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1.
J Trauma Nurs ; 28(3): 186-193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949355

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: From 2015 to 2019, the United States experienced a 17% increase in weather-related disasters. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the patterns of natural disaster-related traumatic injuries and fatalities across the United States from 2014 to 2019 and to provide recommendations that can serve to mitigate the impact these natural disasters have on trauma patient morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the National Safety Council (2014-2019) of natural disaster-related injuries and fatalities was conducted. Descriptive statistics and independent-samples t tests were performed, with significance defined as p < .05. RESULTS: Floods produced significantly more mean fatalities per year than tornadoes (118 vs. 33; 95% CI [32.0, 139.0]), wildfires (118 vs. 43, 95% CI [24.8, 155.6]), hurricanes (118 vs. 13, 95% CI [51.5, 159.2]), and tropical storms (118 vs. 15, 95% CI [48.8, 158.2]). Tornadoes produced significantly more mean injuries per year than floods (528 vs. 43, 95% CI [255.9, 715.8]), wildfires (528 vs. 69, 95% CI [227.1, 691.2]), hurricanes (528 vs. 26, 95% CI [270.1, 734.2]), and tropical storms (528 vs. 4, 95% CI [295.9, 753.5]). Southern states experienced greater disaster-related morbidity and mortality over the 6-year study period than other regions with 2,752 injuries and 771 fatalities. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of traumatic injuries and fatalities related to certain natural disasters in the United States has significantly increased from 2014 to 2019. Hospital leaders, public health, emergency preparedness personnel, and policy makers must collaborate to implement protocols and guidelines that ensure adequate training, supplies, and personnel to maintain trauma surge capacity, improve emergency preparedness response, and reduce associated morbidity and mortality.

2.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 82: 105933, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningeal arterial injuries represent <1% of all blunt traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Middle meningeal artery (MMA) lesions comprise the majority. However, there is little clinical data on posterior meningeal artery (PMA) injuries. CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old man was brought to our trauma center after sustaining a fall inside a warehouse. He was GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale) 3 on arrival. Non-contrast CT (computed tomography) brain showed subarachnoid hemorrhage with diffuse cerebral edema and a basilar skull fracture. The patient subsequently underwent emergency ventriculostomy. Immediately after the procedure, further imaging with CTA (computed tomography angiography) head identified a hyperintense posterior cranial fossa lesion, prompting cerebral angiography with identification and embolization of a traumatic PMA pseudoaneurysm. The patient improved and was discharged to a long-term acute care facility. At 3 months post-discharge, the patient was eating, talking with family, and working aggressively with physical therapy. DISCUSSION: This case represents a functional neurologic outcome from a rare subset of TBI. Early CTA head imaging is not supported by limited literature, but allowed for expedient identification and definitive management of this PMA pseudoaneurysm. In the critical care setting, hyperosmolar therapy, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) drainage, prompt enteral nutritional support, and early tracheostomy all represent evolving evidence-based strategies to optimize care for severe TBI. CONCLUSIONS: The initial evaluation and management of severe TBI can be nuanced. Future research may refine indications for CTA head to the diagnostic evaluation of patients with both severe TBI and skull fractures.

4.
Am Surg ; : 31348211011112, 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become an increasingly used treatment modality for severe respiratory insufficiency in trauma patients. Examining ECMO use specifically in blunt and penetrating traumas can aid in directing future protocols. We aim to evaluate the outcomes of ECMO use in both blunt and penetrating trauma patients through a systematic review of current literature. METHODS: An online search of 2 databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) was performed to analyze studies, which evaluated the use of ECMO in blunt and penetrating traumas. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation guidelines were followed. Data extracted included mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISSs), complications, and mortality rates. RESULTS: The search demonstrated 9 studies that met our review inclusion criteria. A total of 207 patients were included, of which 64 (30.9%) were non-survivors and 143 (69.1%) were survivors. There was a total of 201 blunt traumas with 61 (30.3%) deaths, whereas penetrating traumas had 2 deaths (33.3%) out of 6 total patients. Complications reported included acute renal failure, hemorrhage at the cannula site, and transient neurological deficits. Most studies found better survival rates and less complications in younger patients and those with lower ISS. CONCLUSION: Expanding the use of ECMO to include blunt and penetrating trauma patients provides the trauma surgeons with another crucial potentially lifesaving tool with an overall survival rate of 70%. Anticipating increased future use of ECMO in blunt and penetrating trauma patients, distinct protocols ought to be instilled to better address the care needed for these critically ill trauma patients.

