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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564045

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly fatal cancer with currently limited opportunities for early detection and effective treatment. Modifiable factors may offer pathways for primary prevention. In this study, the association between the Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) and PC risk was examined. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1113 incident PC (57% women) were diagnosed from 400,577 participants followed-up for 15 years (median). HLI scores combined smoking, alcohol intake, dietary exposure, physical activity and, in turn, overall and central adiposity using BMI (HLIBMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, HLIWHR), respectively. High values of HLI indicate adherence to healthy behaviors. Cox proportional hazard models with age as primary time variable were used to estimate PC hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analyses were performed by excluding, in turn, each factor from the HLI score. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated assuming participants' shift to healthier lifestyles. The HRs for a one-standard deviation increment of HLIBMI and HLIWHR were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.89; ptrend = 4.3e-09) and 0.77 (0.72, 0.82; ptrend = 1.7e-15), respectively. Exclusions of smoking from HLIWHR resulted in HRs of 0.88 (0.82, 0.94; ptrend = 4.9e-04). The overall PAF estimate was 19% (95% CI: 11%, 26%), and 14% (6%, 21%) when smoking was removed from the score. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle was inversely associated with PC risk, beyond the beneficial role of smoking avoidance. Public health measures targeting compliance with healthy lifestyles may have an impact on PC incidence.

2.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 93, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving breast cancer survival in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is urgently needed, requiring early diagnosis and improved access to treatment. However, data on the types of and barriers to receiving breast cancer therapy in this region are limited and have not been compared between different SSA countries and treatment settings. METHODS: In different health care settings across Uganda, Nigeria and Namibian sites of the prospective African Breast Cancer - Disparities in Outcomes cohort study, we assessed the percentage of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who received treatment (systemic, surgery and/or radiotherapy) for cancer and their socio-demographic and clinical determinants. Treatment data were systematically extracted from medical records, as well as self-reported by women during 6-month follow-up interviews, and were used to generate a binary indicator of treatment received within 12 months of diagnosis (yes/no), which was analysed via logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1325 women, cancer treatment had not been initiated treatment within 1 year of diagnosis for 227 (17%) women and 185 (14%) of women with stage I-III disease. Untreated percentages were highest in two Nigerian regional hospitals where 38% of 314 women were not treated (32% among stage I-III). At a national referral hospital in Uganda, 18% of 430 women were not treated (15% among stage I-III). In contrast, at a cancer care centre in Windhoek, Namibia, where treatment is provided free to the patient, all non-black (100%) and almost all (98.7%) black women had initiated treatment. Percentages of untreated women were higher in women from lower socio-economic groups, women who believed in traditional medicine and, in Uganda, in HIV+ women. Self-reported treatment barriers confirmed treatment costs and treatment refusal as contributors to not receiving treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Financial support to ensure treatment access and education of treatment benefits are needed to improve treatment access for breast cancer patients across sub-Saharan Africa, especially at regional treatment centres, for lower socio-economic groups, and for the HIV-positive woman with breast cancer.

3.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316167

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder manifesting joint contractures, arachnodactyly, crumpled ears, and kyphoscoliosis as main features. Due to its rarity, rather aspecific clinical presentation, and overlap with other conditions including Marfan syndrome, the diagnosis is challenging, but important for prognosis and clinical management. CCA is caused by pathogenic variants in FBN2, encoding fibrillin-2, but locus heterogeneity has been suggested. We designed a clinical scoring system and diagnostic criteria to support the diagnostic process and guide molecular genetic testing. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we assessed 167 probands referred for FBN2 analysis and classified them into a FBN2-positive (n = 44) and FBN2-negative group (n = 123) following molecular analysis. We developed a 20-point weighted clinical scoring system based on the prevalence of ten main clinical characteristics of CCA in both groups. RESULTS: The total score was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.001) and was indicative for classifying patients into unlikely CCA (total score <7) and likely CCA (total score ≥7) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical score is helpful for clinical guidance for patients suspected to have CCA, and provides a quantitative tool for phenotyping in research settings.

