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1.
Drugs ; 79(8): 893-900, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098898

RESUMO

Risankizumab (Skyrizi®), a humanised IgG monoclonal antibody that targets the p19 subunit of IL-23, was developed by AbbVie in collaboration with Boehringer Ingelheim for the treatment of immunological and inflammatory disorders. In March 2019, risankizumab received its first global approval in Japan for the treatment of adults with psoriasis vulgaris, psoriatic arthritis, generalized pustular psoriasis and erythrodermic psoriasis. Risankizumab has also received approval in the USA, Canada and the EU for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, and is in phase 3 development for this indication as well as psoriatic arthritis in several countries worldwide. Phase 2 and 3 clinical evaluation of risankizumab is ongoing in several countries in the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Risankizumab is also in phase 2 development for the treatment of atopic dermatitis globally. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of risankizumab leading to this first approval for psoriasis vulgaris, psoriatic arthritis, generalized pustular psoriasis and erythrodermic psoriasis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Aprovação de Drogas , Humanos , Interleucina-23/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Drugs ; 79(3): 347-352, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767127

RESUMO

Ravulizumab (ravulizumab-cwvz; ULTOMIRIS™), a humanized monoclonal antibody, is a complement C5 inhibitor developed by Alexion Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS). Like the first-generation C5 inhibitor, eculizumab, ravulizumab binds specifically and with high affinity to the complement protein C5, thereby preventing formation of the terminal complement complex C5b-9, which mediates cell lysis. In December 2018, intravenous ravulizumab received its first global approval in the USA for the treatment of adults with PNH, and is under regulatory review in the European Union and Japan in this indication. Phase 3 development of intravenous ravulizumab for the treatment of aHUS is underway worldwide. The use of ravulizumab in myasthenia gravis and IgA nephropathy is also being evaluated in the USA in early-phase and preclinical studies, respectively. Clinical development of a subcutaneous formulation for PNH and aHUS is also underway. Ravulizumab has been developed using Xencor's antibody half-life prolongation technology (Xtend™), which utilises antibody Fc variants to prolong half-life. Alexion is also evaluating the coadministration of subcutaneous ravulizumab with Halozyme's ENHANZE® drug-delivery technology (rHuPH20), which may have the potential to further extend the dosing interval. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of ravulizumab leading to this first approval for PNH.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/tratamento farmacológico , Complemento C5/antagonistas & inibidores , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Aprovação de Drogas , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
3.
Drugs Ther Perspect ; 34(8): 358-366, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546253

RESUMO

EGb 761® (Tanakan®) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that has demonstrated protective properties against neuronal and vascular damage. Overall, in randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials and meta-analyses in adults with mild-to-moderate dementia, EGb 761® displayed positive effects, with changes from baseline in outcomes related to cognition, behaviour and global change that are generally better than those shown with placebo. EGb 761® is generally well tolerated, with no safety issues being identified during its many years of widespread use.

4.
Drugs Ther Perspect ; 34(10): 451-456, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459507

RESUMO

Oral fostamatinib is an orally administered small molecule spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor approved for the treatment of adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) who have an inadequate response to a previous treatment. Fostamatinib has a unique mechanism of action, whereby its active metabolite targets the SYK-mediated pathway of platelet destruction. In clinical trials, fostamatinib provided durable responses in adults with chronic ITP who had not responded or had relapsed following treatment with one or more prior ITP therapies, including corticosteroids, thrombopoietin receptor agonists, rituximab, and/or splenectomy. Most patients who respond to fostamatinib maintain platelet counts of > 50 × 109/L for periods of ≥ 12 months. The most common adverse events reported with fostamatinib in clinical trials were diarrhea, hypertension, nausea, and increased transaminase levels.

5.
Drugs Ther Perspect ; 34(12): 594, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186610

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s40267-018-0551-x.].

