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2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(2): 257-265, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556292

RESUMO

Moebius syndrome is a highly variable syndrome with abducens and facial nerve palsy as core features. Strict diagnostic criteria do not exist and the inconsistency of the associated features makes determination difficult. To determine what features are associated with Moebius syndrome we performed a systematic literature review resulting in a composite case series of 449 individuals labeled with Moebius syndrome. We applied minimum criteria (facial and abducens palsy) to determine the prevalence of associated clinical features in this series. Additionally, we performed statistical cluster analysis to determine which features tended to occur together. Our study comprises the largest series of patients with Moebius syndrome and the first to apply statistical methodology to elucidate clinical relationships. We present evidence for two groups within the Moebius diagnosis. Type 1: exhibiting micrognathia, limb anomalies and feeding/swallowing difficulty that tend to occur together. Type 2: phenotypically diverse but more associated with radiologically detectable neurologic abnormalities and developmental delay.

4.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1442-1451, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224647

RESUMO

The etiological spectrum of ultra-rare developmental disorders remains to be fully defined. Chromatin regulatory mechanisms maintain cellular identity and function, where misregulation may lead to developmental defects. Here, we report pathogenic variations in MSL3, which encodes a member of the chromatin-associated male-specific lethal (MSL) complex responsible for bulk histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation (H4K16ac) in flies and mammals. These variants cause an X-linked syndrome affecting both sexes. Clinical features of the syndrome include global developmental delay, progressive gait disturbance, and recognizable facial dysmorphism. MSL3 mutations affect MSL complex assembly and activity, accompanied by a pronounced loss of H4K16ac levels in vivo. Patient-derived cells display global transcriptome alterations of pathways involved in morphogenesis and cell migration. Finally, we use histone deacetylase inhibitors to rebalance acetylation levels, alleviating some of the molecular and cellular phenotypes of patient cells. Taken together, we characterize a syndrome that allowed us to decipher the developmental importance of MSL3 in humans.

5.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in KAT6A have recently been identified as a cause of syndromic developmental delay. Within 2 years, the number of patients identified with pathogenic KAT6A variants has rapidly expanded and the full extent and variability of the clinical phenotype has not been reported. METHODS: We obtained data for patients with KAT6A pathogenic variants through three sources: treating clinicians, an online family survey distributed through social media, and a literature review. RESULTS: We identified 52 unreported cases, bringing the total number of published cases to 76. Our results expand the genotypic spectrum of pathogenic variants to include missense and splicing mutations. We functionally validated a pathogenic splice-site variant and identified a likely hotspot location for de novo missense variants. The majority of clinical features in KAT6A syndrome have highly variable penetrance. For core features such as intellectual disability, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications, genotype- phenotype correlations show that late-truncating pathogenic variants (exons 16-17) are significantly more prevalent. We highlight novel associations, including an increased risk of gastrointestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION: Our data expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for individuals with genetic pathogenic variants in KAT6A and we outline appropriate clinical management.

6.
Hum Genet ; 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464339

RESUMO

GJA8 encodes connexin 50 (Cx50), a transmembrane protein involved in the formation of lens gap junctions. GJA8 mutations have been linked to early onset cataracts in humans and animal models. In mice, missense mutations and homozygous Gja8 deletions lead to smaller lenses and microphthalmia in addition to cataract, suggesting that Gja8 may play a role in both lens development and ocular growth. Following screening of GJA8 in a cohort of 426 individuals with severe congenital eye anomalies, primarily anophthalmia, microphthalmia and coloboma, we identified four known [p.(Thr39Arg), p.(Trp45Leu), p.(Asp51Asn), and p.(Gly94Arg)] and two novel [p.(Phe70Leu) and p.(Val97Gly)] likely pathogenic variants in seven families. Five of these co-segregated with cataracts and microphthalmia, whereas the variant p.(Gly94Arg) was identified in an individual with congenital aphakia, sclerocornea, microphthalmia and coloboma. Four missense variants of unknown or unlikely clinical significance were also identified. Furthermore, the screening of GJA8 structural variants in a subgroup of 188 individuals identified heterozygous 1q21 microdeletions in five families with coloboma and other ocular and/or extraocular findings. However, the exact genotype-phenotype correlation of these structural variants remains to be established. Our data expand the spectrum of GJA8 variants and associated phenotypes, confirming the importance of this gene in early eye development.