4.
J Genet Couns ; 28(2): 367-377, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779404

RESUMO

We aimed to determine capacity and readiness of Australian clinical genetic healthcare professionals to provide genomic medicine. An online survey was administered to individuals with genetic counseling or clinical genetics qualifications in Australia. Data collected included: education, certification, continuing professional development (CPD), employment, and genetic versus genomic clinical practice. Of the estimated 630 clinical genetic healthcare professionals in Australia, 354 completed the survey (56.2% response rate). Explanatory interviews were conducted with 5.5% of the genetic counselor respondents. Those working clinically reported being involved in aspects of whole exome or genome sequencing (48.6% genetic counselors, 88.6% clinical geneticists). Most genetic counselors (74.2%) and clinical geneticists (87.0%) had attended genomics CPD in the last two years, with 61.0% and 39.1% self-funding, respectively. Genetic counselors desire broad involvement in genomics, including understanding classifying and interpreting results to better counsel patients. The majority of respondents (89.9%) were satisfied with their job and 91.6% planned to work in genetics until retirement. However, 14.1% of the genetic counselors in clinical roles and 24.6% of the clinical geneticists planned to retire within 10 years. This is the first national audit of clinical genetic healthcare professionals, revealing the Australian workforce is motivated and prepared to embrace new models to deliver genomic medicine but consideration of education and training is required to meet demand.

5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(2): e00507, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 is susceptible to genomic rearrangements and the most frequently reported involve deletions and duplications between low copy repeats LCR22A to LCR22D. Atypical nested deletions and duplications are rarer and can provide a valuable opportunity to investigate the dosage effects of a smaller subset of genes within the 22q11.2 genomic disorder region. METHODS: We describe thirteen individuals from six families, each with atypical nested duplications within the central 22q11.2 region between LCR22B and LCR22D. We then compared the molecular and clinical data for patients from this study and the few reported atypical duplication cases, to the cases with larger typical duplications between LCR22A and LCR22D. Further, we analyzed genes with the nested region to identify candidates highly enriched in human brain tissues. RESULTS: We observed that atypical nested duplications are heterogeneous in size, often familial, and associated with incomplete penetrance and highly variable clinical expressivity. We found that the nested atypical duplications are a possible risk factor for neurodevelopmental phenotypes, particularly for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities. In addition, we analyzed genes within the nested region between LCR22B and LCR22D to identify nine genes (ZNF74, KLHL22, MED15, PI4KA, SERPIND1, CRKL, AIFM3, SLC7A4, and BCRP2) with enriched expression in the nervous system, each with unique spatiotemporal patterns in fetal and adult brain tissues. Interestingly, PI4KA is prominently expressed in the brain, and this gene is included either partially or completely in all of our subjects. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications and identify genes such as PI4KA to be directly relevant to brain development and disorder. We conclude that further work is needed to elucidate the basis of variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes and to exclude the presence of a second disorder. Our findings contribute to the genotype-phenotype data for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications, with implications for genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Penetrância , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas , Síndrome
6.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(8): 721-730, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980984

RESUMO

A greater understanding of the nature and drivers of poor breast cancer (BC) awareness in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) will inform much needed awareness programmes. We aimed to assess the level and nature of BC awareness in the multi-country African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcome (ABC-DO) cohort of women newly diagnosed with BC during 2014-2017. Awareness indicators were assessed during a baseline interview at/near diagnosis. Logistic/ordinal regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for indicators of BC awareness in relation to woman-level characteristics for individual settings and then meta-analyzed. In the 1,451 women included, almost all Namibian non-black women (n = 104) knew of BC and its curability, while in Namibian black and Zambian women, one in 7 (~ 15%) had not previously heard of BC and 25-40% did not know it was curable. In Uganda and Nigeria awareness was lowest: one in four women had no BC awareness, and 2 in 3 had no knowledge of its cure potential. Low educational level, unskilled employment, low socioeconomic position, rural residence, older age, being unmarried, and in some settings HIV-positivity, were associated with lower BC awareness-e.g., having unskilled employment was associated with not having heard of BC (summary OR 3.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-5.23), believing that it is incurable (2.43; 1.81-3.26), and not recognizing a breast lump symptom (1.85; 1.41-2.43) but with between-setting variation (I2 > 68% for all). The findings provide evidence of the level and difference in BC awareness and beliefs across different settings, highlighting the urgent need for context-specific education programmes in the SSA region.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1246-1261, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924900

