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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696517

RESUMO

We have recently completed the largest GWAS on lung cancer including 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls of European descent. The goal of this study has been to integrate the complete GWAS results with a large-scale expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study in human lung tissues (n=1,038) to identify candidate causal genes for lung cancer. We performed transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for lung cancer overall, by histology (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell lung cancer) and smoking subgroups (never- and ever-smokers). We performed replication analysis using lung data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. DNA damage assays were performed in human lung fibroblasts for selected TWAS genes. As expected, the main TWAS signal for all histological subtypes and ever-smokers was on chromosome 15q25. The gene most strongly associated with lung cancer at this locus using the TWAS approach was IREB2 (PTWAS =1.09E-99), where lower predicted expression increased lung cancer risk. A new lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility locus was revealed on 9p13.3 and associated with higher predicted expression of AQP3 (PTWAS =3.72E-6). Among the 45 previously described lung cancer GWAS loci, we mapped candidate target gene for 17 of them. The association AQP3-adenocarcinoma on 9p13.3 was replicated using GTEx (PTWAS =6.55E-5). Consistent with the effect of risk alleles on gene expression levels, IREB2 knockdown and AQP3 overproduction promote endogenous DNA damage. These findings indicate genes whose expression in lung tissue directly influence lung cancer risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 191-202, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease related to asbestos exposure, with no effective therapeutic options. METHODS: We undertook unsupervised analyses of RNA-sequencing data of 284 MPMs, with no assumption of discreteness. Using immunohistochemistry, we performed an orthogonal validation on a subset of 103 samples and a biological replication in an independent series of 77 samples. FINDINGS: A continuum of molecular profiles explained the prognosis of the disease better than any discrete model. The immune and vascular pathways were the major sources of molecular variation, with strong differences in the expression of immune checkpoints and pro-angiogenic genes; the extrema of this continuum had specific molecular profiles: a "hot" bad-prognosis profile, with high lymphocyte infiltration and high expression of immune checkpoints and pro-angiogenic genes; a "cold" bad-prognosis profile, with low lymphocyte infiltration and high expression of pro-angiogenic genes; and a "VEGFR2+/VISTA+" better-prognosis profile, with high expression of immune checkpoint VISTA and pro-angiogenic gene VEGFR2. We validated the gene expression levels at the protein level for a subset of five selected genes belonging to the immune and vascular pathways (CD8A, PDL1, VEGFR3, VEGFR2, and VISTA), in the validation series, and replicated the molecular profiles as well as their prognostic value in the replication series. INTERPRETATION: The prognosis of MPM is best explained by a continuous model, which extremes show specific expression patterns of genes involved in angiogenesis and immune response.

3.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 844-863, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407831

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 935-942, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. IMPACT: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(7): 1125-1134, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) belimumab plus standard of care (SOC) therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in patients with active, autoantibody-positive SLE. METHODS: The study was designed as a multicenter, open-label, continuation study of IV belimumab given every 4 weeks in conjunction with SOC therapy in patients with SLE who completed a phase II, double-blind study. Adverse events (AEs) and laboratory data were monitored from the first belimumab dose (in either study) until 24 weeks after the final dose. Efficacy assessments included SLE Responder Index (SRI) and flare index scores (each assessed at 16-week intervals) and glucocorticoid use (assessed at 4-week intervals). RESULTS: Of the 476 patients in the parent study, 298 (62.6%) entered the continuation study, of whom 96 (32.2%) remained in the study. Patients received belimumab for up to 13 years (median duration of exposure 3,334.0 days [range 260-4,332 days], total belimumab exposure 2,294 patient-years, median number of infusions 115.5 [range 7-155]). The percentage of patients with AEs each year remained stable or decreased. Normal serum IgG levels were maintained in the majority of patients over the study, and the rate of infections remained stable. The percentage of patients who achieved an SRI response increased from 32.8% (year 1) to 75.6% of those remaining on treatment at year 12. The glucocorticoid dose was decreased in patients who had been receiving >7.5 mg/day at baseline. CONCLUSION: This study is the longest to date to assess belimumab treatment in patients with SLE in clinical trials. Belimumab was well tolerated with no new safety concerns, and efficacy was maintained in patients who continued the study. For patients who initially exhibited a satisfactory response to belimumab, the treatment continues to be well tolerated and provides long-term disease control.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 32: 93-101, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859855