6.
Clin Drug Investig ; 37(4): 405-410, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255844

RESUMO

Nanosomal docetaxel lipid suspension (NDLS) [DoceAqualip] is a novel formulation of docetaxel approved in India for the treatment of breast cancer, hormone-refractory prostate cancer, locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, non-small cell lung cancer and advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. The lipid-based delivery system of NDLS eliminates the need for polysorbate 80 and ethanol, which are contained in the conventional docetaxel formulation and are associated with hypersensitivity reactions and infusion-related toxicities. Because of the diminished potential for NDLS to cause hypersensitivity reactions compared with conventional docetaxel, corticosteroid premedication is not required with NDLS. In a randomized trial in patients with pretreated, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, the overall response rate was numerically higher with NDLS than with conventional docetaxel, and post-dose adverse events in the NDLS group were considered manageable and most resolved without sequelae, despite the lack of corticosteroid premedication.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
CNS Drugs ; 30(2): 91-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26849053

RESUMO

Brexpiprazole (Rexulti(®)) is a serotonin-dopamine activity modulator, with a unique receptor binding profile and low intrinsic D2 activity suggestive of a lower potential than aripiprazole to cause activation-like adverse effects, such as akathisia. The drug was recently approved by the US FDA for adjunctive therapy with antidepressant treatment (ADT) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In two phase III trials, adjunctive oral brexpiprazole 2 or 3 mg once daily was more effective than monotherapy with ADT in improving depressive symptoms in adults with MDD who demonstrated an incomplete response to previous treatment with ADT. Adjunctive brexpiprazole was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, which included treatment periods of up to 52 weeks. Results of ongoing trials should help position the drug in the treatment of MDD. In the meantime, brexpiprazole provides a valid option for patients with persistent symptoms despite standard antidepressant therapy.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos/farmacocinética , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Quinolonas/efeitos adversos , Quinolonas/farmacocinética , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Tiofenos/farmacocinética
8.
Drugs ; 76(2): 275-81, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26729183

RESUMO

Daratumumab (Darzalex™) is a first-in-class, humanized IgG1κ monoclonal antibody that targets the CD38 epitope and was developed by Janssen Biotech and Genmab. Intravenous daratumumab was recently approved via an accelerated approval programme in the USA for patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least three prior lines of therapy including a proteasome inhibitor (PI) and an immunomodulatory agent or who are double-refractory to a PI and an immunomodulatory agent. The drug is in preregistration for this indication in the EU and Canada. In a phase II trial in patients with previously treated (as described above) relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, monotherapy with daratumumab 16 mg/kg achieved an overall response rate of approximately 30 %. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of daratumumab leading to this first approval for multiple myeloma.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Humanos
9.
Paediatr Drugs ; 18(1): 75-81, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26747634

RESUMO

The intranasal formulation of zolmitriptan, a selective serotonin 5-HT1B/1D agonist, was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute migraine in pediatric patients 12 years of age or older. This article summarizes the efficacy and tolerability of zolmitriptan (Zomig(®)) nasal spray (NS) in acute migraine in this patient group. Zolmitriptan NS 5 mg was more effective in relieving headache pain than placebo in two double-blind studies in pediatric patients 12-17 years of age with acute migraine. Furthermore, zolmitriptan NS 2.5 and 5 mg effectively relieved photophobia and phonophobia, and was associated with a faster return to normal daily activities than placebo. Zolmitriptan NS is rapidly absorbed from the nasal mucosa and is associated with a fast onset of action, with one study showing a significant difference versus placebo with regard to headache response 15 min after administration. In both trials, zolmitriptan NS was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. In conclusion, zolmitriptan NS provides rapid, effective and generally well tolerated treatment of acute migraine in pediatric patients 12 years of age or older and may be of particular benefit for those with nausea or not easily able to swallow tablets.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Oxazolidinonas/administração & dosagem , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Triptaminas/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Criança , Humanos , Sprays Nasais , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
10.
CNS Drugs ; 30(1): 79-90, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26692288

