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1.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250981
2.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(6): 641-654, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157588

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the Canadian Anesthesia Research Priority Setting Partnership (CAR PSP) was to identify a top ten list of shared priorities for research in anesthesia and perioperative care in Canada. METHODS: We used the methods of the James Lind Alliance to involve patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and researchers in determining the research priorities in Canada. In a first survey, participants submitted questions that they want research to answer about anesthesia and perioperative care. We summarized those responses into a longlist of questions. We reviewed the literature to see if any of those questions were already answered. In a second survey, participants chose up to ten questions from the longlist that they thought were most important to be answered with research. From that list, the highest ranking questions were discussed and assigned a final rank at an in-person workshop. RESULTS: A total of 254 participants submitted 574 research suggestions that were then summarized into 49 questions. Those questions were checked against the literature to be sure they were not already adequately addressed, and in a second survey of those 49 questions, participants chose up to 10 that they thought were most important. A total of 233 participants submitted their priorities, which were then used to choose 24 questions for discussion at the final workshop. At the final workshop, 22 participants agreed on a top ten list of priorities. CONCLUSION: The CAR PSP top ten priorities reflect a wide variety of priorities captured by a broad spectrum of Canadians who receive and provide anesthesia care. The priorities are a tool to initiate and guide patient-oriented research in anesthesia and perioperative care.

4.
Anesth Analg ; 130(1): 111-125, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fentanyl and morphine are the 2 most commonly added opioids to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. Numerous clinical trials have assessed efficacy and safety of different doses of fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia, yet its benefit, harm, and optimal dose remain unclear. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence of the efficacy of fentanyl when added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and when added to bupivacaine with morphine for spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS: Key electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomized controlled trials in the cesarean delivery population. The primary outcome was the failure rate of spinal anesthesia, as assessed by the need for either conversion to general anesthesia or intraoperative analgesic supplementation. Two reviewers independently extracted the data using a standardized electronic form. Results are expressed as relative risks or mean differences with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Seventeen randomized controlled clinical trials (most judged as low or unclear risk of bias) with 1064 participants provided data for the meta-analysis. Fentanyl added to intrathecal bupivacaine alone reduced the need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.11-0.27; number needed to treat, 4) and the incidence of nausea/vomiting (relative risk, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.70; number needed to treat, 6.5), with longer time to first postoperative analgesia request (mean difference, 91 minutes; 95% CI, 69-113). No difference was observed regarding the need for conversion to general anesthesia (relative risk, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.12-3.57), the incidence of hypotension, the onset of sensory block, or the duration of motor block. However, the addition of intrathecal fentanyl was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative pruritus (relative risk, 5.89; 95% CI, 2.07-16.79; number needed to harm, 13.5). The inclusion of fentanyl to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine compared to intrathecal bupivacaine-morphine alone conferred a similar benefit, with a significantly reduced need for intraoperative supplemental analgesia (relative risk, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.95; number needed to treat, 9). Analysis using a funnel plot indicated a possibility of publication bias in included studies. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests a benefit of using fentanyl as both an additive to intrathecal bupivacaine alone and to intrathecal bupivacaine combined with morphine for cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. The possibility of publication bias, small sample size, and high risk of bias in some of the included studies warrant treating the results with caution.

6.
Can J Anaesth ; 65(3): 254-262, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209926

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hypotension is common after spinal anesthesia for Cesarean delivery. It is associated with nausea, vomiting, and fetal acidosis. Previous research on phenylephrine excluded obese subjects. We compared the incidence of intraoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV) in obese patients who received a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion vs those who received bolus dosing for the treatment of spinal-induced hypotension. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blinded randomized controlled trial, 160 obese women undergoing elective Cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion initiated at 50 µg·min-1 (and titrated according to a predefined algorithm) or 100 µg phenylephrine boluses to treat hypotension. Maternal systolic blood pressure was maintained within 20% of baseline. The primary study outcome was the incidence of IONV. RESULTS: Intraoperative nausea and vomiting were significantly reduced in the infusion group compared to the bolus group (46% vs 75%, respectively; relative risk [RR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47 to 0.80; P < 0.001). This was associated with significantly reduced need for intraoperative rescue antiemetics (26% vs 42%, respectively; RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.97; P = 0.04), but no difference in the incidence of vomiting. Postoperative vomiting at two hours was reduced in the infusion group (11% vs 25%; RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.90; P = 0.02);however, there were no differences in the incidence or severity of postoperative nausea, need for rescue antiemetics at two hours and 24 hr, or the incidence of postoperative vomiting at 24 hr. CONCLUSION: In obese women undergoing Cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia, prophylactic phenylephrine infusion was associated with less intraoperative nausea, less need for rescue antiemetics, and reduced early postoperative vomiting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01481740). Registered 22 July 2011.