RESUMO

Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is a rare developmental disorder, characterized by scalp aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and transverse terminal limb defects (TTLD). Autosomal dominant forms of AOS are linked to mutations in ARHGAP31, DLL4, NOTCH1 or RBPJ, while DOCK6 and EOGT underlie autosomal recessive inheritance. Data on the frequency and distribution of mutations in large cohorts are currently limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to comprehensively examine the genetic architecture of AOS in an extensive cohort. Molecular diagnostic screening of 194 AOS/ACC/TTLD probands/families was conducted using next-generation and/or capillary sequencing analyses. In total, we identified 63 (likely) pathogenic mutations, comprising 56 distinct and 22 novel mutations, providing a molecular diagnosis in 30% of patients. Taken together with previous reports, these findings bring the total number of reported disease variants to 63, with a diagnostic yield of 36% in familial cases. NOTCH1 is the major contributor, underlying 10% of AOS/ACC/TTLD cases, with DLL4 (6%), DOCK6 (6%), ARHGAP31 (3%), EOGT (3%), and RBPJ (2%) representing additional causality in this cohort. We confirm the relevance of genetic screening across the AOS/ACC/TTLD spectrum, highlighting preliminary but important genotype-phenotype correlations. This cohort offers potential for further gene identification to address missing heritability.

8.
Genet Med ; 20(9): 1061-1068, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215649

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The craniosynostoses are characterized by premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. The relative contribution of previously reported genes to craniosynostosis in large cohorts is unclear. Here we report on the use of a massively parallel sequencing panel in individuals with craniosynostosis without a prior molecular diagnosis. METHODS: A 20-gene panel was designed based on the genes' association with craniosynostosis, and clinically validated through retrospective testing of an Australian and New Zealand cohort of 233 individuals with craniosynostosis in whom previous testing had not identified a causative variant within FGFR1-3 hot-spot regions or the TWIST1 gene. An additional 76 individuals were tested prospectively. RESULTS: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in non-FGFR genes were identified in 43 individuals, with diagnostic yields of 14% and 15% in retrospective and prospective cohorts, respectively. Variants were identified most frequently in TCF12 (N = 22) and EFNB1 (N = 8), typically in individuals with nonsyndromic coronal craniosynostosis or TWIST1-negative clinically suspected Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Clinically significant variants were also identified in ALX4, EFNA4, ERF, and FGF10. CONCLUSION: These findings support the clinical utility of a massively parallel sequencing panel for craniosynostosis. TCF12 and EFNB1 should be included in genetic testing for nonsyndromic coronal craniosynostosis or clinically suspected Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 54-63, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209020

RESUMO

Genotype-first combined with reverse phenotyping has shown to be a powerful tool in human genetics, especially in the era of next generation sequencing. This combines the identification of individuals with mutations in the same gene and linking these to consistent (endo)phenotypes to establish disease causality. We have performed a MIP (molecular inversion probe)-based targeted re-sequencing study in 3,275 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) to facilitate a genotype-first approach for 24 genes previously implicated in ID.Combining our data with data from a publicly available database, we confirmed 11 of these 24 genes to be relevant for ID. Amongst these, PHIP was shown to have an enrichment of disruptive mutations in the individuals with ID (5 out of 3,275). Through international collaboration, we identified a total of 23 individuals with PHIP mutations and elucidated the associated phenotype. Remarkably, all 23 individuals had developmental delay/ID and the majority were overweight or obese. Other features comprised behavioral problems (hyperactivity, aggression, features of autism and/or mood disorder) and dysmorphisms (full eyebrows and/or synophrys, upturned nose, large ears and tapering fingers). Interestingly, PHIP encodes two protein-isoforms, PHIP/DCAF14 and NDRP, each involved in neurodevelopmental processes, including E3 ubiquitination and neuronal differentiation. Detailed genotype-phenotype analysis points towards haploinsufficiency of PHIP/DCAF14, and not NDRP, as the underlying cause of the phenotype.Thus, we demonstrated the use of large scale re-sequencing by MIPs, followed by reverse phenotyping, as a constructive approach to verify candidate disease genes and identify novel syndromes, highlighted by PHIP haploinsufficiency causing an ID-overweight syndrome.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 142(8): 1568-1579, 2018 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197068

