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1.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597293

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), phospholipids (PLs), and gangliosides (GAs) are components of human breast milk that play important roles in the development of the rapidly growing infant. The differences in these components in human milk from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were studied in a cross-sectional trial. High-performance liquid chromatography‒mass spectrometry was used to determine HMO, PL, and GA concentrations in transitional (5-15 days) and mature (at 6 months post-partum) breast milk of mothers of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results showed that the average HMO (12 species), PL (7 species), and GA (2 species) concentrations quantified in the UAE mothers' transitional milk samples were (in mg/L) 8204 ± 2389, 269 ± 89, and 21.18 ± 11.46, respectively, while in mature milk, the respective concentrations were (in mg/L) 3905 ± 1466, 220 ± 85, and 20.18 ± 9.75. The individual HMO concentrations measured in this study were all significantly higher in transitional milk than in mature milk, except for 3 fucosyllactose, which was higher in mature milk. In this study, secretor and non-secretor phenotype mothers showed no significant difference in the total HMO concentration. For the PL and GA components, changes in the individual PL and GA species distribution was observed between transitional milk and mature milk. However, the changes were within the ranges found in human milk from other regions.

2.
JIMD Rep ; 45: 9-20, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209782

RESUMO

Ganglioside GM3 synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gangliosides. GM3 synthase deficiency (GM3D) causes an absence of GM3 and all downstream biosynthetic derivatives. The affected individuals manifest with severe irritability, intractable seizures, and profound intellectual disability. The current study is to assess the effects of an oral ganglioside supplement to patients with GM3D, particularly on their growth and development during early childhood. A total of 13 young children, 11 of them under 40 months old, received oral ganglioside supplement through a dairy product enriched in gangliosides, for an average of 34 months. Clinical improvements were observed in most children soon after the supplement was initiated. Significantly improved growth and development were documented in these subjects as average percentiles for weight, height, and occipitofrontal circumference increased in 1-2 months. Three children with initial microcephaly demonstrated significant catch-up head growth and became normocephalic. We also illustrated brief improvements in developmental and cognitive scores, particularly in communication and socialization domains through Vineland-II. However, all improvements seemed transient and gradually phased out after 12 months of supplementation. Gangliosides GM1 and GM3, although measureable in plasma during the study, were not significantly changed with ganglioside supplementation for up to 30 months. We speculate that the downstream metabolism of ganglioside biosynthesis is fairly active and the potential need for gangliosides in the human body is likely substantial. As we search for new effective therapies for GM3D, approaches to reestablish endogenous ganglioside supplies in the affected individuals should be considered.

3.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 14: 9, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28127382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is primarily composed of polar phospho- and sphingolipids, which have established biological effects on neuroplasticity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary MFGM supplementation on the neuromuscular system during post-natal development. METHODS: Growing rats received dietary supplementation with bovine-derived MFGM mixtures consisting of complex milk lipids (CML), beta serum concentrate (BSC) or a complex milk lipid concentrate (CMLc) (which lacks MFGM proteins) from post-natal day 10 to day 70. RESULTS: Supplementation with MFGM mixtures enriched in polar lipids (BSC and CMLc, but not CML) increased the plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) concentration, with no effect on plasma phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) or sphingomyelin (SM). In contrast, muscle PC was reduced in rats receiving supplementation with both BSC and CMLc, whereas muscle PI, PE, PS and SM remained unchanged. Rats receiving BSC and CMLc (but not CML) displayed a slow-to-fast muscle fibre type profile shift (MyHCI → MyHCIIa) that was associated with elevated expression of genes involved in myogenic differentiation (myogenic regulatory factors) and relatively fast fibre type specialisation (Myh2 and Nfatc4). Expression of neuromuscular development genes, including nerve cell markers, components of the synaptogenic agrin-LRP4 pathway and acetylcholine receptor subunits, was also increased in muscle of rats supplemented with BSC and CMLc (but not CML). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that dietary supplementation with bovine-derived MFGM mixtures enriched in polar lipids can promote neuromuscular development during post-natal growth in rats, leading to shifts in adult muscle phenotype.