Assuntos
Cesárea/métodos , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Fenilefrina/administração & dosagem , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Intravenosas , Obesidade/complicações , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem
7.
Anesth Analg ; 125(5): 1627-1637, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28708665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that the choice between isobaric bupivacaine and hyperbaric bupivacaine formulations alters the block characteristics for the conduct of surgery under spinal anesthesia. The aim of this study was to systematically review the comparative evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of the 2 formulations when used for spinal anesthesia for adult noncesarean delivery surgery. METHODS: Key electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials, excluding cesarean delivery surgeries under spinal anesthesia, without any language or date restrictions. The primary outcome measure for this review was the failure of spinal anesthesia. Two independent reviewers selected the studies and extracted the data. Results were expressed as relative risk (RR) or mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Seven hundred fifty-one studies were identified between 1946 and 2016. After screening, there were 16 randomized controlled clinical trials, including 724 participants, that provided data for the meta-analysis. The methodological reporting of most studies was poor, and appropriate judgment of their individual risk of bias elements was not possible. There was no difference between the 2 drugs regarding the need for conversion to general anesthesia (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.08-4.41; P = .62; I = 0%), incidence of hypotension (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.69-1.92; P = .58; I = 0%), nausea/vomiting (RR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.06-1.32; P = .11; I = 7%), or onset of sensory block (MD = 1.7 minutes; 95% CI, -3.5 to 0.1; P = .07; I = 0%). The onset of motor block (MD = 4.6 minutes; 95% CI, 7.5-1.7; P = .002; I = 78%) was significantly faster with hyperbaric bupivacaine. Conversely, the duration of motor (MD = 45.2 minutes; 95% CI, 66.3-24.2; P < .001; I = 87%) and sensory (MD = 29.4 minutes; 95% CI, 15.5-43.3; P < .001; I = 73%) block was longer with isobaric bupivacaine. CONCLUSIONS: Both hyperbaric bupivacaine and isobaric bupivacaine provided effective anesthesia with no difference in the failure rate or adverse effects. The hyperbaric formulation allows for a relatively rapid motor block onset, with shorter duration of motor and sensory block. The isobaric formulation has a slower onset and provides a longer duration of both sensory and motor block. Nevertheless, the small sample size and high heterogeneity involving these outcomes suggest that all the results should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Parto Obstétrico , Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/química , Bupivacaína/efeitos adversos , Bupivacaína/química , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Razão de Chances , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Can J Anaesth ; 63(9): 1075-97, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27443376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this continuing professional development module, we review recent Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) guidelines for the classification and diagnosis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) as well as review the clinical features, laboratory investigations, and outcomes of HDP. We explore the evidence for anesthetic management and prevention of end-organ damage in women with HDP and describe the role and contribution of anesthesiologists as part of a multidisciplinary care team. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy can have variable presentations with clinical signs and symptoms that often do not correlate with the underlying severity and progression of the disease. Failure of timely diagnosis and treatment contributes significantly to adverse maternal (neurologic complications, pulmonary edema, and postpartum hemorrhage) and neonatal (respiratory and neurologic complications and stillbirth) outcomes. In the Canadian context, improvements in medical care have led to better maternal and neonatal outcomes. Timing of delivery is crucial in balancing maternal risks and fetal benefits of ongoing pregnancy. Evidence-based SOGC guidelines regarding diagnosis and management of HDP address many aspects of clinical care relevant to anesthesiologists, who have an important role in the multidisciplinary care team. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are on the rise worldwide, and this trend is expected to continue. The major contributors to maternal mortality are failure to recognize HDP promptly or to treat the condition adequately. It is essential that anesthesiologists understand the disease process and acquire knowledge of the guidelines governing current obstetrical care in order to provide evidence-based multidisciplinary quality care to these patients. Anesthetic management helps prevent potentially deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/terapia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
11.