5.
Am Surg ; : 31348211011106, 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a major cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality. However, the effect of body mass index (BMI) and seatbelt use on thoracic injuries and outcomes in pediatric patients with rib fractures remains unexplored. We aim to assess how seatbelt use and BMI affect thoracic injuries and outcomes in pediatric patients who sustained ≥3 rib fractures following an MVC. METHODS: The Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) database (2013-2017) was queried for pediatric patients (8-17 years and >4 feet 9 inches tall) admitted secondary to MVCs, with ≥3 rib fractures and all non-thoracic Abbreviated Injury Scale ≤2. Patients were then divided by Injury Severity Score (ISS) into low (<15) and intermediate-severe (≥15) groups, which were further subdivided according to seatbelt use and BMI. Logistic and linear regression was performed to assess the effects of seatbelt use and BMI on outcomes. RESULTS: Seatbelt compliance varied from 39.6 to 50.7%. Belted patients (intermediate-severe ISS) had a reduced hospital length of stay (HLOS), intensive care unit length of stay(ICU-LOS), and mechanical ventilation time but had increased odds of splenic laceration vs. unbelted patients (aOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.03-5.93, P = .044). Obese patients (low ISS) had lower incidences of hemothorax, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, splenic laceration, and liver injury compared to normal-weight patients. Overweight patients (intermediate-severe ISS) had a significantly reduced ICU-LOS vs. normal-weight patients (ß = -.17, 95% CI: -.33,-.01, = .041). CONCLUSIONS: Seatbelt use may improve outcomes for pediatric MVC patients with ≥3 rib fractures. Higher BMI may be associated with reduced thoracic injury and decreased ICU-LOS. Effective educational initiatives are needed to increase pediatric seatbelt compliance.

6.
Am Surg ; : 31348211011099, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma patient care begins on-scene as field triage and mode of transportation are determinants of patient outcomes. This study evaluates the US national patterns of dead on arrival (DOA) among the trauma population. METHODS: A cross-sectional review of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) Trauma Quality Program Participant Use File (TQP-PUF) data set (2013-2017) was performed. Trauma patients reported as DOA were stratified by ISS into low (<15), intermediate (15-24), or high (≥25) severity. Each group was then subdivided by patient demographics, mechanism, type of injury, and mode of transportation. RESULTS: Of the 4 336 816 injury cases in the TQP-PUF data set, 33 199 were DOA (.77%). 77.1% (25 604/33 199) of DOAs were male. In the low-ISS group, .36% (13 272/3 639 811) were DOA; in the intermediate-ISS group, 1.2% (4868/421 994) were DOA; and in the high-ISS group, 5.5% (15 059/275 011) were DOA. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) (11 262) and firearms (8894) were the most common injury types, equating to 60.7% of DOAs. Falls accounted for 9.1% of all DOAs. The most common DOA age-group was 18-64 years, followed by ≥65 years. CONCLUSION: DOA trauma patients are predominately adult men suffering fatal blunt force injuries most frequently via MVC. DOAs are caused by all ranges of injury severity. We recommend further development of prevention programs thereby reducing the prevalence of common traumatic injuries, notably MVC, falls, and firearms to improve survival. Future studies should also investigate the access to and distribution of trauma centers and the role of helicopter, ground, and police transport modalities and transport time on and reducing DOAs and improving trauma patient outcomes.