4.
Chem Phys Lipids ; 200: 104-112, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27591028

RESUMO

The most abundant ganglioside group in both human milk and bovine milk during the first postnatal week is ganglioside GD3. This group of disialogangliosides forms up to 80% of the total ganglioside content of colostrum. Although dietary gangliosides have shown biological activity such as improvement of cognitive development, gastrointestinal health, and immune function, there is still a gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing its uptake and the metabolic processes affecting its bioavailability. The use of isotopically labeled ganglioside to track the bioavailability, absorption, distribution, and metabolism of gangliosides may provide key information to bridge this gap. However, isotope labeled GD3 is not commercially available and its preparation has not been described. We report for the first time the preparation of labeled GD3 with stable isotopes. Using alkaline hydrolysis, we were able to selectively remove both acetyl groups from the tetrasaccharide portion of GD3 without promoting significant hydrolysis of the ceramide portion of the molecule to generate N-deacetyl-GD3 (Neu5α2-8Neu5-GD3). The N-deacetyl-GD3 was then chemoselectively re-acetylated in aqueous medium using deuterated acetic anhydride in the presence of Triton X 100 to produce 2H6-GD3 {GD3[(Neu5Ac-11-2H3)-(Neu5Ac-11-2H3)]}. This method provided 2H6-GD3 with approximately 60% yield. This compound was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The oral absorption of the 2H6-GD3 was demonstrated using a Sprague-Dawley weaning rats. Our results indicate that some ingested labeled milk gangliosides are absorbed and transported into the bloodstream without modification.


Assuntos
Gangliosídeos/química , Marcação por Isótopo , Leite/química , Absorção Fisico-Química , Administração Oral , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida , Gangliosídeos/administração & dosagem , Gangliosídeos/síntese química , Humanos , Hidrólise , Espectrometria de Massas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(32): 6295-305, 2016 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436425

RESUMO

Gangliosides (GA) are found in animal tissues and fluids, such as blood and milk. These sialo-glycosphingolipids have bioactivities in neural development, the gastrointestinal tract, and the immune system. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method was validated to characterize and quantitate the GA in beef, chicken, pork, and fish species (turbot, snapper, king salmon, and island mackerel). For the first time, we report the concentration of GM3, the dominant GA in these foods, as ranging from 0.35 to 1.1 mg/100 g and 0.70 to 5.86 mg/100 g of meat and fish, respectively. The minor GAs measured were GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b. Molecular species distribution revealed that the GA contained long- to very-long-chain acyl fatty acids attached to the ceramide moiety. Fish GA contained only N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) sialic acid, while beef, chicken, and pork contained GD1a/b species that incorporated both NeuAc and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) and hydroxylated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Gangliosídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Carne/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Peixes , Suínos
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(6): 1245-55, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26808587

RESUMO

Gangliosides, found in mammalian milk, are known for their roles in brain development of the newborn. However, the mechanism involved in the impact of dietary gangliosides on brain metabolism is not fully understood. The impact of diets containing complex lipids rich in milk-derived ganglioside GD3 on the biosynthesis of gangliosides (assessed from the incorporation of deuterium) in the frontal lobe of a piglet model is reported. Higher levels of incorporation of deuterium was observed in the GM1 and GD1a containing stearic acid in samples from piglets fed milk containing 18.2 µg/mL of GD3 compared to that in those fed milk containing 25 µg/mL of GD3. This could suggest that the gangliosides from the diet may be used as a precursor for de novo biosynthesis of brain gangliosides or lead to the reduction of de novo biosynthesis of these gangliosides. This effect was more pronounced in the left compared to that in the right brain hemisphere.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Gangliosídeos/biossíntese , Animais , Suínos
7.
Lipids ; 50(11): 1145-54, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26404454