BMJ Open ; 6(5): e010885, 2016 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27194318

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bupivacaine is the most commonly used local anaesthetic for spinal anaesthesia (SA). There are two forms of commercially available bupivacaine; isobaric bupivacaine (IB): a formulation with a specific gravity or density equal to cerebrospinal fluid, and hyperbaric bupivacaine (HB): a formulation with density heavier than cerebrospinal fluid. The difference in densities of the two available preparations is believed to affect the diffusion pattern that determines the effectiveness, spread and side-effect profile of bupivacaine. This systematic review will summarise the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety on the use of HB compared with IB, when used to provide SA for surgery. Primarily, we will analyse the need for conversion to general anaesthesia. As secondary outcomes, we will compare the incidence of hypotension, incidence of nausea/vomiting, the onset time and duration of anaesthesia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search key electronic databases using search strategy (1) injections, spinal OR intrathecal OR subarachnoid; (2) bupivacaine OR levobupivacaine; (3) hypobaric OR isobaric OR plain; (4) baricity. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, from their inception for randomised controlled trials, with no restrictions on language. Caesarean section surgery will be excluded. 2 reviewers will independently extract the data using a standardised form. Extracted items will include study characteristics, risk of bias domains, as per modified Cochrane risk of bias, participant disposition and study outcomes. We will conduct a meta-analysis for variables that can be compared across the studies. We will evaluate clinical heterogeneity by qualitatively appraising differences in study characteristics in participants, interventions and the outcomes assessed. We will report our findings as relative risks (dichotomous), and weighted mean differences (continuous) for individual outcomes, along with their 95% CIs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We plan to submit, and will publish, our findings in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, and present our results at national and international meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015017672.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia , Bupivacaína/química , Complicações Intraoperatórias/induzido quimicamente , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Anestesia Geral , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Injeções Espinhais , Metanálise como Assunto , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Gravidade Específica , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
12.
Anesth Analg ; 123(3): 684-9, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27088994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia is widely used for delivering labor analgesia. Epidural volume extension (EVE) involves the injection of fluid into the epidural space compressing the dural sac, causing cephalad shift of the cerebral spinal fluid. Our hypothesis was that EVE with 10 mL normal saline during CSE would increase the sensory block height at 15 minutes after intrathecal injection. We expected EVE to decrease pain scores, decrease analgesia onset time, and decrease motor block compared with performing CSE without EVE (NEVE). METHODS: We randomly assigned 60 healthy term laboring nulliparous parturients with cervical dilation <5 cm to receive CSE either with EVE of 10 mL normal saline through the Tuohy needle before catheter insertion or CSE NEVE. Intrathecal analgesia consisted of 2 mg plain bupivacaine and 10 µg fentanyl (1 mL total). A blinded researcher assessed sensory dermatome level, analgesia, and motor blockade at regular intervals for 30 minutes. The primary outcome measure was the median peak sensory dermatome level at 15 minutes. RESULTS: Fifty-four parturients were analyzed. There was no significant difference in peak sensory dermatome levels at 15 minutes (median difference, 1 dermatome level; 95% confidence interval of median difference, 0 to 2; P = 0.22) and 30 minutes (median difference, 0 dermatome level; 95% confidence interval, -2 to 2; P = 0.76). There was no difference in the time to peak dermatome, minimum pain score, or the time to minimum pain score between groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant difference between groups with regard to sensory dermatome level or pain scores when using EVE compared with NEVE. Our study demonstrates that addition of EVE does not offer superior analgesia when using a CSE technique for parturients requesting labor analgesia.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Adulto , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Anesth ; 27(1): 68-72, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25433726

RESUMO

Anterior spinal artery syndrome has rarely been reported as a cause of permanent neurologic complications after neuraxial anesthesia in obstetric patients. A parturient developed anterior spinal artery syndrome after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. A healthy 32-year-old parturient presented at 41(2/7) weeks for primary elective caesarean delivery for breech presentation. Spinal anesthesia was easily performed with clear cerebrospinal fluid, and block height was T4 at 5 minutes. Intraoperative course was uneventful except for symptomatic bradycardia (37-40 beats per minute) and hypotension (88/44 mm Hg) 4 minutes postspinal anesthesia, treated with ephedrine and atropine. Dense motor block persisted 9 hours after spinal anesthesia, and magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral region was normal, finding no spinal cord compression or lesion. Physical examination revealed deficits consistent with a spinal cord lesion at T6, impacting the anterior spinal cord while sparing the posterior tracts.