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) survival rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are low in part due to advanced stage at diagnosis. As one component of a study of the entire journey of SSA women with BC, we aimed to identify shared and setting-specific drivers of advanced stage BC. Women newly diagnosed in the multicountry African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) study completed a baseline interview and their stage information was extracted from medical records. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for advanced stage (I, II, III, IV) in relation to individual woman-level, referral and biological factors. A total of 1795 women were included from Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and the multiracial populations of Namibia and South Africa, 1091 of whom (61%) were stage III/IV. Stage was lower in women with greater BC knowledge (OR 0.77 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.85) per point on a 6 point scale). More advanced stage was associated with being black (4.00 (2.79, 5.74)), having attended

Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , África , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Razão de Chances , Grupos Populacionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1031: 55-94, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214566

RESUMO

Public health relies on technologies to produce and analyse data, as well as effectively develop and implement policies and practices. An example is the public health practice of epidemiology, which relies on computational technology to monitor the health status of populations, identify disadvantaged or at risk population groups and thereby inform health policy and priority setting. Critical to achieving health improvements for the underserved population of people living with rare diseases is early diagnosis and best care. In the rare diseases field, the vast majority of diseases are caused by destructive but previously difficult to identify protein-coding gene mutations. The reduction in cost of genetic testing and advances in the clinical use of genome sequencing, data science and imaging are converging to provide more precise understandings of the 'person-time-place' triad. That is: who is affected (people); when the disease is occurring (time); and where the disease is occurring (place). Consequently we are witnessing a paradigm shift in public health policy and practice towards 'precision public health'.Patient and stakeholder engagement has informed the need for a national public health policy framework for rare diseases. The engagement approach in different countries has produced highly comparable outcomes and objectives. Knowledge and experience sharing across the international rare diseases networks and partnerships has informed the development of the Western Australian Rare Diseases Strategic Framework 2015-2018 (RD Framework) and Australian government health briefings on the need for a National plan.The RD Framework is guiding the translation of genomic and other technologies into the Western Australian health system, leading to greater precision in diagnostic pathways and care, and is an example of how a precision public health framework can improve health outcomes for the rare diseases population.Five vignettes are used to illustrate how policy decisions provide the scaffolding for translation of new genomics knowledge, and catalyze transformative change in delivery of clinical services. The vignettes presented here are from an Australian perspective and are not intended to be comprehensive, but rather to provide insights into how a new and emerging 'precision public health' paradigm can improve the experiences of patients living with rare diseases, their caregivers and families.The conclusion is that genomic public health is informed by the individual and family needs, and the population health imperatives of an early and accurate diagnosis; which is the portal to best practice care. Knowledge sharing is critical for public health policy development and improving the lives of people living with rare diseases.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Política de Saúde , Medicina de Precisão , Saúde Pública , Doenças Raras/terapia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica/organização & administração , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Fenótipo , Formulação de Políticas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Doenças Raras/genética
12.
Ann Epidemiol ; 27(10): 659-671.e7, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128086