RESUMO

Gangliosides play a critical role in human brain development and function. Human breast milk (HBM) is an important dietary source of gangliosides for the growing infant. In this study, ganglioside concentrations were measured in the breast milk from a cross-sectional sample of Chinese mothers over an 8-month lactation period. The average total ganglioside concentration increased from 13.1 mg/l during the first month to 20.9 mg/l by 8 months of lactation. The average concentration during the typically solely breast-feeding period of 1‒6 months was 18.9 mg/l. This is the first study to report the relative distribution of the individual ganglioside molecular species through lactation for any population group. The ganglioside molecular species are made up of different fatty acid moieties that influence the physical properties of these gangliosides, and hence affect their function. The GM(3) molecular species containing long-chain acyl fatty acids had the most prominent changes, increasing in both concentration and relative distribution. The equivalent long-chain acyl fatty acid GD(3) molecular species typically decreased in concentration and relative distribution. The lactational trends for both concentration and relative distribution for the very long-chain acyl fatty acid molecular species were more varied. The major GM(3) and GD(3) molecular species during lactation were d40:1 and d42:1, respectively. An understanding of ganglioside molecular species distribution in HBM is essential for accurate application of mass spectrometry methods for ganglioside quantification.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Adulto , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leite Humano/química , Mães
8.
Nutrients ; 7(6): 4526-41, 2015 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26056919

RESUMO

We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC) on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16) or blank gels (n = 16) from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark-light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gangliosídeos/farmacologia , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fosfolipídeos/química , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Nutrients ; 7(5): 3891-913, 2015 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26007338

RESUMO

Gangliosides are important components of neuronal cell membranes and it is widely accepted that they play a critical role in neuronal and brain development. They are functionally involved in neurotransmission and are thought to support the formation and stabilization of functional synapses and neural circuits required as the structural basis of memory and learning. Available evidence, as reviewed herein, suggests that dietary gangliosides may impact positively on cognitive functions, particularly in the early postnatal period when the brain is still growing. Further, new evidence suggests that the mechanism of action may be through an effect on the neuroplasticity of the brain, mediated through enhanced synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cognição/fisiologia , Dieta , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Memória , Plasticidade Neuronal , Sinapses/metabolismo , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis
10.
Food Nutr Res ; 59: 25765, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25818888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supplementation with complex milk lipids (CML) during postnatal brain development has been shown to improve spatial reference learning in rats. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined histo-biological changes in the brain following CML supplementation and their relationship to the observed improvements in memory. DESIGN: The study used the brain tissues from the rats (male Wistar, 80 days of age) after supplementing with either CML or vehicle during postnatal day 10-80. Immunohistochemical staining of synaptophysin, glutamate receptor-1, myelin basic protein, isolectin B-4, and glial fibrillary acidic protein was performed. The average area and the density of the staining and the numbers of astrocytes and capillaries were assessed and analysed. RESULTS: Compared with control rats, CML supplementation increased the average area of synaptophysin staining and the number of GFAP astrocytes in the CA3 sub-region of the hippocampus (p<0.01), but not in the CA4 sub-region. The supplementation also led to an increase in dopamine output in the striatum that was related to nigral dopamine expression (p<0.05), but did not alter glutamate receptors, myelination or vascular density. CONCLUSION: CML supplementation may enhance neuroplasticity in the CA3 sub-regions of the hippocampus. The brain regions-specific increase of astrocyte may indicate a supporting role for GFAP in synaptic plasticity. CML supplementation did not associate with postnatal white matter development or vascular remodelling.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 59(18): 9788-95, 2011 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21790206

RESUMO

Oligosaccharides are important components of milk with bioefficacy as prebiotics, anti-infectives, and immune system modulators and as a possible source of sialic acid for neural function. Bovine milk oligosaccharides are lower in concentration and lack the diversity of human milk oligosaccharides but could be a commercial source of milk oligosaccharides for pediatric foods. For this development, an ability to quantify the oligosaccharides is required. This study validated a hydrophilic interaction chromatography high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (HILIC HPLC-HRSRM-MS) method for measuring six different oligosaccharides in bovine milk, bovine colostrum, and infant formulas. The extraction resulted in a high recovery (90-103%) with a repeatability coefficient of variation ranging from 2 to 9% for the two dominant oligosaccharides, 3'-sialyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose, and ranging from 1 to 17% for the much lower concentration oligosaccharides, 6'-sialyllactosamine, disialyllactose, and N-acetylgalactosaminyllactose. The sixth oligosaccharide, 3'-sialyllactosamine, was not detected in any of the samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Leite/química , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Colostro/química , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Nutr Res ; 30(4): 279-89, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20534331