8.
J Surg Res ; 264: 194-198, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality in the trauma population. Accurate prognosis remains a challenge. Two common Computed Tomography (CT)-based prognostic models include the Marshall Classification and the Rotterdam CT Score. This study aims to determine the utility of the Marshall and Rotterdam scores in predicting mortality for adult patients in coma with severe TBI. METHOD: Retrospective review of our Level 1 Trauma Center's registry for patients ≥ 18 years of age with blunt TBI and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 3-5, with no other significant injuries. Admission Head CT was evaluated for the presence of extra-axial blood (SDH, EDH, SAH, IVH), intra-axial blood (contusions, diffuse axonal injury), midline shift and mass effect on basilar cisterns. Rotterdam and Marshall scores were calculated for all patients; subsequently patients were divided into two groups according to their score (< 4, ≥ 4). RESULTS: 106 patients met inclusion criteria; 75.5% were males (n = 80) and 24.5% females (n = 26). The mean age was 52. The odds ratio (OR) of dying from severe TBI for patients in coma with a Rotterdam score of ≥ 4 compared to < 4 was OR = 17 (P < 0.05). The odds of dying from severe TBI for patients in coma with a Marshall score of ≥ 4 versus < 4 was OR = 11 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Higher scores in the Marshall classification and the Rotterdam system are associated with increased odds of mortality in adult patients in come from severe TBI after blunt injury. The results of our study support these scoring systems and revealed that a cutoff score of < 4 was associated with improved survival.

9.
World J Surg ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Splenectomies are widely performed, but there exists controversy regarding care for splenic injury patients. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature over the last 20 years for operative management (OM) versus nonoperative management (NOM) versus splenic artery embolization (SAE) for traumatic splenic injuries and associated outcomes. METHODS: A review of literature was performed following the PRISMA guidelines through a search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, JAMA Network, and SAGE journals from 2000 to 2020 regarding splenic injury in trauma patients and their management. Articles were then selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria with GRADE criteria used on the included articles to assess quality. RESULTS: Twenty retrospective cohorts and one prospective cohort assessed patients who received OM versus NOM or SAE. Multiple studies indicated that NOM, in properly selected patients, provided better outcomes than its operative counterpart. CONCLUSION: This review provides additional evidence to support the NOM of splenic injuries for hemodynamically stable patients with benign abdomens as it accounts for consistently shorter hospital length of stay, fewer complications, and lower mortality than OM. For hemodynamically unstable patients, management continues to be intervention with surgery. More studies are needed to further investigate outcomes of post-splenectomy patients based on grade of injury, hemodynamic status, type of procedure (i.e., SAE), and failure of NOM in order to provide additional evidence and improve outcomes for this patient population.

11.
Am Surg ; : 31348211011143, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856935

RESUMO

As women surgeons continue to represent a minority within the surgical field while also holding lower ranked positions, gaining a sub-specialized set of clinical skills through surgical fellowships, like surgical critical care (SCC), is one approach to advance within the surgical field. A cross-sectional analysis was performed investigating the websites of all 106 US-based SCC fellowships. A total of 116 SCC fellows were included in this analysis, comprising 67 (59.3%) men and 46 (40.7%) women. There were 977 SCC fellowship faculty were evaluated, comprising 619 (67.9%) men and 292 (32.1%) women. Additionally, 103 SCC fellowship program directors were analyzed, consisting of 77 (74.8%) men and 26 (25.2%) women. There is a significantly lower proportion of women fellows and faculty members (P < .001) compared to men. SCC programs with female program directors on average have higher proportions of female fellows and faculty compared to programs with male program directors (52% and 36% vs 31% and 29%, respectively). There is a stable yet unbalanced gender distribution throughout all positions in SCC fellowship programs. Actively supporting women surgeons pursuing SCC fellowship and removing barriers to their advancement through effective interventions can disrupt the persistently low prevalence of women SCC fellows, faculty, and program directors.