RESUMO

A new extended-release (ER) capsule formulation of carbidopa/levodopa (Rytary(®), Numient™, IPX066) is available for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Carbidopa/levodopa ER capsules contain beads of carbidopa and levodopa, designed to release the drugs at different rates in the gastrointestinal tract and provide constant therapeutic levodopa concentrations that are maintained for 4-5 h (after an initial peak at ≈ 1 h). In randomized phase III trials, oral carbidopa/levodopa ER was significantly more effective than placebo with regard to improving motor symptoms and activities of daily living in patients with early PD after 30 weeks' treatment, and provided significantly greater reductions in daily 'off-time' in patients with advanced PD than immediate-release (IR) carbidopa/levodopa or carbidopa/levodopa IR plus entacapone after a treatment period of 13 and 2 weeks, respectively, without increasing troublesome dyskinesia. The efficacy of carbidopa/levodopa ER was maintained during a 9-month open-label extension in patients with early or advanced PD. Carbidopa/levodopa ER was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with the most common adverse events in the extension study being nausea and insomnia in patients with early PD and falls and dyskinesia in patients with advanced PD. Thus, carbidopa/levodopa ER is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment option for the motor symptoms of PD, reducing periods of 'off-time' compared with carbidopa/levodopa IR without increasing troublesome dyskinesia.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Carbidopa/uso terapêutico , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Antiparkinsonianos/administração & dosagem , Antiparkinsonianos/farmacocinética , Carbidopa/administração & dosagem , Carbidopa/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Combinação de Medicamentos , Interações de Medicamentos , Humanos , Levodopa/administração & dosagem , Levodopa/farmacocinética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Drugs ; 75(18): 2119-30, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26586242

RESUMO

Adalimumab (Humira(®)) is a fully human monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor (TNF), formulated for subcutaneous administration. It is well established in the treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and has recently received approval in the EU for the treatment of severe chronic plaque psoriasis in children and adolescents from 4 years of age. In a phase III trial in paediatric patients, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving adalimumab 0.8 mg/kg (to a maximum of 40 mg) every other week (eow) achieved a ≥75 % improvement from baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index than those receiving methotrexate after 16 weeks of treatment. In adults, well-designed randomized clinical trials demonstrated that adalimumab 40 mg eow effectively reduced the signs and symptoms of psoriasis and improved dermatology-specific and general measures of health-related quality of life, with these benefits sustained during long-term treatment. Adalimumab was generally well tolerated, compared with placebo or methotrexate, during clinical trials in paediatric and adult patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Thus, adalimumab remains an important treatment strategy in adults with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and provides a promising new systemic treatment option for children and adolescents from 4 years of age with severe psoriasis.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Criança , Humanos , Psoríase/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Drugs ; 75(15): 1773-81, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26362333

RESUMO

Ruxolitinib (Jakavi(®), Jakafi(®)) is an orally administered, first-in-class Janus Kinase (JAK) 1 and 2 inhibitor that was recently approved for the treatment of patients with polycythaemia vera (PV) who have responded inadequately to or are intolerant of hydroxyurea. By inhibiting JAK 1 and 2, ruxolitinib reduces hyperactive JAK-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signalling that is implicated in the pathogenesis of PV. This article briefly reviews the pharmacology of the drug, focusing on its clinical use in patients with PV. In the phase III RESPONSE trial in PV patients who had an inadequate response to or unacceptable adverse effects from hydroxyurea, ruxolitinib was superior to best available therapy in reducing haematocrit without phlebotomy and reducing spleen size after 32 weeks of treatment. Ruxolitinib was also associated with reducing leukocyte and platelet counts and improving symptoms. Patient follow-up demonstrated that response to ruxolitinib was durable, including preliminary results after up to 80 weeks of treatment. The drug is generally well tolerated, although mild to moderate anaemia, thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia were common in the RESPONSE trial. These effects can usually be managed with dosage modification and did not lead to therapy discontinuation in the RESPONSE trial. Thus, for a subgroup of PV patients for whom few treatment options have existed previously, ruxolitinib provides a valid option.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Janus Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Policitemia Vera/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Policitemia Vera/enzimologia , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Drug Investig ; 35(8): 519-24, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26142085

RESUMO

Raplixa™ is a novel fibrin sealant containing a blend of human fibrinogen and thrombin in powder form. It is approved in adults to help control bleeding when standard surgical techniques have been insufficient. This article summarizes the product characteristics of Raplixa and provides a narrative review of its clinical use and tolerability. Unlike other available fibrin sealants, including liquid agents and lyophilized powders, the dry-powder, ready-to-use formulation of Raplixa provides potential advantages, including ease of storage and use. In the randomized, phase III FINISH-3 study, Raplixa plus gelatin sponge was superior to gelatin sponge alone in reducing the time to haemostasis in adults who developed mild or moderate bleeding uncontrolled by conventional surgical techniques while undergoing spinal, vascular, hepatic or soft-tissue surgical procedures. Raplixa was well tolerated, with a similar safety profile to that observed in the gelatin-sponge-alone group. Thus, Raplixa provides an easy to store and use option for improving haemostasis in adults when standard surgical techniques are ineffective or impractical.