RESUMO

Complex milk lipids (CMLs) provide a critical nutritional source for generating both energy and essential nutrients for the growth of the newborn. The present study investigated nutritional supplementation with a CML containing gangliosides and phospholipids in pregnant and lactating rats on learning behavior and postnatal growth in male offspring. Wistar female rats were supplemented during pregnancy and lactation with either control or CML to provide gangliosides at a dose of 0.01% (low) and 0.05% (high) based on total food intake. The CML-supplemented dams showed no differences in comparison to controls regarding growth, food intake, and litter characteristics. There were significant differences in brain composition in male offspring at postnatal day 2 (P2) with higher concentrations of gangliosides (high dose, P < .05) and lower concentrations of phospholipids (low and high dose, P < .05) in the CML-supplemented groups. The distribution of individual ganglioside species was not significantly different between treatment groups. Brain weight at P2 was also significantly higher in the CML groups. Differences in the brain composition and weight were not significant by weaning (P21). As adults (P80), adiposity was reduced in the low CML-supplemented group compared to controls. No significant differences were detected between any of the treatment groups in any of the behavioral tasks (water maze, object recognition, and operant learning). These data suggest that maternal supplementation with a CML during pregnancy and lactation is safe and has a significant early impact on brain weight and ganglioside and phospholipid content in offspring but did not alter long-term behavioral function using standard behavioral techniques.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gangliosídeos/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Adiposidade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Lactação , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Leite , Tamanho do Órgão , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Lipids ; 44(11): 1047-54, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19856008

RESUMO

The brain is a lipid-rich organ containing complex polar lipids including phospholipids (PLs) and sphingolipids. These lipids are involved in the structure and function of cell membranes in the brain. We developed a fast and efficient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify five different classes of PLs [Choline glycerophospholipid (consists of phosphatidyl choline and plasmenyl choline in these samples), ethanolamine glycerophospholipid (consist of phosphatidyl ethanolamine and plasmenyl ethanolamine in these samples), phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidyl inositol, and sphingomyelin] in the brain tissues of 80-day-old Wistar rats. The PLs were extracted from rat brain using chloroform/methanol/water. After separation using a hydrophilic high performance liquid chromatography column, PL-class-specific fragmentation (head group identification) with a tandem mass spectrometer in positive ion mode was utilized to measure changes in the relative concentration of the five PL classes. The advantage of this approach was its improved specificity over previously reported LC-MS methods. The method had good repeatability (coefficient of variation 3-9%, excluding phosphatidyl inositol) and recovery (92-103%) and compared well with more laborious traditional methods.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Nutr Rev ; 67(8): 451-63, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19674342

RESUMO

Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. Gangliosides are found in human milk; understanding of the potential role of gangliosides in infant development is emerging, with suggested roles in the brain and gut. Ganglioside accretion in the developing brain is highest in utero and in early neonatal life, during the periods of dendritic branching and new synapse formation. Further, brain contains the highest relative ganglioside content in the body, particularly in neuronal cell membranes concentrated in the area of the synaptic membrane. Gangliosides are known to play a role in neuronal growth, migration and maturation, neuritogenesis, synaptogenesis, and myelination. In addition to their roles in development and structure of the brain, gangliosides also play a functional role in nerve cell communication. It is less well known whether dietary gangliosides can influence the development of cognitive function. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role gangliosides play in brain development.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Gangliosídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Química Encefálica , Comunicação Celular , Cognição/fisiologia , Digestão , Análise de Alimentos , Gangliosídeos/análise , Gangliosídeos/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Absorção Intestinal , Lactação , Leite Humano/química , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurônios/ultraestrutura
15.
Lipids ; 44(9): 867-74, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19633991