RESUMO

Recent technological advancements have permitted high-throughput measurement of the human genome, epigenome, metabolome, transcriptome, and proteome at the population level. We hypothesized that subsets of genes identified from omic studies might have closely related biological functions and thus might interact directly at the network level. Therefore, we conducted an integrative analysis of multi-omic datasets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to search for association patterns beyond the genome and transcriptome. A large, complex, and robust gene network containing well-known lung cancer-related genes, including EGFR and TERT, was identified from combined gene lists for lung adenocarcinoma. Members of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) gene family were at the center of this network. Subsequent sequencing of network hub genes within a subset of samples from the Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung-International Lung Cancer Consortium (TRICL-ILCCO) consortium revealed a SNP (rs12614710) in EPAS1 associated with NSCLC that reached genome-wide significance (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.31-1.72; p = 7.75 × 10-9). Using imputed data, we found that this SNP remained significant in the entire TRICL-ILCCO consortium (p = .03). Additional functional studies are warranted to better understand interrelationships among genetic polymorphisms, DNA methylation status, and EPAS1 expression.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Cancer Res ; 78(10): 2747-2759, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559475

RESUMO

Given the frequent and largely incurable occurrence of multiple myeloma, identification of germline genetic mutations that predispose cells to multiple myeloma may provide insight into disease etiology and the developmental mechanisms of its cell of origin, the plasma cell (PC). Here, we identified familial and early-onset multiple myeloma kindreds with truncating mutations in lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), an epigenetic transcriptional repressor that primarily demethylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and regulates hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal. In addition, we found higher rates of germline truncating and predicted deleterious missense KDM1A mutations in patients with multiple myeloma unselected for family history compared with controls. Both monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma cells have significantly lower KDM1A transcript levels compared with normal PCs. Transcriptome analysis of multiple myeloma cells from KDM1A mutation carriers shows enrichment of pathways and MYC target genes previously associated with myeloma pathogenesis. In mice, antigen challenge followed by pharmacologic inhibition of KDM1A promoted PC expansion, enhanced secondary immune response, elicited appearance of serum paraprotein, and mediated upregulation of MYC transcriptional targets. These changes are consistent with the development of MGUS. Collectively, our findings show that KDM1A is the first autosomal-dominant multiple myeloma germline predisposition gene providing new insights into its mechanistic roles as a tumor suppressor during post-germinal center B-cell differentiation.Significance: KDM1A is the first germline autosomal dominant predisposition gene identified in multiple myeloma and provides new insights into multiple myeloma etiology and the mechanistic role of KDM1A as a tumor suppressor during post-germinal center B-cell differentiation. Cancer Res; 78(10); 2747-59. ©2018 AACR.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4534, 2018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540730

RESUMO

With the aim to dissect the effect of adult height on head and neck cancer (HNC), we use the Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to test the association between genetic instruments for height and the risk of HNC. 599 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as genetic instruments for height, accounting for 16% of the phenotypic variation. Genetic data concerning HNC cases and controls were obtained from a genome-wide association study. Summary statistics for genetic association were used in complementary MR approaches: the weighted genetic risk score (GRS) and the inverse-variance weighted (IVW). MR-Egger regression was used for sensitivity analysis and pleiotropy evaluation. From the GRS analysis, one standard deviation (SD) higher height (6.9 cm; due to genetic predisposition across 599 SNPs) raised the risk for HNC (Odds ratio (OR), 1.14; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI), 0.99-1.32). The association analyses with potential confounders revealed that the GRS was associated with tobacco smoking (OR = 0.80, 95% CI (0.69-0.93)). MR-Egger regression did not provide evidence of overall directional pleiotropy. Our study indicates that height is potentially associated with HNC risk. However, the reported risk could be underestimated since, at the genetic level, height emerged to be inversely associated with smoking.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1048, 2018 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535388

RESUMO

Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs) have similarities with other lung cancers, but their precise relationship has remained unclear. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic (n = 60) and transcriptomic (n = 69) analysis of 75 LCNECs and identify two molecular subgroups: "type I LCNECs" with bi-allelic TP53 and STK11/KEAP1 alterations (37%), and "type II LCNECs" enriched for bi-allelic inactivation of TP53 and RB1 (42%). Despite sharing genomic alterations with adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, no transcriptional relationship was found; instead LCNECs form distinct transcriptional subgroups with closest similarity to SCLC. While type I LCNECs and SCLCs exhibit a neuroendocrine profile with ASCL1high/DLL3high/NOTCHlow, type II LCNECs bear TP53 and RB1 alterations and differ from most SCLC tumors with reduced neuroendocrine markers, a pattern of ASCL1low/DLL3low/NOTCHhigh, and an upregulation of immune-related pathways. In conclusion, LCNECs comprise two molecularly defined subgroups, and distinguishing them from SCLC may allow stratified targeted treatment of high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Técnicas In Vitro , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191701, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377909