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Síndrome da Artéria Espinal Anterior/induzido quimicamente , Paralisia/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Síndrome da Artéria Espinal Anterior/complicações , Cesárea/métodos , Efedrina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Can J Anaesth ; 61(7): 631-40, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24764186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cesarean delivery is a common surgical procedure with anticipated substantial postoperative pain. The addition of a transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) to a multimodal analgesic regimen that includes intrathecal morphine may provide improved early pain outcomes and decrease the risk of chronic post-surgical pain. The purpose of this research was to assess the ability of an ultrasound-guided TAPB with low-dose ropivacaine to decrease early postoperative pain, opioid consumption, and risk of developing persistent pain when compared with a placebo block. METHODS: Eighty-three women were randomly assigned to either a treatment (0.25% ropivacaine) or control group (0.9% saline) in this double-blind trial, and 74 women were included in the final analysis. Ultrasound-guided TAPBs were performed with an injection of 20 mL of study solution per side. The primary outcome measures of this study were: pain at rest and pain after movement measured with a numeric rating scale, results of the Quality of Recovery-40 (QoR-40) questionnaire, and opioid consumption at 24 hr. These were used with an a priori sample size calculation to detect a 30% reduction in pain scores, a 10% improvement in QoR-40 score, and a 50% reduction in opioid consumption. Health quality and physical functioning were assessed using the Short Form 36 (SF-36®) Health Survey at 30 days and six months. RESULTS: Assessment at 24 hr after Cesarean delivery revealed no clinically important differences between groups in postoperative pain, QoR-40, or opioid consumption. There were no clinically important differences between groups regarding measures of nausea, pruritus, vomiting, urine retention (2, 24, and 48 hr postoperatively), 24-hr QoR-40 sub-dimensions, or the SF-36 Health Survey (30 days and six months postoperatively). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided TAPB did not improve postoperative pain, quality of recovery, or opioid consumption 24 hr following surgery. Similar health and functioning (SF-36) at 30 days and six months were reported by both groups. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01261637.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Cesárea/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Músculos Abdominais , Adulto , Amidas/administração & dosagem , Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Ropivacaina , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
15.
Can J Anaesth ; 61(6): 551-7, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24668315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acute pain after open abdominal hysterectomy limits the function of patients in the postoperative period, but data regarding the analgesic efficacy of a low dose of pregabalin (75 or 150 mg) have been conflicting. This study was performed to determine if a low dose of pregabalin could decrease postoperative opioid use following abdominal hysterectomy when compared with placebo. METHODS: American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II patients older than 18 yr and scheduled for open elective abdominal hysterectomy were recruited for participation and randomized to one of three groups: pregabalin 75 mg (P75), pregabalin 150 mg (P150), or placebo. The study drug was administered two hours prior to surgery and 12 hr following the initial dose. Anesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia were standardized. Postoperative pain was managed using patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. Pain at rest and movement as well as nausea were assessed with an 11-point numeric rating scale. RESULTS: One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 89 patients completed the study. Mean (SD) cumulative morphine consumption at 24 hr postoperatively was 54.0 (26.2) mg for the placebo group, 53.1 (22.7) mg for the P75 group, and 44.3 (20.9) mg for the P150 group. Independent Student's t tests indicated no difference between the placebo group and either the P75 group (95% confidence interval [CI]: -11.75 to 13.44; P = 0.8937) or the P150 group (95% CI: -2.74 to 22.15; P = 0.1238). CONCLUSIONS: At the doses used in this study, pregabalin treatment may not be effective in reducing opioid use up to 24 hr postoperatively following abdominal hysterectomy. This trial was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT00781131.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Histerectomia/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análogos & derivados , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Pregabalina , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/administração & dosagem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/uso terapêutico
16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 121(3): 615-23, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23635626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether the addition of metoclopramide or its combination with ondansetron to a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion provides improved intraoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis compared with phenylephrine infusion alone. METHODS: Women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery were randomized to one of three groups: placebo (placebo plus placebo); metoclopramide (metoclopramide 10 mg plus placebo); or combination (metoclopramide 10 mg plus ondansetron 4 mg). The first study drug was administered before spinal placement and the second was administered after cord clamping. Spinal anesthesia was standardized. The primary outcome was intraoperative nausea and vomiting. RESULTS: Three-hundred patients completed the study in two centers. Intraoperative nausea and vomiting occurred in 49%, 31%, and 23% of patients in the placebo, metoclopramide, and combination groups, respectively (P<.001). There was a significant difference between the two centers in exteriorization of the uterus (93% compared with 39%; P<.001) and intraoperative nausea and vomiting rates (47% compared with 20%; P<.001). In a multivariable model adjusting for center, exteriorization of the uterus, age, and hypotension, intraoperative nausea and vomiting were significantly lower in the metoclopramide and combination groups compared with placebo (odds ratio [OR] 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24--4.42; P=.001 and OR 4.06, 95% CI 2.06--7.97; P<.001, respectively). Postoperative nausea and vomiting were reduced with the combination compared with placebo at 2 hours (39% compared with 20%; P<.017), but not at 2-6 hours or at 6-24 hours. CONCLUSION: Metoclopramide with ondansetron reduced intraoperative nausea and vomiting and early postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with placebo. Metoclopramide alone also decreased intraoperative but not postoperative nausea and vomiting. Surgical factors contributed to a significant difference in intraoperative nausea and vomiting between the two centers.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Cesárea , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Metoclopramida/uso terapêutico , Ondansetron/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Náusea/etiologia , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Fenilefrina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Vômito/etiologia , Vômito/prevenção & controle
17.
