) translocation on white matter structural integrity and oligodendrocyte-myelin biology. This translocation disrupts among others the DISC1 gene which plays a crucial role in brain development. We show that translocation-carrying patients display significant disruption of  white matter integrity compared with familial controls. At a cellular level, we observe dysregulation of key pathways controlling oligodendrocyte development and morphogenesis in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived case oligodendrocytes. This is associated with reduced proliferation and a stunted morphology in vitro. Further, myelin internodes in a humanized mouse model that recapitulates the human translocation as well as after transplantation of t(1;11) oligodendrocyte progenitors were significantly reduced when  compared with controls. Thus we provide evidence that the t(1;11) translocation has biological effects at both the systems and cellular level that together suggest oligodendrocyte-myelin dysfunction.

14.
Commun Biol ; 2: 321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482140

RESUMO

Knee pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints that brings people to medical attention. Approximately 50% of individuals over the age of 50 report an experience of knee pain within the past 12 months. We sought to identify the genetic variants associated with knee pain in 171,516 subjects from the UK Biobank cohort and seek supporting evidence in cohorts from 23andMe, the Osteoarthritis Initiative, and the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. We identified two loci that reached genome-wide significance in the UK Biobank: rs143384, located in GDF5 (P = 1.32 × 10-12), a gene previously implicated in osteoarthritis; and rs2808772, located near COL27A1 (P = 1.49 × 10-8). These findings were supported in cohorts with self-reported osteoarthritis/radiographic knee osteoarthritis without pain information. In this report on genome-wide association of knee pain, we identified two loci in or near GDF5 and COL27A1 that are associated with knee pain.

15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471575

RESUMO

Alterations in white matter (WM) microstructure have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, previous findings have been inconsistent, partially due to low statistical power and the heterogeneity of depression. In the largest multi-site study to date, we examined WM anisotropy and diffusivity in 1305 MDD patients and 1602 healthy controls (age range 12-88 years) from 20 samples worldwide, which included both adults and adolescents, within the MDD Working Group of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium. Processing of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and statistical analyses were harmonized across sites and effects were meta-analyzed across studies. We observed subtle, but widespread, lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in adult MDD patients compared with controls in 16 out of 25 WM tracts of interest (Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.26). The largest differences were observed in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. Widespread higher radial diffusivity (RD) was also observed (all Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.18). Findings appeared to be driven by patients with recurrent MDD and an adult age of onset of depression. White matter microstructural differences in a smaller sample of adolescent MDD patients and controls did not survive correction for multiple testing. In this coordinated and harmonized multisite DTI study, we showed subtle, but widespread differences in WM microstructure in adult MDD, which may suggest structural disconnectivity in MDD.

16.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(10): 759-768, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of white matter microstructure in depression typically show alterations in individuals with depression, but they are frequently limited by small sample sizes and the absence of longitudinal measures of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms are dynamic, however, and understanding the neurobiology of different trajectories could have important clinical implications. METHODS: We examined associations between current and longitudinal measures of depressive symptoms and white matter microstructure (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity [MD]) in the UK Biobank Imaging Study. Depressive symptoms were assessed on two to four occasions over 5.9 to 10.7 years (n = 18,959 individuals on at least two occasions, n = 4444 on four occasions), from which we derived four measures of depressive symptomatology: cross-sectional measure at the time of scan and three longitudinal measures, namely trajectory and mean and intrasubject variance over time. RESULTS: Decreased white matter microstructure in the anterior thalamic radiation demonstrated significant associations across all four measures of depressive symptoms (MD: ßs = .020-.029, pcorr < .030). The greatest effect sizes were seen between white matter microstructure and longitudinal progression (MD: ßs = .030-.040, pcorr < .049). Cross-sectional symptom severity was particularly associated with decreased white matter integrity in association fibers and thalamic radiations (MD: ßs = .015-.039, pcorr < .041). Greater mean and within-subject variance were mainly associated with decreased white matter microstructure within projection fibers (MD: ßs = .019-.029, pcorr < .044). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate shared and differential neurobiological associations with severity, course, and intrasubject variability of depressive symptoms. This enriches our understanding of the neurobiology underlying dynamic features of the disorder.