12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 38-47, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency medicine (EM) physicians have been on the front line of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and other related factors such as resource availability and institutional support on well-being, burnout and job-satisfaction of EM physicians in the United States. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study of EM physicians was conducted through the Emergency Medicine Practice Research Network of the ACEP. The survey focused on resource adequacy, institutional support, well-being, and burnout. A total of 890 EM physicians were invited to participate. Both descriptive and risk adjusted, and multivariate regressions were performed with a statistical significance defined as p < 0.05. RESULTS: EM physicians' response rate was 18.7% (166) from 39 states. Burnout was reported by 74.7% (124) since the start of the pandemic. Factors contributing included work-related emotional strain and anxiety, isolation from family and friends, and increased workload. Those reporting inadequate resources felt ignored by their institutions (p < 0.0001). Physicians who felt there was inadequate institutional support, were also dissatisfied with patient care resources (p = 0.001). Physicians expressing job dissatisfaction were more likely to report feelings of burnout (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: EM physicians face greater burnout in the COVID-19 pandemic. This may be compounded by resource scarcity, psychological stress, isolation, and job dissatisfaction. Many of the survey respondents reported inadequate mental health services and resources. The findings of this study may help identify solutions to mitigate these issues.

13.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 79-82, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective management of trauma patients is dependent on pre-hospital triage systems and proper in-hospital treatment regardless of time of admission. We aim to investigate any differences in adjusted all-cause mortality between day vs. night arrival for adult trauma patients who were transported to the hospital via ground emergency medical services (GEMS) and helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) and to determine if care/outcomes are inferior when admitted during the night shift as compared to the day shift. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of adult blunt and penetrating injury patients requiring full team trauma activation at an American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACSCOT)-verified Level 1 trauma center from 2011 to 2019. Descriptive statistical analyses, chi-square analyses, independent-sample t-tests, and Fisher's exact tests were performed. Primary measurement outcome was adjusted observed/expected (O/E) mortality ratios utilizing TRISS methodology. RESULTS: 8370 patients with blunt injuries and 1216 patients with penetrating injuries were analyzed. There were no significant differences in day vs. night O/Es overall (blunt 0.65 vs. 0.59; p = 0.46) (penetrating 0.88 vs. 0.87; p = 0.97). There also were no significant differences when stratified by GEMS (blunt 0.64 vs. 0.55; p = 0.08) (penetrating 0.88 vs. 1.10; p = 0.09) and HEMS admissions (blunt 0.76 vs. 0.75; p = 0.91) (penetrating 0.88 vs. 0.91; p = 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: At an ACSCOT-verified Level 1 Trauma Center, care/outcomes of patients admitted during the night shift were not inferior to those admitted during the day shift. Trauma Center verification by the ACSCOT and multidisciplinary collaboration may allow for consistent care despite injury type and time of day.

14.
Surgery ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage remains a leading cause of death among trauma patients. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta has grown in popularity as an efficient, less invasive alternative to managing patients with noncompressible hemorrhage. The aim of this study to investigate the clinical outcomes of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta use in adult civilian trauma patients with and without concomitant traumatic brain injury. METHODS: This a secondary analysis of the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database from the years 2015 to 2017 of adult trauma patients with and without traumatic brain injury and who had a resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta. Patients who were deceased on arrival, required resuscitative thoracotomy, or had missing information regarding traumatic brain injury status were excluded. Multivariable risk adjustment was performed. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. RESULTS: Of 2,352,542 patients, 199 met the criteria for inclusion in the final analysis. resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta + traumatic brain injury patients were significantly more likely to have a lower Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8 (82.4% vs 54.4%, P < .001) and systolic blood pressure (89 ± 37.4 vs 107.2 ± 39.7; P = .002), and higher injury severity score >25 (83.5% vs 65.8%, P = .01) compared with resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta/non-traumatic brain injury patients. No differences in odds of inpatient mortality (62.4% vs 50.9%, P = .11) or complications (17.7% vs 11.4%, P = .21) were observed between groups. Subgroup analysis based on mechanism of injury, trauma center level, teaching hospital status, and pelvic fracture status also did not show any differences in mortality. CONCLUSION: Inpatient mortality with resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta use does not differ between patients with or without concomitant traumatic brain injury, despite those with traumatic brain injury having significantly higher injury severity and more severe hypotension on intake.

