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1.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(2): 159-169, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036861

RESUMO

In this update, we focus on selected topics of high clinical relevance for health care providers who treat patients with heart failure (HF), on the basis of clinical trials published after 2017. Our objective was to review the evidence, and provide recommendations and practical tips regarding the management of candidates for the following HF therapies: (1) transcatheter mitral valve repair in HF with reduced ejection fraction; (2) a novel treatment for transthyretin amyloidosis or transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis; (3) angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibition in patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF); and (4) sodium glucose cotransport inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of HF in patients with and without type 2 diabetes. We emphasize the roles of optimal guideline-directed medical therapy and of multidisciplinary teams when considering transcatheter mitral valve repair, to ensure excellent evaluation and care of those patients. In the presence of suggestive clinical indices, health care providers should consider the possibility of cardiac amyloidosis and proceed with proper investigation. Tafamidis is the first agent shown in a prospective study to alter outcomes in patients with transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis. Patient subgroups with HFpEF might benefit from use of sacubitril/valsartan, however, further data are needed to clarify the effect of this therapy in patients with HFpEF. Sodium glucose cotransport inhibitors reduce the risk of incident HF, HF-related hospitalizations, and cardiovascular death in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A large clinical trial recently showed that dapagliflozin provides significant outcome benefits in well treated patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%), with or without type 2 diabetes.

2.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(2): 234-243, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036865

RESUMO

Globally, there are ∼ 26 million people living with heart failure (HF), 50% of them with reduced ejection fraction, costing countries billions of dollars each year. Improvements in treatment of cardiovascular diseases, including advanced HF, have allowed an unprecedented number of patients to survive into old age. Despite these advances, patients with HF deteriorate and often require advanced therapies. As the proportion of elderly patients in the population increases, there will be an increasing number of patients to be evaluated for advanced therapies and an increasing number that do not qualify for, won't be considered for, or decline orthotopic heart transplantation. The purpose of this article is to review the benefits of palliative care (PC), exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (ExCR), device therapy (cardiac resynchronization therapy and mitral clip), and mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in advanced HF patients who are transplant ineligible. PC interventions should be introduced early in the course of a patient's diagnosis to manage symptoms, address goals of care, and improve patient-centered outcomes. Further improvement in health-related quality of life as well as functional capacity can be achieved safely in patients with advanced HF through patient participation in ExCR. Device therapy and MCS can reduce HF hospitalizations and improve survival. In fact, early survival with MCS approaches that of heart transplantation. Despite their being transplant ineligible, there are a variety of treatment options available to patients to improve their quality of life, decrease hospitalizations, and potentially improve mortality.

3.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(1): 19-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787436
4.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(12): e006539, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe characteristics and outcomes in women and men with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. METHODS: Baseline characteristics (including biomarkers and quality of life) and outcomes (primary outcome: composite of first heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death) were compared in 4458 women and 4010 men enrolled in CHARM-Preserved (Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity) (EF≥45%), I-Preserve (Irbesartan in heart failure with Preserved ejection fraction), and TOPCAT-Americas (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist trial). RESULTS: Women were older and more often obese and hypertensive but less likely to have coronary artery disease or atrial fibrillation. Women had more symptoms and signs of congestion and worse quality of life. Despite this, the risk of the primary outcome was lower in women (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.73-0.88]), as was the risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.62-0.80]), but there was no difference in the rate for first hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.82-1.02]). The lower risk of cardiovascular death in women, compared with men, was in part explained by a substantially lower risk of sudden death (hazard ratio, 0.53 [0.43-0.65]; P<0.001). E/A ratio was lower in women (1.1 versus 1.2). CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences between women and men with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Despite worse symptoms, more congestion, and lower quality of life, women had similar rates of hospitalization and better survival than men. Their risk of sudden death was half that of men. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00853658, NCT01035255.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e030301, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843821