Assuntos
Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/farmacologia , Hemostasia Cirúrgica/métodos , Hemostáticos/farmacologia , Adulto , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/administração & dosagem , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Drugs ; 75(12): 1435-45, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26220913

RESUMO

Aflibercept is a recombinant fusion protein that acts as a soluble decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key regulator of angiogenesis. It binds to all isoforms of VEGF-A as well as VEGF-B and placental growth factor, and, thus, prevents them from binding to and activating their cognate receptors. In the USA and EU, intravenously administered aflibercept in combination with an infusion of leucovorin, fluorouracil and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) is approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after treatment with an oxaliplatin-containing regimen. The efficacy of aflibercept in this indication was assessed in a multinational, pivotal phase 3 trial (VELOUR), in which the approved regimen of aflibercept 4 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus FOLFIRI significantly prolonged median overall survival by 1.44 months compared with FOLFIRI alone (primary endpoint). The addition of aflibercept also significantly prolonged progression-free survival and significantly increased the objective response rate compared with FOLFIRI alone. Addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI was associated with anti-VEGF-related adverse events and an increased incidence of FOLFIRI-related adverse events, but the tolerability of the combination was generally acceptable in this pre-treated population. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events with aflibercept plus FOLFIRI included neutropenia, diarrhoea and hypertension. In conclusion, aflibercept plus FOLFIRI is a useful treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer previously treated with an oxaliplatin-containing regimen, with or without bevacizumab.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacocinética , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Neovascularização Patológica , Fator de Crescimento Placentário , Proteínas da Gravidez/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas da Gravidez/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/efeitos adversos , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacocinética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacocinética , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fator B de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator B de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
15.
Drugs ; 75(10): 1161-4, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26115728

RESUMO

Trelagliptin (Zafatek(®)) is an orally active dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor developed by Takeda and approved in Japan for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Unlike other approved agents of its class, which are usually administered once daily, trelagliptin can be administered once weekly. Phase II development of trelagliptin was discontinued in the USA and EU, as Takeda considered that the costs associated with obtaining approval in these markets were prohibitive. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of trelagliptin leading to this first approval for T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Aprovação de Drogas , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Japão , Uracila/efeitos adversos , Uracila/farmacocinética , Uracila/farmacologia , Uracila/uso terapêutico
16.
Drugs ; 75(9): 1039-48, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26017304

RESUMO

Pasireotide (Signifor(®), Signifor(®) LAR) is a somatostatin analogue recently approved for the treatment of acromegaly. Unlike the first-generation agents, octreotide and lanreotide, which bind preferentially to somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-2, pasireotide binds to multiple SSTRs. This article reviews the clinical use and summarizes the pharmacological properties of intramuscular pasireotide in the treatment of acromegaly. The efficacy of pasireotide 40 mg every 28 days was superior to that of intramuscular octreotide 20 mg every 28 days with regard to biochemical control in a 12-month, phase III trial in medically naive patients. Similarly, in a 6-month, phase III trial in patients with acromegaly inadequately controlled with somatostatin analogues for at least 6 months, the efficacy of pasireotide 40 or 60 mg was superior to that of continued octreotide 30 mg or lanreotide autogel 120 mg (each drug was administered once every 28 days) with regard to biochemical control. The tolerability profile of intramuscular pasireotide is generally similar to that of first-generation agents, except for a higher incidence of hyperglycaemia-related adverse events with pasireotide. In clinical trials, the risk of developing pasireotide-associated hyperglycaemia was numerically greater in patients categorized as diabetic or prediabetic at baseline than in those with normal glucose tolerance. Careful monitoring of glycaemic status is required prior to and during pasireotide treatment and antidiabetic therapy should be commenced as indicated. Thus, in the treatment of acromegaly, pasireotide may be a more effective somatostatin analogue than other approved agents of the same class; however, the increased risk of hyperglycaemia needs to be considered and proactively managed.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Somatostatina/efeitos adversos , Somatostatina/farmacocinética , Somatostatina/farmacologia , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico
17.
CNS Drugs ; 29(5): 425-32, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25906331