RESUMO

Gangliosides are a large family of glycosphingolipids that are abundant in the brain, and have been shown to affect neuronal plasticity during development, adulthood, and aging. We developed a fast, efficient, and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to quantify eight different classes of gangliosides (GM(1), GM(2), GM(3), GD(3), GD(1a), GD(1b), GT(1b), GQ(1b)) in the brains of 2-day-old and 80-day-old Wistar rats. The gangliosides were extracted from rat brain using a modified Svennerholm and Fredman method. After ganglioside class separation using a hydrophilic high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column, the resolving power of the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer was used to extract and sum the major species of each ganglioside class, generating fully resolved extracted ion current peaks for both standards and samples. The flexibility and the specificity of this method are such that it can be applied to the analysis of other ganglioside species/classes not discussed in this paper, provided appropriate standards are available. The method had good repeatability (coefficient of variation 4.8-12.3%) and mean recoveries in the range 92-107%.


Assuntos
Química Encefálica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Gangliosídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Animais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Nutr Res ; 29(6): 426-35, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19628110

RESUMO

Alterations in nutritional factors during early development can exert long-term effects on growth, neural function, and associated behaviors. The lipid component of milk provides a critical nutritional source for generating both energy and essential nutrients for the growth of the newborn. The present study, therefore, investigated the hypothesis that nutritional supplementation with a complex milk lipid (CML) preparation, derived from the milk fat globule membrane rich in phospholipids and gangliosides from young rats, has beneficial effects on learning behavior and postnatal growth and development. Male Wistar rat offspring from normal pregnancies were treated from neonatal day 10 until postnatal day 80 with either vehicle or CML at a dose of 0.2% (low) and 1.0% (high) based on total food intake (n = 16 per group). Neonatal dosing was via daily oral gavage, while postweaning dosing was via gel supplementation to a standard chow diet. Animals underwent behavioral tasks related to spatial memory, learning, and cognitive function. Complex milk lipid supplementation significantly increased linear growth rate (P < .05), and the improved growth trajectory was not related to changes in body composition as quantified by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning or altered plasma lipid profiles. Moreover, this effect was not dose dependent and not attributable to the contribution to total energy intake of the CML composition. Supplementation of the CML to growing rats resulted in statistically significant improvements in parameters related to novelty recognition (P < .02) and spatial memory (P < .05) using standard behavioral techniques, but operant testing showed no significant differences between treatment groups. Supplementation with a CML containing gangliosides had positive growth and learning behavioral effects in young normal growing rats.


Assuntos
Cognição , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gangliosídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Absorciometria de Fóton , Análise de Variância , Ração Animal , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Composição Corporal , Química Encefálica , Condicionamento Operante , Gangliosídeos/análise , Gangliosídeos/farmacologia , Glicolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteínas/farmacologia , Aprendizagem , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Estado Nutricional , Fosfolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ganho de Peso
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 69(2): 917-25, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12571012

RESUMO

The viability of lactic acid bacteria in frozen, freeze-dried, and air-dried forms is of significant commercial interest to both the dairy and food industries. In this study we observed that when prestressed with either heat (50 degrees C) or salt (0.6 M NaCl), Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (also known as DR20) showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement in viability compared with the nonstressed control culture after storage at 30 degrees C in the dried form. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this stress-related viability improvement in L. rhamnosus HN001, we analyzed protein synthesis in cultures subjected to different growth stages and stress conditions, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. Several proteins were up- or down-regulated after either heat or osmotic shock treatments. Eleven proteins were positively identified, including the classical heat shock proteins GroEL and DnaK and the glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and triose phosphate isomerase, as well as tagatose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase of the tagatose pathway. The phosphocarrier protein HPr (histidine-containing proteins) was up-regulated in cultures after the log phase irrespective of the stress treatments used. The relative synthesis of an ABC transport-related protein was also up-regulated after shock treatments. Carbohydrate analysis of cytoplasmic contents showed higher levels (20 +/- 3 microg/mg of protein) in cell extracts (CFEs) derived from osmotically stressed cells than in the unstressed control (15 +/- 3 microg/mg of protein). Liquid chromatography of these crude carbohydrate extracts showed significantly different profiles. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of CFEs revealed, in addition to normal mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharides, the presence of saccharides modified with glycerol.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Probióticos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dessecação , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Pressão Osmótica
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