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Home care clients are increasingly medically complex, have limited access to effective chronic disease management and have very high emergency department (ED) visitation rates. There is a need for more appropriate and targeted supportive chronic disease management for home care clients. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness and preliminary cost effectiveness of a targeted, person-centred cardiorespiratory management model. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Detection of Indicators and Vulnerabilities of Emergency Room Trips (DIVERT) - Collaboration Action Research and Evaluation (CARE) trial is a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, multicentre superiority trial of a flexible multicomponent cardiorespiratory management model based on the best practice guidelines. The trial will be conducted in partnership with three regional, public-sector, home care providers across Canada. The primary outcome of the trial is the difference in time to first unplanned ED visit (hazard rate) within 6 months. Additional secondary outcomes are to identify changes in patient activation, changes in cardiorespiratory symptom frequencies and cost effectiveness over 6 months. We will also investigate the difference in the number of unplanned ED visits, number of inpatient hospitalisations and changes in health-related quality of life. Multilevel proportional hazard and generalised linear models will be used to test the primary and secondary hypotheses. Sample size simulations indicate that enrolling 1100 home care clients across 36 clusters (home care caseloads) will yield a power of 81% given an HR of 0.75. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board as well as each participating site's ethics board. Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and for presentation at relevant conferences. Home care service partners will also be informed of the study's results. The results will be used to inform future support strategies for older adults receiving home care services. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03012256.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(5): 601-612, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is considered a disease of the elderly, younger patients are not spared from this syndrome. OBJECTIVES: This study therefore investigated the associations among age, clinical characteristics, and outcomes in patients with HFpEF. METHODS: Using data on patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥45% from 3 large HFpEF trials (TOPCAT [Aldosterone Antagonist Therapy for Adults With Heart Failure and Preserved Systolic Function], I-PRESERVE [Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Systolic Function], and CHARM Preserved [Candesartan Cilexetil in Heart Failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity]), patients were categorized according to age: ≤55 years (n = 522), 56 to 64 years (n = 1,679), 65 to 74 years (n = 3,405), 75 to 84 years (n = 2,464), and ≥85 years (n = 398). This study compared clinical and echocardiographic characteristics, as well as mortality and hospitalization rates, mode of death, and quality of life across age categories. RESULTS: Younger patients (age ≤55 years) with HFpEF were more often obese, nonwhite men, whereas older patients with HFpEF were more often white women with a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Despite fewer comorbidities, younger patients had worse quality of life compared with older patients (age ≥85 years). Compared with patients age ≤55 years, patients age ≥85 years had higher mortality (hazard ratio: 6.9; 95% confidence interval: 4.2 to 11.4). However, among patients who died, sudden death was, proportionally, the most common mode of death (p < 0.001) in patients age ≤55 years. In contrast, older patients (age ≥85 years) died more often from noncardiovascular causes (34% vs. 20% in patients age ≤55 years; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the elderly, younger patients with HFpEF were less likely to be white, were more frequently obese men, and died more often of cardiovascular causes, particularly sudden death. In contrast, elderly patients with HFpEF had more comorbidities and died more often from noncardiovascular causes. (Aldosterone Antagonist Therapy for Adults With Heart Failure and Preserved Systolic Function [TOPCAT]; NCT00094302; Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Systolic Function [I-PRESERVE]; NCT00095238; Candesartan Cilexetil in Heart Failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity [CHARM Preserved]; NCT00634712).