17.
Am Surg ; : 3134820956308, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662214
18.
Am Surg ; : 3134820988827, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) for trauma patients has been debated since its introduction. We aim to compare outcomes for trauma patients transported by ground EMS (GEMS) vs. HEMS using raw and adjusted mortality in a level 1 trauma center. METHODS: A 6-year retrospective cohort study utilizing our level 1 trauma center registry for patients transferred by GEMS or HEMS was performed. Demographics and outcome measures were compared. Raw and adjusted mortality was evaluated. Adjusted mortality was determined incorporating confounders, including patient demographics, comorbid conditions, mechanism of injury, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale score, and EMS transport time. Chi-square, multivariable logistic regression, and independent sample T-test were utilized with significance, defined as P < .05. RESULTS: Of 12 633 patients, 10 656 were transported via GEMS and 1977 with HEMS. Mean age was 55 for GEMS and 40 for HEMS (P < .001). Mean ISS was 9.29 and 11.73 for GEMS and HEMS (P < .001). Mean Revised Trauma Score was higher (less severe) for GEMS vs. HEMS (7.6 vs. 7.12, P < .001). Mean transport times for GEMS and HEMS was 39.45 vs. 47.29 minutes (P = .02). Raw mortality was 2.55% (307/10 656) for GEMS and 6.78% (134/1977) for HEMS. Adjusted mortality revealed a 16.6% increased mortality for GEMS compared to HEMS (adjusted odds ratio = 1.166, 95% CI: .815-1.668). CONCLUSIONS: Air-lifted trauma patients were younger, more severely injured, and more hemodynamically unstable and required longer transport time but experienced lower adjusted mortality. Future research is needed to investigate whether reducing transport times and augmenting the advanced care already implemented by HEMS crews can improve outcomes.

19.
Am Surg ; : 3134820988813, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage accounts for >30% of trauma-related mortalities. Use of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) for temporary hemostasis in the civilian population remains controversial. We aim to investigate REBOA practices through analysis of surgeon and trauma center characteristics, implementation, patient characteristics, and overall opinions. METHODS: An anonymous 30-question standardized online survey on REBOA use was administered to active trauma surgeon members of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. RESULTS: A total of 345 responses were received, and 130/345 (37.7%) reported REBOA being favorable, 42 (12.2%) reported REBOA unfavorably, and 173 (50.1%) were undecided. The majority of respondents (87.6%) reported REBOA performance in the trauma bay. 170 (49.3%) of respondents reported having deployed REBOA at least once over the past 2 years. 80.0% reported blunt trauma being the most common mechanism of injury in REBOA patients. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta deployment in zone 3 of the aorta was significantly higher in patients reported to suffer a pelvic fracture or pelvic hemorrhage, whereas REBOA deployment in zone 1 was significantly higher among patients reported to suffer hepatic, splenic, or other intra-abdominal hemorrhage (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Among survey respondents, frequency of REBOA use was low along with knowledge of clear indications for use. While current REBOA usage among respondents appeared to model current guidelines, additional research regarding REBOA indications, ideal patient populations, and outcomes is needed in order to improve REBOA perception in trauma surgeons and increase frequency of use.

20.
Am Surg ; : 3134820988808, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the United States (US) population increases, the demand for more trauma surgeons (TSs) will increase. There are no recent studies comparing the TS density temporally and geographically. We aim to evaluate the density and distribution of TSs by state and region and its impact on trauma patient mortality. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile (PM), 2016 US Census Bureau, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC's) Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) to determine TS density. TS density was calculated by dividing the number of TSs per 1 000 000 population at the state level, and divided by 500 admissions at the regional level. Trauma-related mortality by state was obtained through the CDC's WISQARS database, which allowed us to estimate trauma mortality per 100 000 population. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2014, the net increase of TS was 3160 but only a net increase of 124 TSs from 2014 to 2020. Overall, the US has 12.58 TSs/1 000 000 population. TS density plateaued from 2014 to 2020. 33% of states have a TS density of 6-10/1 000 000 population, 43% have a density of 10-15, 12% have 15-20, and 12% have a density >20. The Northeast has the highest density of TSs per region (2.95/500 admissions), while the Midwest had the lowest (1.93/500 admissions). CONCLUSION: The density of TSs in the US varies geographically, has plateaued nationally, and has implications on trauma patient mortality. Future studies should further investigate causes of the TS shortage and implement institutional and educational interventions to properly distribute TSs across the US and reduce geographic disparities.

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