RESUMO

We investigated how somatic changes in HNSCC interact with environmental and host risk factors and whether they influence the risk of HNSCC occurrence and outcome. 180-paired samples diagnosed as HNSCC in two high incidence regions of Europe and South America underwent targeted sequencing (14 genes) and evaluation of copy number alterations (SCNAs). TP53, PIK3CA, NOTCH1, TP63 and CDKN2A were the most frequently mutated genes. Cases were characterized by a low copy number burden with recurrent focal amplification in 11q13.3 and deletion in 15q22. Cases with low SCNAs showed an improved overall survival. We found significant correlations with decreased overall survival between focal amplified regions 4p16, 10q22 and 22q11, and losses in 12p12, 15q14 and 15q22. The mutational landscape in our cases showed an association to both environmental exposures and clinical characteristics. We confirmed that somatic copy number alterations are an important predictor of HNSCC overall survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Affect Disord ; 228: 20-25, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly heritable disorder of mood. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several independent susceptibility loci. In order to extract more biological information from GWAS data, multi-locus approaches represent powerful tools since they utilize knowledge about biological processes to integrate functional sets of genes at strongly to moderately associated loci. METHODS: We conducted gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) using 2.3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 397 Reactome pathways and 24,025 patients with BD and controls. RNA expression of implicated individual genes and gene sets were examined in post-mortem brains across lifespan. RESULTS: Two pathways showed a significant enrichment after correction for multiple comparisons in the GSEA: GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, for which 6 of 21 genes were BD associated (PFDR = 0.0377), and NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, for which 11 out of 62 genes were BD associated (PFDR = 0.0451). Most pathway genes showed peaks of RNA co-expression during fetal development and infancy and mapped to neocortical areas and parts of the limbic system. LIMITATIONS: Pathway associations were technically reproduced by two methods, although they were not formally replicated in independent samples. Gene expression was explored in controls but not in patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pathway analysis in large GWAS data of BD and follow-up of gene expression patterns in healthy brains provide support for an involvement of neurodevelopmental processes in the etiology of this neuropsychiatric disease. Future studies are required to further evaluate the relevance of the implicated genes on pathway functioning and clinical aspects of BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Algoritmos , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genes erbB-2/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA/metabolismo
14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(1): 33-42, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066508

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous genomic studies have identified two mutually exclusive molecular subtypes of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC): the RB1 mutated (mostly comutated with TP53) and the RB1 wild-type groups. We assessed whether these subtypes have a predictive value on chemotherapy outcome.Experimental Design: Clinical data and tumor specimens were retrospectively obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and Pathology Registry. Panel-consensus pathology revision confirmed the diagnosis of LCNEC in 148 of 232 cases. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for TP53, RB1, STK11, and KEAP1 genes, as well as IHC for RB1 and P16 was performed on 79 and 109 cases, respectively, and correlated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), stratifying for non-small cell lung cancer type chemotherapy including platinum + gemcitabine or taxanes (NSCLC-GEM/TAX) and platinum-etoposide (SCLC-PE).Results:RB1 mutation and protein loss were detected in 47% (n = 37) and 72% (n = 78) of the cases, respectively. Patients with RB1 wild-type LCNEC treated with NSCLC-GEM/TAX had a significantly longer OS [9.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.7-11.6 months] than those treated with SCLC-PE [5.8 (5.5-6.1); P = 0.026]. Similar results were obtained for patients expressing RB1 in their tumors (P = 0.001). RB1 staining or P16 loss showed similar results. The same outcome for chemotherapy treatment was observed in LCNEC tumors harboring an RB1 mutation or lost RB1 protein.Conclusions: Patients with LCNEC tumors that carry a wild-type RB1 gene or express the RB1 protein do better with NSCLC-GEM/TAX treatment than with SCLC-PE chemotherapy. However, no difference was observed for RB1 mutated or with lost protein expression. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 33-42. ©2017 AACR.

15.
Drug Test Anal ; 10(3): 488-495, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731573

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the effect of ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes on blood acetaldehyde and ethanol levels after alcohol ingestion, and to measure the genotoxic effect of smoking and ethanol on the buccal cells, also controlling for ADH variants. We recruited healthy Italian subjects with at least a moderate history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were given an alcoholic drink of 0.4 g ethanol /kg of body weight. Blood venous samples were collected at baseline, and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ingestion. Buccal cells were collected before ethanol ingestion. Sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Individuals with the ADH1B GG genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.4-7.2), and those with the ADH1B GT/TT genotype had 4.7mM (IQR 4.2-4.8). Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5µM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH1B GG genotype and 1.6µM (IQR 1.5-1.7) for ADH1B CG/GG genotype. Individuals with the ADH7 CC genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.3-7.2), while 5.0mM (IQR 4.7-5.6) was in those with the ADH7 CG/GG genotype. Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 µM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH7 CC genotype and 1.5 µM (IQR 1.4-1.6) for ADH7 CG/GG genotypes. A non-significant increase in the frequency of karyolitic and pyknotic cells was found in the group of heavy drinkers and current smokers, when compared to the moderate drinkers and the non-smokers. Our study does not support the hypothesis that ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes affect blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/sangue , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Etanol/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Polimorfismo Genético
16.
Oncotarget ; 8(42): 72621-72632, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069814