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(8): 974-984, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271255

RESUMO

AIMS: Insulin causes sodium retention and hypoglycaemia and its use is associated with worse outcomes in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. We have investigated whether this is also the case in HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the association between diabetes/diabetes treatments and the risk of the primary composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, as well as other outcomes in adjusted analyses in CHARM-Preserved (left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 45%), I-Preserve and TOPCAT (Americas) pooled. Of 8466 patients, 2653 (31%) had diabetes, including 979 (37%) receiving insulin. Patients receiving insulin were younger, had a higher body mass index, prevalence of ischaemic aetiology, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and use of diuretics, worse New York Heart Association class and signs and symptoms, and worse quality of life and renal function, compared to patients with diabetes not on insulin. Among the 1398 patients with echocardiographic data, insulin use was associated with higher left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and more diastolic dysfunction than in other participants. The primary outcome occurred at a rate of 6.3 per 100 patient-years in patients without diabetes, and 10.2 and 17.1 per 100 patient-years in diabetes patients without and with insulin use, respectively [fully adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) insulin-treated diabetes vs. other diabetes: 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.63, P < 0.001]. The adjusted HR is 1.67 (95% CI 1.20-2.32, p = 0.002) for sudden death (insulin-treated diabetes vs. other diabetes). CONCLUSIONS: Insulin use is associated with poor outcomes in HFpEF. Although we cannot conclude a causal association, the safety of insulin and alternative glucose-lowering treatments in HF needs to be evaluated in clinical trials.

8.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 418-427, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between prior pacemaker implantation and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: Conventional right ventricular pacing causes electrical and mechanical left ventricular dyssynchrony and may worsen left ventricular systolic dysfunction and HF. Whether conventional pacing is also associated with worse outcomes in HFpEF is unknown. METHODS: Patient data were pooled from the CHARM-Preserved (Candesartan in Heart failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity), I-PRESERVE (Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction), and TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist trial) studies and were examined for the association between having a pacemaker and the risk of the primary composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, the individual components of the composite, the 2 main modes of cardiovascular death (i.e., sudden death and pump failure death), and all-cause death in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. RESULTS: Of the 8,466 patients included, 682 patients (8%) had a pacemaker. Pacemaker patients were older and more often men and had lower body mass indexes, estimated glomerular filtration rates, and blood pressures but higher concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide than those without a pacemaker. The rate of the primary composite outcome in pacemaker patients was almost twice that in patients without a pacemaker (13.6 vs. 7.6 per 100 patient-years of follow up, respectively), with a similar finding for HF hospitalizations (10.8 vs. 5.1 per 100 patient-years, respectively). This risk rate persisted after adjusting for other prognostic variables (hazard ratio [HR] for the composite outcome: 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.33; p = 0.026), driven mainly by HF hospitalization (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.60; p < 0.001). The risk of death was not significantly higher in pacemaker patients in the adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise the possibility that right ventricular pacing-induced left ventricular dyssynchrony may be detrimental in HFpEF patients.

9.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(4): 438-443, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand how a heart failure diagnosis and admission health instability predict health transitions and outcomes among newly admitted nursing home residents. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of linked administrative data, including the Continuing Care Report System MDS 2.0 for nursing homes, the Discharge Abstract Database for hospitalized patients, and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System to track emergency department visits. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Older adults, aged 65 years and above, admitted to nursing homes in Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia, Canada, from 2010 to 2016. MEASURES: Mortality and hospitalization were plotted over 1 year. Multistate Markov models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for transitions to different states of health in stability, hospitalization, and death, stratified by heart failure diagnosis and by interRAI Changes in Health and End-stage disease Signs and Symptoms (CHESS) score, at 90 days following admission to a nursing home. RESULTS: The final sample included 143,067 residents. Adverse events were most common in the first 90 days. A diagnosis of heart failure predicted worsening health instability, hospitalizations, and mortality. The effect of heart failure on hospitalizations and death was strongest for low baseline health instability (CHESS = 0; OR 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58-1.68, and OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.57-1.86, respectively), versus moderate instability (CHESS = 1-2; OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.32-1.39, and OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.41-1.55), versus high instability (CHESS = 3; OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.23, and OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.11-1.32). The magnitude of the impact of a heart failure diagnosis was greatest for lower baseline health instability. Residents with the highest degree of health instability were also most likely to die in hospital. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: A diagnosis of heart failure and health instability provide complementary information to predict transfers, deaths, and adverse outcomes. Clearly identifying these at-risk patients may be useful in targeting interventions in nursing homes.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(12): 1735-1743, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255969