Can J Anaesth ; 58(6): 514-24, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21472485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Difficult and failed tracheal intubation may be more common in the obstetrical population. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of difficult and failed tracheal intubation in a Canadian tertiary care obstetric hospital and to identify predictors. METHODS: Maternal, perinatal, and anesthetic information on all pregnant women or recently pregnant (up to three days postpartum) women undergoing general anesthesia (GA) from 1984 to 2003 at the Izaac Walton Killam Health Centre (IWK) was abstracted from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, and the information was augmented by chart review. The incidence and predictors of difficult and failed tracheal intubation were determined. Analyses using logistic regression were performed for the complete GA cohort and for the subgroup that had Cesarean delivery under GA. RESULTS: There were 102,587 deliveries of ≥20 weeks gestation in the study population, with 3,107 GAs identified, 2,986 records reviewed, and 2,633 GAs (88%) retained in the complete cohort. Difficult tracheal intubation was encountered in 123 of 2,633 (4.7%) women in the complete cohort and 60 of 1,052 (5.7%) women in the Cesarean delivery subgroup. Only two failed tracheal intubations were identified (0.08%) in the complete cohort, and both occurred during GAs for postpartum tubal ligation. The combined rate of difficult/failed tracheal intubation remained stable over the 20 years reviewed despite decreasing GA rates. Amongst the complete cohort, maternal age ≥35 yr, weight at delivery 90 to 99 kg, and absence of labour predicted increased risks; while weight at delivery 90 to 99 kg and absence of labour amongst the Cesarean delivery subgroup predicted difficult/failed tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Previously accepted risk factors, such as labour, pre-existing medical conditions and obstetrical disorders, did not predict an increased risk of difficult tracheal intubation, while maternal age ≥35 yr, weight 90 to 99 kg, and absence of active labour were found to predict increased risk.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Obstétrica , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Gravidez , Risco
18.
Can J Anaesth ; 56(9): 651-7, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19639376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postoperative nausea and vomiting are among the most common and distressing side effects of general anesthesia. Supplemental intraoperative 80% oxygen reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting following open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery. However, this benefit has not been observed in other patient populations. We undertook this study to evaluate the effect of 80% supplemental intraoperative oxygen on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting following ambulatory surgery for laparoscopic tubal ligation. METHODS: Following Research Ethics Board approval, 304 subjects were enrolled into one of two arms of a randomized prospective controlled study. The intervention group (n = 147) breathed 80% oxygen and the control group (n = 145) breathed routine 30% oxygen (balance medical air) while both groups were receiving a standardized general anesthetic. Nausea was assessed as: none, mild, moderate, or severe; vomiting was any emetic episode or retching. Any assessment either greater than none (nausea) or greater than zero (vomiting) was considered positive. RESULTS: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting up to 24 hr following surgery was 69% in the 80% oxygen intervention group and 65% in the 30% oxygen control group (P = 0.62). There were no differences in nausea alone, vomiting, or antiemetic use in the postoperative anesthetic care unit or at any time (pre- or post-discharge) up to 24 hr after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: This trial of 304 women did not demonstrate that administering intraoperative supplemental 80% oxygen during ambulatory surgery for laparoscopic tubal ligation prevented postoperative nausea or vomiting during the initial postoperative 24 hr compared with women who received routine 30% oxygen.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Laparoscopia/métodos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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