RESUMO

The use of non-invasive biomarkers such as circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in head and neck tumors may be of relevance in early diagnosis and eventually improved outcome. We evaluated two different approaches from two case series in Europe and South America including (i) targeted screening of ctDNA mutations, and (ii) detection of TP53 mutations in plasma and oral rinses without previous knowledge of mutational status in tumor samples. Targeted sequencing in 5 genes identified ctDNA mutations in plasma among 42% of HNSCC cases, 67% of who were early stage cases. No association was found between ctDNA mutation detection and overall survival. Sequencing of the entire coding region of the TP53 gene resulted in identification of TP53 mutations in 76% of tumor cases. However, concordance of mutation detection was low between tumor, oral rinses (11%) and plasma (2,7%) samples. Identification of 5 pathogenic TP53 mutations in oral rinses from 3 non-cancer controls gives additional evidence of mutation occurrence in individuals without a diagnosed cancer and presents an additional challenge for the development of ctDNA diagnostic assays.

17.
Eur Urol ; 72(5): 747-754, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been evaluated as a potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in several studies, with conflicting findings. OBJECTIVE: We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with leukocyte telomere length to assess the relationship between telomere length and RCC risk using Mendelian randomization, an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Genotypes from nine telomere length-associated variants for 10 784 cases and 20 406 cancer-free controls from six genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of RCC were aggregated into a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) predictive of leukocyte telomere length. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Odds ratios (ORs) relating the GRS and RCC risk were computed in individual GWAS datasets and combined by meta-analysis. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Longer genetically inferred telomere length was associated with an increased risk of RCC (OR=2.07 per predicted kilobase increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]:=1.70-2.53, p<0.0001). As a sensitivity analysis, we excluded two telomere length variants in linkage disequilibrium (R2>0.5) with GWAS-identified RCC risk variants (rs10936599 and rs9420907) from the telomere length GRS; despite this exclusion, a statistically significant association between the GRS and RCC risk persisted (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.36-2.21, p<0.0001). Exploratory analyses for individual histologic subtypes suggested comparable associations with the telomere length GRS for clear cell (N=5573, OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.50-2.49, p<0.0001), papillary (N=573, OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.01-3.81, p=0.046), and chromophobe RCC (N=203, OR=2.37, 95% CI=0.78-7.17, p=0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation adds to the growing body of evidence indicating some aspect of longer telomere length is important for RCC risk. PATIENT SUMMARY: Telomeres are segments of DNA at chromosome ends that maintain chromosomal stability. Our study investigated the relationship between genetic variants associated with telomere length and renal cell carcinoma risk. We found evidence suggesting individuals with inherited predisposition to longer telomere length are at increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Homeostase do Telômero , Telômero/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Leucócitos/química , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Telômero/patologia
18.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1126-1132, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604730

RESUMO

Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of lung cancer in 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. We identified 18 susceptibility loci achieving genome-wide significance, including 10 new loci. The new loci highlight the striking heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across the histological subtypes of lung cancer, with four loci associated with lung cancer overall and six loci associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in 1,425 normal lung tissue samples highlights RNASET2, SECISBP2L and NRG1 as candidate genes. Other loci include genes such as a cholinergic nicotinic receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171595, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166306

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable neuropsychiatric disease characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. BD shows substantial clinical and genetic overlap with other psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia (SCZ). The genes underlying this etiological overlap remain largely unknown. A recent SCZ genome wide association study (GWAS) by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium identified 128 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The present study investigated whether these SCZ-associated SNPs also contribute to BD development through the performance of association testing in a large BD GWAS dataset (9747 patients, 14278 controls). After re-imputation and correction for sample overlap, 22 of 107 investigated SCZ SNPs showed nominal association with BD. The number of shared SCZ-BD SNPs was significantly higher than expected (p = 1.46x10-8). This provides further evidence that SCZ-associated loci contribute to the development of BD. Two SNPs remained significant after Bonferroni correction. The most strongly associated SNP was located near TRANK1, which is a reported genome-wide significant risk gene for BD. Pathway analyses for all shared SCZ-BD SNPs revealed 25 nominally enriched gene-sets, which showed partial overlap in terms of the underlying genes. The enriched gene-sets included calcium- and glutamate signaling, neuropathic pain signaling in dorsal horn neurons, and calmodulin binding. The present data provide further insights into shared risk loci and disease-associated pathways for BD and SCZ. This may suggest new research directions for the treatment and prevention of these two major psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
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