RESUMO

AIMS: To undertake an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to assess the impact of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (ExCR) in patients with heart failure (HF) on mortality and hospitalisation, and differential effects of ExCR according to patient characteristics: age, sex, ethnicity, New York Heart Association functional class, ischaemic aetiology, ejection fraction, and exercise capacity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Randomised trials of exercise training for at least 3 weeks compared with no exercise control with 6-month follow-up or longer, providing IPD time to event on mortality or hospitalisation (all-cause or HF-specific). IPD were combined into a single dataset. We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the effect of ExCR and the interactions between ExCR and participant characteristics. We used both two-stage random effects and one-stage fixed effect models. IPD were obtained from 18 trials including 3912 patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Compared to control, there was no statistically significant difference in pooled time to event estimates in favour of ExCR although confidence intervals (CIs) were wide [all-cause mortality: hazard ratio (HR) 0.83, 95% CI 0.67-1.04; HF-specific mortality: HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.49-1.46; all-cause hospitalisation: HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.06; and HF-specific hospitalisation: HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.72-1.35]. No strong evidence was found of differential intervention effects across patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation did not have a significant effect on the risk of mortality and hospitalisation in HF with reduced ejection fraction. However, uncertainty around effect estimates precludes drawing definitive conclusions.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/reabilitação , Hospitalização , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Exercício Físico , Saúde Global , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
11.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(7): 863-870, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960615

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a significant public health concern. Specialized HF clinics provide the optimal environment to address the complex needs of these patients and improve outcomes. The current and growing population of patients with HF outstrips the ability of these clinics to deliver care. Integrated care is defined as health services that are managed and delivered so that people receive a seamless continuum of health promotion, disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, disease management, rehabilitation, and palliative care services. This approach requires coordination across different levels and sites of care within and beyond the health sector, according to changing patient needs throughout their lives. The spoke-hub-and-node (SHN) model represents an organization of care that works collaboratively with the primary care sector and is highly integrated with community-based multidisciplinary teams of health care professionals and specialty care. The purpose of this article is to analyze the requirements for successful implementation of SHN models. We consider the respective roles of HF clinics, HF nurse specialists, pharmacists, palliative care teams, telemonitoring, and solo practitioners. We also discuss levels of care delivery and the importance of patient stratification and patient flow. The SHN approach has the potential to build on and improve the chronic care model (CCM) to deliver centralized services to preserve high-quality patient-centred care at affordable costs.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Promoção da Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
12.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(7): 871-880, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960616

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) affects 20% of nursing home (NH) residents, causing high morbidity and mortality. The optimal approach to HF management in NHs remains elusive. We conducted a scoping review of published guidelines and HF management interventions in NHs. A search for English publications since 1990 was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Scopus, for scientific statements, guidelines, recommendations, or intervention studies that addressed at least 1 principle of HF management. Of 2545 records retrieved, 19 articles were retained after screening, and 2 additional articles identified through reference list manual searches. Six articles represented 5 guidelines and 15 described interventions. All guidelines endorsed the applicability of general HF guidelines to NH residents, tailored to comorbidities, frailty, and advance care preferences. Four addressed quality assurance but not feasibility and sustainability. Methodological quality of the interventions was poor, although results suggest that guideline-based HF management in NHs can improve nursing staff knowledge and job satisfaction, prescribing, and reduce acute care utilization. Clinically-based education for staff, and access to specialist mentorship are important. NH physician involvement was limited, and resident/family education potentially ineffective. Concerns about feasibility, sustainability, and quality assurance were identified in most interventions, and advance care planning was rarely addressed. HF guidelines for NH support the applicability of general HF guidelines to the care of NH residents, and published interventions suggest that guideline-based HF management in NHs is effective. Future work should support greater physician and resident engagement, advance care planning, and provide robust guidelines on developing feasible and sustainable interventions.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/organização & administração , Gerenciamento Clínico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Casas de Saúde , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos
13.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 33(2): 208-216, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206692