7.
Prenat Diagn ; 38(1): 33-43, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rare genetic disorders resulting in prenatal or neonatal death are genetically heterogeneous, but testing is often limited by the availability of fetal DNA, leaving couples without a potential prenatal test for future pregnancies. We describe our novel strategy of exome sequencing parental DNA samples to diagnose recessive monogenic disorders in an audit of the first 50 couples referred. METHOD: Exome sequencing was carried out in a consecutive series of 50 couples who had 1 or more pregnancies affected with a lethal or prenatal-onset disorder. In all cases, there was insufficient DNA for exome sequencing of the affected fetus. Heterozygous rare variants (MAF < 0.001) in the same gene in both parents were selected for analysis. Likely, disease-causing variants were tested in fetal DNA to confirm co-segregation. RESULTS: Parental exome analysis identified heterozygous pathogenic (or likely pathogenic) variants in 24 different genes in 26/50 couples (52%). Where 2 or more fetuses were affected, a genetic diagnosis was obtained in 18/29 cases (62%). In most cases, the clinical features were typical of the disorder, but in others, they result from a hypomorphic variant or represent the most severe form of a variable phenotypic spectrum. CONCLUSION: We conclude that exome sequencing of parental samples is a powerful strategy with high clinical utility for the genetic diagnosis of lethal or prenatal-onset recessive disorders. © 2017 The Authors Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Pais , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
8.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 28-38, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence has emerged linking mutations in CDK13 to syndromic congenital heart disease. We present here genetic and phenotypic data pertaining to 16 individuals with CDK13 mutations. METHODS: Patients were investigated by exome sequencing, having presented with developmental delay and additional features suggestive of a syndromic cause. RESULTS: Our cohort comprised 16 individuals aged 4-16 years. All had developmental delay, including six with autism spectrum disorder. Common findings included feeding difficulties (15/16), structural cardiac anomalies (9/16), seizures (4/16) and abnormalities of the corpus callosum (4/11 patients who had undergone MRI). All had craniofacial dysmorphism, with common features including short, upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism or telecanthus, medial epicanthic folds, low-set, posteriorly rotated ears and a small mouth with thin upper lip vermilion. Fifteen patients had predicted missense mutations, including five identical p.(Asn842Ser) substitutions and two p.(Gly717Arg) substitutions. One patient had a canonical splice acceptor site variant (c.2898-1G>A). All mutations were located within the protein kinase domain of CDK13. The affected amino acids are highly conserved, and in silico analyses including comparative protein modelling predict that they will interfere with protein function. The location of the missense mutations in a key catalytic domain suggests that they are likely to cause loss of catalytic activity but retention of cyclin K binding, resulting in a dominant negative mode of action. Although the splice-site mutation was predicted to produce a stable internally deleted protein, this was not supported by expression studies in lymphoblastoid cells. A loss of function contribution to the underlying pathological mechanism therefore cannot be excluded, and the clinical significance of this variant remains uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: These patients demonstrate that heterozygous, likely dominant negative mutations affecting the protein kinase domain of the CDK13 gene result in a recognisable, syndromic form of intellectual disability, with or without congenital heart disease.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase CDC2/química , Proteína Quinase CDC2/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Sequência Conservada , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Síndrome , Termodinâmica
9.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 53(7): 650-656, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449382