RESUMO

Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone(®)) is a synthetic analogue of myelin basic protein, which is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The therapeutic effects of the drug in the treatment of MS are thought to be via immunomodulation and neuroprotection. Subcutaneous glatiramer acetate 20 mg/mL once daily is approved in several countries for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS. Recently, a high-concentration formulation of glatiramer acetate 40 mg/mL administered three times weekly was approved in the USA and several European countries in the same indication. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of the high-concentration regimen. In the randomized, phase III GALA study in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), glatiramer acetate 40 mg/mL three times weekly reduced annualized relapse rates significantly more than placebo, and indirect comparisons indicate that the efficacy of the three-times-weekly regimen is similar to that of the 20 mg/mL once-daily regimen. Results of the randomized, phase IIIb GLACIER study in patients with RRMS demonstrated that the three-times-weekly regimen reduced the risk of injection-site reactions by 50 % and was associated with numerically greater patient convenience scores than the once-daily regimen. Thus, in the treatment of RRMS, glatiramer acetate 40 mg/mL three times weekly is effective and provides a better tolerated and possibly more convenient option than the once-daily regimen.


Assuntos
Acetato de Glatiramer/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Esquema de Medicação , Acetato de Glatiramer/efeitos adversos , Acetato de Glatiramer/farmacocinética , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacocinética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Clin Drug Investig ; 35(5): 335-40, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25859983

RESUMO

Teduglutide (Gattex(®)) is a recombinant analogue of human glucagon-like peptide-2 and is indicated for the treatment of adults with short bowel syndrome (SBS) dependent on parenteral support (PS). In a pivotal, 24-week clinical trial in SBS patients, subcutaneous teduglutide 0.05 mg/kg once daily increased absorption from the remnant intestine as evidenced by significant reductions in PS volume requirements versus placebo. Improvements attained in absorption in the first 6 months of therapy were maintained during the extension trial (total teduglutide treatment periods of up to 30 months), with evidence indicating that benefits accrue over time. Among patients who received teduglutide treatment for up to 30 months, 11 of 30 were able to achieve at least one additional day off PS and another ten achieved complete independence from PS. Subcutaneous teduglutide was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, including over the long term, with most adverse events that led to study discontinuation being gastrointestinal in origin.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrição Parenteral , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos/farmacologia
19.
Drugs ; 75(7): 809-16, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25895466

RESUMO

Tiotropium bromide (Spiriva®) solution for inhalation via the Respimat® Soft Mist™ inhaler is a long-acting anticholinergic agent approved in the EU for the add-on maintenance treatment of asthma in adults currently receiving maintenance therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) (≥800 µg budesonide per day or equivalent) and a long-acting ß2-adrenergic agonist (LABA) and who have experienced at least one severe exacerbation in the previous year. Tiotropium Respimat® added to maintenance ICS/LABA treatment significantly improved lung function after 6 months' treatment and extended the time to the first asthma exacerbation in two well-designed, replicate, phase III trials in patients with poorly controlled asthma despite treatment with an ICS (≥800 µg budesonide/day or equivalent) and a LABA. Tiotropium Respimat® was also associated with a reduced incidence of severe asthma exacerbations and an increase in the median time to asthma worsening. The drug was well tolerated in asthma patients throughout 48 weeks' treatment, with a generally similar incidence of serious adverse events in tiotropium Respimat® and placebo treatment groups. Thus, in patients with poorly controlled asthma despite receiving high-dose ICS and a LABA, tiotropium Respimat® provides a valuable treatment option.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores
20.
Drugs ; 75(6): 687-93, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25808831

RESUMO

Finafloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent that exhibits optimum efficacy in slightly acidic environments. It is being developed by MerLion Pharmaceuticals to treat serious bacterial infections associated with an acidic environment, including urinary tract infections and Helicobacter pylori infections. An otic suspension of finafloxacin (Xtoro™), developed by Alcon (a division of Novartis), was recently approved in the USA for the treatment of acute otitis externa, and a Common Technical Document for this indication was also filed in Canada. Oral and/or intravenous formulations are in phase I and II evaluation in uncomplicated urinary tract infections (Germany and Singapore), complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis (Germany and Poland) and H. pylori infection (Germany). This article summarizes the milestones in the development of finafloxacin leading to this first approval for otitis externa.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Aprovação de Drogas , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Internacionalidade , Otite Externa/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/efeitos adversos , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
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