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The heart failure epidemic is driven mainly by population aging and the improving survival of patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Aging heart failure patients are affected by multiple concurrent comorbidities and geriatric syndromes, the most important of which are frailty and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this review is to provide clinicians with practical advice on how to individualize the care of older heart failure patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Frailty and cognitive impairment are common in older heart failure patients. Frailty is increasingly recognized as a key risk factor for functional decline, health service utilization and mortality in aging heart failure patients. Similarly, cognitive impairment impairs patients' ability for self-care and leads to adverse outcomes. Simple and efficient instruments exist to screen for these conditions. Heart failure patients who are frail or cognitively impaired are best looked after in a disease management setting that is deployed in a more integrated healthcare system with access to specialized geriatric consultants. Optimal care planning requires knowledge of these conditions as well as patient and caregiver engagement. SUMMARY: Frailty and cognitive impairment are central features of the heart failure syndrome in aging patients and should be routinely considered in assessment and care planning.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Fragilidade/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Idoso , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28694988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) affects 20% of long-term care (LTC) residents and is associated with significant morbidity, acute care visits, and mortality. Barriers to HF management are staff knowledge gaps and ineffective interprofessional (IP) communication. This pilot study assessed the acceptability, feasibility, and impact of an intervention to (1) improve HF knowledge; (2) improve IP communication; and (3) integrate improved knowledge and communication processes into work routines. METHODS: The intervention provides multimodal IP education about HF in LTC, including specialist-supported bedside teaching. It was piloted on single units in two facilities. A mixed-methods repeated-measures approach was used to collect qualitative and quantitative process and outcome data at baseline and 6 months post-intervention. RESULTS: Results were similar at both sites. Participants developed optimized IP communication to promote HF care. Results indicate a perceived increase in staff confidence and self-efficacy, strengthened assessment and clinical proficiency skills, and more effective IP collaboration. Staff deemed the intervention useful and feasible. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that a novel intervention in which HF-specific knowledge is applied by LTC staff to improve IP collaboration in their own work place is acceptable and feasible and has a favourable preliminary impact on staff knowledge and IP communication.

15.
Can J Cardiol ; 33(11): 1342-1433, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111106

RESUMO

Since the inception of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society heart failure (HF) guidelines in 2006, much has changed in the care for patients with HF. Over the past decade, the HF Guidelines Committee has published regular updates. However, because of the major changes that have occurred, the Guidelines Committee believes that a comprehensive reassessment of the HF management recommendations is presently needed, with a view to producing a full and complete set of updated guidelines. The primary and secondary Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF panel members as well as external experts have reviewed clinically relevant literature to provide guidance for the practicing clinician. The 2017 HF guidelines provide updated guidance on the diagnosis and management (self-care, pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, device, and referral) that should aid in day-to-day decisions for caring for patients with HF. Among specific issues covered are risk scores, the differences in management for HF with preserved vs reduced ejection fraction, exercise and rehabilitation, implantable devices, revascularization, right ventricular dysfunction, anemia, and iron deficiency, cardiorenal syndrome, sleep apnea, cardiomyopathies, HF in pregnancy, cardio-oncology, and myocarditis. We devoted attention to strategies and treatments to prevent HF, to the organization of HF care, comorbidity management, as well as practical issues around the timing of referral and follow-up care. Recognition and treatment of advanced HF is another important aspect of this update, including how to select advanced therapies as well as end of life considerations. Finally, we acknowledge the remaining gaps in evidence that need to be filled by future research.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Sociedades Médicas , Canadá , Humanos
16.
J Interprof Care ; 31(5): 583-592, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876202