17.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 28(3): e1796, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: For many research cohorts, it is not practical to provide a "gold-standard" mental health diagnosis. It is therefore important for mental health research that potential alternative measures for ascertaining mental disorder status are understood. METHODS: Data from UK Biobank in those participants who had completed the online Mental Health Questionnaire (n = 157,363) were used to compare the classification of mental disorder by four methods: symptom-based outcome (self-complete based on diagnostic interviews), self-reported diagnosis, hospital data linkage, and self-report medication. RESULTS: Participants self-reporting any psychiatric diagnosis had elevated risk of any symptom-based outcome. Cohen's κ between self-reported diagnosis and symptom-based outcome was 0.46 for depression, 0.28 for bipolar affective disorder, and 0.24 for anxiety. There were small numbers of participants uniquely identified by hospital data linkage and medication. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that ascertainment of mental disorder diagnosis in large cohorts such as UK Biobank is complex. There may not be one method of classification that is right for all circumstances, but an informed and transparent use of outcome measure(s) to suit each research question will maximise the potential of UK Biobank and other resources for mental health research.

18.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 54, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation changes with age. Chronological age predictors built from DNA methylation are termed 'epigenetic clocks'. The deviation of predicted age from the actual age ('age acceleration residual', AAR) has been reported to be associated with death. However, it is currently unclear how a better prediction of chronological age affects such association. METHODS: In this study, we build multiple predictors based on training DNA methylation samples selected from 13,661 samples (13,402 from blood and 259 from saliva). We use the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921) and 1936 (LBC1936) to examine whether the association between AAR (from these predictors) and death is affected by (1) improving prediction accuracy of an age predictor as its training sample size increases (from 335 to 12,710) and (2) additionally correcting for confounders (i.e., cellular compositions). In addition, we investigated the performance of our predictor in non-blood tissues. RESULTS: We found that in principle, a near-perfect age predictor could be developed when the training sample size is sufficiently large. The association between AAR and mortality attenuates as prediction accuracy increases. AAR from our best predictor (based on Elastic Net, https://github.com/qzhang314/DNAm-based-age-predictor ) exhibits no association with mortality in both LBC1921 (hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.27) and LBC1936 (hazard ratio = 1.00, 95% CI 0.79-1.28). Predictors based on small sample size are prone to confounding by cellular compositions relative to those from large sample size. We observed comparable performance of our predictor in non-blood tissues with a multi-tissue-based predictor. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the epigenetic clock can be improved by increasing the training sample size and that its association with mortality attenuates with increased prediction of chronological age.

19.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201918101144, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asymmetry is a subtle but pervasive aspect of the human brain, and it may be altered in several psychiatric conditions. MRI studies have shown subtle differences of brain anatomy between people with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects, but few studies have specifically examined brain anatomical asymmetry in relation to this disorder, and results from those studies have remained inconclusive. At the functional level, some electroencephalography studies have indicated left fronto-cortical hypoactivity and right parietal hypoactivity in depressive disorders, so aspects of lateralized anatomy may also be affected. The authors used pooled individual-level data from data sets collected around the world to investigate differences in laterality in measures of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume between individuals with major depression and healthy control subjects. METHODS: The authors investigated differences in the laterality of thickness and surface area measures of 34 cerebral cortical regions in 2,256 individuals with major depression and 3,504 control subjects from 31 separate data sets, and they investigated volume asymmetries of eight subcortical structures in 2,540 individuals with major depression and 4,230 control subjects from 32 data sets. T1-weighted MRI data were processed with a single protocol using FreeSurfer and the Desikan-Killiany atlas. The large sample size provided 80% power to detect effects of the order of Cohen's d=0.1. RESULTS: The largest effect size (Cohen's d) of major depression diagnosis was 0.085 for the thickness asymmetry of the superior temporal cortex, which was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Asymmetry measures were not significantly associated with medication use, acute compared with remitted status, first episode compared with recurrent status, or age at onset. CONCLUSIONS: Altered brain macro-anatomical asymmetry may be of little relevance to major depression etiology in most cases.

20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who opt to participate in scientific studies tend to be healthier, wealthier and more educated than the broader population. Although selection bias does not always pose a problem for analysing the relationships between exposures and diseases or other outcomes, it can lead to biased effect size estimates. Biased estimates may weaken the utility of genetic findings because the goal is often to make inferences in a new sample (such as in polygenic risk score analysis). METHODS: We used data from UK Biobank, Generation Scotland and Partners Biobank and conducted phenotypic and genome-wide association analyses on two phenotypes that reflected mental health data availability: (i) whether participants were contactable by e-mail for follow-up; and (ii) whether participants responded to follow-up surveys of mental health. RESULTS: In UK Biobank, we identified nine genetic loci associated (P <5 × 10-8) with e-mail contact and 25 loci associated with mental health survey completion. Both phenotypes were positively genetically correlated with higher educational attainment and better health and negatively genetically correlated with psychological distress and schizophrenia. One single nucleotide polymorphism association replicated along with the overall direction of effect of all association results. CONCLUSIONS: Re-contact availability and follow-up participation can act as further genetic filters for data on mental health phenotypes.

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