RESUMO

AIM: Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is an important diagnostic test for children with multiple congenital anomalies or certain developmental behavioural problems suggestive of an underlying genetic diagnosis. However, there are medical and ethical complexities to its use and few Australian policies to guide practice. We aimed to describe the current practice of Australian paediatricians in relation to CMA testing. We hypothesised that there are knowledge gaps in their use of CMA. METHODS: Online survey completed between September 2015 and January 2016 by paediatricians in secondary care settings. Participants were members of the Australian Paediatric Research Network. One hundred and sixty five (43%) of 383 active members responded. Our main outcome measures comprised: (i) the indications for which paediatricians request CMA; (ii) their approach to consent; (iii) their interpretation of results; and (iv) their understanding of the impact on patient management. RESULTS: A significant proportion of paediatricians (21-52%) did not regularly use CMA for conditions with established evidence of diagnostic yield. Paediatricians under-estimated the potential for CMA findings to alter patient management. There was wide variability in paediatricians' approach to consent, and low use of consent forms and fact sheets. Paediatricians reported difficulties interpreting CMA results, with high rates of referral to clinical genetics services. CONCLUSIONS: The reported practice of Australian paediatricians is not consistent with international standards on CMA. Australian practice could be improved by a standardised approach to ordering CMA, consenting patients and interpreting results. We provide resources for CMA ordering and make recommendations about preparation for next generation sequencing.


Assuntos
Análise em Microsséries/estatística & dados numéricos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Pediatras , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/genética , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(2): 130-135, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27915094

RESUMO

Loss of function mutations in CTNNB1 have been reported in individuals with intellectual disability [MIM #615075] associated with peripheral spasticity, microcephaly and central hypotonia, suggesting a recognisable phenotype associated with haploinsufficiency for this gene. Trio based whole exome sequencing via the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study has identified eleven further individuals with de novo loss of function mutations in CTNNB1. Here we report detailed phenotypic information on ten of these. We confirm the features that have been previously described and further delineate the skin and hair findings, including fair skin and fair and sparse hair with unusual patterning.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , beta Catenina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Can J Cardiol ; 32(12): 1577.e13-1577.e14, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27177834

RESUMO

A 54-year-old woman presented with presyncope and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed normal cardiac dimensions and left ventricular function. Late gadolinium enhancement was noted at the anterior and posterior right ventricular/left ventricular hinge points. Repeat cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 1 year confirmed persistence of hinge point enhancement. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy genotyping revealed the common C to T substitution at coding nucleotide 1504 of MYBPC3, c1504C>T. This variant has previously been reported as pathogenic in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Our case suggests that late gadolinium enhancement at the hinge points of nonhypertrophied hearts may account for clinically symptomatic ventricular arrhythmia.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Taquicardia Ventricular , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Diagnóstico Precoce , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Gadolínio/farmacologia , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia
12.
Arch Dis Child ; 101(9): 843-6, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26868039

RESUMO

Moebius syndrome (MBS) is a congenital, non-progressive facial and abducens nerve palsy in the presence of full vertical gaze and may be associated with limb abnormalities and craniofacial dysmorphisms. MBS is now defined as a disorder of rhombencephalic maldevelopment and recent gene discoveries have shown this to be a dominant disorder in a subset of patients. Accurate diagnosis and management by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in congenital facial palsy is paramount.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Möbius/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Möbius/terapia , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Síndrome de Möbius/complicações , Síndrome de Möbius/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/etiologia
13.
Fam Cancer ; 15(1): 57-61, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26386697

RESUMO

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome characterised by gastrointestinal polyposis and mucocutaneous pigmentation. Mutations in STK11, a serine-threonine protein kinase, have been associated with PJS in up to 100 % of published series. The hypothesis that a further genetic locus for PJS exists is controversial. No mutations in any other genes have been described in association with PJS. To date, no instances of somatic mosaicism for STK11 have been described. DNA extracted from peripheral lymphocytes and buccal cells was screened by sequence analysis for mutations in STK11. Dosage analysis was undertaken by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Four patients have been shown to have mosaicism in STK11: two had mosaic deletions of specific exons (2-3 and 3-10) of the STK11 gene; one had a mosaic nonsense mutation in exon 5; and one had a mosaic frameshift mutation in exon 8. This report details the first four reported cases of somatic mosaicism for STK11 associated with PJS. This shows that techniques in addition to direct sequencing such as MLPA must be used to assess for large scale genomic deletions in patients meeting clinical diagnostic criteria for PJS. This also adds further weight to the hypothesis of a single genetic locus for PJS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Mutação
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