RESUMO

Heart failure affects up to 20% of nursing home residents and is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and transfers to acute care. A major barrier to heart failure management in nursing home settings is limited interprofessional communication. Guideline-based heart failure management programs in nursing homes can reduce hospitalisation rates, though sustainability is limited when interprofessional communication is not addressed. A pilot intervention, 'Enhancing Knowledge and Interprofessional Care for Heart Failure', was implemented on two units in two conveniently selected nursing homes to optimise interprofessional care processes amongst the care team. A core heart team was established, and participants received tailored education focused on heart failure management principles and communication processes, as well as weekly mentoring. Our previous work provided evidence for this intervention's acceptability and implementation fidelity. This paper focuses on the preliminary impact of the intervention on staff heart failure knowledge, communication, and interprofessional collaboration. To determine the initial impact of the intervention on selected staff outcomes, we employed a qualitative design, using a social constructivist interpretive framework. Findings indicated a perceived increase in team engagement, interprofessional collaboration, communication, knowledge about heart failure, and improved clinical outcomes. Individual interviews with staff revealed innovative ways to enhance communication, supporting one another with knowledge and engagement in collaborative practices with residents and families. Engaging teams, through the establishment of core heart teams, was successful to develop interprofessional communication processes for heart failure management. Further steps to be undertaken include assessing the sustainability and effectiveness of this approach with a larger sample.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Doença Crônica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Relações Interprofissionais , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Papel Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração
17.
Eur Heart J ; 38(10): 742-750, 2017 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426886

RESUMO

Aims: The incidence and predictors of stroke in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF), but without atrial fibrillation (AF), are unknown. We described the incidence of stroke in HF-PEF patients with and without AF and predictors of stroke in those without AF. Methods and results: We pooled data from the CHARM-Preserved and I-Preserve trials. Using Cox regression, we derived a model for stroke in patients without AF in this cohort and compared its performance with a published model in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF)-predictive variables: age, body mass index, New York Heart Association class, history of stroke, and insulin-treated diabetes. The two stroke models were compared and Kaplan-Meier curves for stroke estimated. The risk model was validated in a third HF-PEF trial. Of the 6701 patients, 4676 did not have AF. Stroke occurred in 124 (6.1%) with AF and in 171 (3.7%) without AF (rates 1.80 and 1.00 per 100 patient-years, respectively). There was no difference in performance of the stroke model derived in the HF-PEF cohort and the published HF-REF model (c-index 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.57-0.84 vs. 0.73, 0.59-0.85, respectively) as the predictive variables overlapped. The model performed well in the validation cohort (0.86, 0.62-0.99). The rate of stroke in patients in the upper third of risk approximated to that in patients with AF (1.60 and 1.80 per 100 patient-years, respectively). Conclusions: A small number of clinical variables identify a subset of patients with HF-PEF, but without AF, at elevated risk of stroke.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
18.
Circulation ; 135(8): 724-735, 2017 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28052977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, little is known about the characteristics of, and outcomes in, those with and without diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We examined clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and outcomes in the I-Preserve trial (Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction) according to history of diabetes mellitus. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for cardiovascular outcomes adjusted for known predictors, including age, sex, natriuretic peptides, and comorbidity. Echocardiographic data were available in 745 patients and were additionally adjusted for in supplementary analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 1134 of 4128 patients (27%) had diabetes mellitus. Compared with those without diabetes mellitus, they were more likely to have a history of myocardial infarction (28% versus 22%), higher body mass index (31 versus 29 kg/m2), worse Minnesota Living With Heart Failure score (48 versus 40), higher median N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration (403 versus 320 pg/mL; all P<0.01), more signs of congestion, but no significant difference in left ventricular ejection fraction. Patients with diabetes mellitus had a greater left ventricular mass and left atrial area than patients without diabetes mellitus. Doppler E-wave velocity (86 versus 76 cm/s; P<0.0001) and the E/e' ratio (11.7 versus 10.4; P=0.010) were higher in patients with diabetes mellitus. Over a median follow-up of 4.1 years, cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization occurred in 34% of patients with diabetes mellitus versus 22% of those without diabetes mellitus (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-2.05), and 28% versus 19% of patients with and without diabetes mellitus died (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.59; confidence interval, 1.33-1.91). CONCLUSIONS: In heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, patients with diabetes mellitus have more signs of congestion, worse quality of life, higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels, and a poorer prognosis. They also display greater structural and functional echocardiographic abnormalities. Further investigation is needed to determine the mediators of the adverse impact of diabetes mellitus on outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and whether they are modifiable. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00095238.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Ecocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Irbesartana , Masculino , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Card Fail ; 23(1): 20-28, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27317843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic merit of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) is unknown in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline IGFBP7 (BL-IGFBP7; n = 302) and 6-month change (Δ; n = 293) were evaluated in the Irbesartan in Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction (I-PRESERVE) trial. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization with median follow-up of 3.6 years; secondary outcomes included HF events. Median BL-IGFBP7 concentration was 218 ng/mL. BL-IGFBP7 was significantly correlated with age (R2 = 0.13; P < .0001), amino-terminal pro-B-type NP (R2 = 0.22; P < .0001), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; R2 = 0.14; P < .0001), but not with signs/symptoms of HFpEF. BL-IGFBP7 was significantly associated with the primary outcome (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.007 per ng/mL; P < .001), all-cause mortality (HR = 1.008 per ng/mL; P < .001), and HF events (HR = 1.007 per ng/mL; P < .001). IGFBP7 remained significant for each outcome after adjustment for ln amino-terminal pro-B-type NP and eGFR but not all variables in the I-PRESERVE prediction model. After 6 months, IGFBP7 did not change significantly in either treatment group. ΔIGFBP7 was significantly associated with decrease in eGFR in patients randomized to irbesartan (R2 = 0.09; P = .002). ΔIGFBP7 was not independently associated with outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Higher concentrations of IGFBP7 were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, but after multivariable adjustment this association was no longer present. Further studies of IGFBP7 are needed to elucidate its mechanism. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00095238.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/sangue , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irbesartana , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Clin Nurs ; 26(5-6): 849-861, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27240117

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Heart failure is a complex syndrome in which abnormal heart function results in clinical symptoms and signs of low cardiac output and/or pulmonary or systemic congestion. Heart failure is common among long-term care residents, and is associated with significant morbidity and acute care utilisation. Heart failure guidelines endorse standard therapies, yet long-term care residents are less likely to receive recommended treatments. The objective of this study is to understand the perceptions and potential role of unregulated care providers in contributing to better heart failure management among long-term care residents. DESIGN: Focus group interviews. METHODS: This qualitative study employed focus groups to explore perceptions from 24 unregulated care providers in three Ontario, Canada long-term care homes, about barriers to the optimal management of heart failure. RESULTS: Three overarching concepts emerged characterising unregulated care providers' experiences in caring for residents with heart failure in long-term care: (1) the complexity of providing heart failure care in a long-term care setting, (2) striving for resident-centred decision making and (3) unregulated care providers role enactment nested within an interprofessional team in long-term care. These concepts reflect the complex interplay between individual unregulated care providers and residents, and heart failure-related, socio-cultural and organisational factors that influence heart failure care processes in the long-term care system. CONCLUSIONS: Optimising the management of heart failure in long-term care is contingent on greater engagement of unregulated care providers as active partners in the interprofessional care team. Interventions to improve heart failure management in long-term care must ensure that appropriate education is provided to all long-term care staff, including unregulated care providers, and in a manner that fosters greater and more effective interprofessional collaboration. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Active and collaborative engagement unregulated care providers has the potential to improve the management of heart failure in long-term care residents.


Assuntos
Certificação/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Assistência de Longa Duração/normas , Casas de Saúde/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Papel Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem
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