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Africa has low breast cancer incidence rates but high mortality rates from this disease due to poor survival. Delays in presentation and diagnosis are major determinants of breast cancer survival, but these have not been comprehensively investigated in Africa. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health were searched to identify studies reporting on delays in presentation and/or diagnosis of breast cancer published between January 1, 2000 and May 31, 2016. Data were synthesized in narrative, tabular, and graphical forms. Meta-analyses were not possible due to between-study differences in the way delays were reported. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies were included in the review. Study-specific average times between symptom recognition and presentation to a health care provider ranged from less than 1 to 4 months in North Africa and from less than 3 to greater than 6 months in sub-Saharan Africa. Study-specific average times from presentation to diagnosis were less than 1 month in North Africa but ranged from less than 3 to greater than 6 months in sub-Saharan Africa. Reported reasons for these delays included patient-mediated (e.g., socioeconomic factors) and health system-mediated factors (e.g., referral pathways). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review revealed marked delays in presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer in Africa. Identification of their drivers is crucial to the development of appropriate control strategies in the continent.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , África ao Sul do Saara , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Saúde da Mulher
13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 12(1): 83, 2017 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New approaches are required to address the needs of complex undiagnosed diseases patients. These approaches include clinical genomic diagnostic pipelines, utilizing intra- and multi-disciplinary platforms, as well as specialty-specific genomic clinics. Both are advancing diagnostic rates. However, complementary cross-disciplinary approaches are also critical to address those patients with multisystem disorders who traverse the bounds of multiple specialties and remain undiagnosed despite existing intra-specialty and genomic-focused approaches. The diagnostic possibilities of undiagnosed diseases include genetic and non-genetic conditions. The focus on genetic diseases addresses some of these disorders, however a cross-disciplinary approach is needed that also simultaneously addresses other disorder types. Herein, we describe the initiation and summary outcomes of a public health system approach for complex undiagnosed patients - the Undiagnosed Diseases Program-Western Australia (UDP-WA). RESULTS: Briefly the UDP-WA is: i) one of a complementary suite of approaches that is being delivered within health service, and with community engagement, to address the needs of those with severe undiagnosed diseases; ii) delivered within a public health system to support equitable access to health care, including for those from remote and regional areas; iii) providing diagnoses and improved patient care; iv) delivering a platform for in-service and real time genomic and phenomic education for clinicians that traverses a diverse range of specialties; v) retaining and recapturing clinical expertise; vi) supporting the education of junior and more senior medical staff; vii) designed to integrate with clinical translational research; and viii) is supporting greater connectedness for patients, families and medical staff. CONCLUSION: The UDP-WA has been initiated in the public health system to complement existing clinical genomic approaches; it has been targeted to those with a specific diagnostic need, and initiated by redirecting existing clinical and financial resources. The UDP-WA supports the provision of equitable and sustainable diagnostics and simultaneously supports capacity building in clinical care and translational research, for those with undiagnosed, typically rare, conditions.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública/métodos , Genômica , Humanos , Proteômica , Austrália Ocidental
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28138333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoparathyroidism in children is a heterogeneous group with diverse genetic etiologies. To aid clinicians in the investigation and management of children with hypoparathyroidism, we describe the phenotype of a 6-year-old child with hypoparathyroidism and short stature diagnosed with Kenny-Caffey syndrome (KCS) Type 2 and the subsequent response to growth hormone (GH) treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: The proband presented in the neonatal period with hypocalcemic seizures secondary to hypoparathyroidism. Her phenotype included small hands and feet, hypoplastic and dystrophic nails, hypoplastic mid-face and macrocrania. Postnatal growth was delayed but neurodevelopment was normal. A skeletal survey at 2 years of age was suggestive of KCS Type 2 and genetic testing revealed a novel de novo heterozygous mutation c.1622C > A (p.Ser541Tyr) in FAM111A. At 3 years and 2 months, her height was 80cms (SDS -3.86). She had normal overnight GH levels. GH therapy was commenced at a dose of 4.9 mg/m2/week for her short stature and low height velocity of 5cms/year. At the end of the first and second years of GH treatment, height velocity was 6.5cms/year and 7.2cms/year, respectively with maximal dose of 7.24 mg/m2/week. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the phenotype and the limited response to GH in a child with genetically proven KCS type 2. Long-term registries monitoring growth outcomes following GH therapy in patients with rare genetic conditions may help guide clinical decisions regarding the use and doses of GH in these conditions.

15.
Genome Biol ; 17(1): 243, 2016 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27899157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or phenotypic sex is atypical. Clinical management of DSD is often difficult and currently only 13% of patients receive an accurate clinical genetic diagnosis. To address this we have developed a massively parallel sequencing targeted DSD gene panel which allows us to sequence all 64 known diagnostic DSD genes and candidate genes simultaneously. RESULTS: We analyzed DNA from the largest reported international cohort of patients with DSD (278 patients with 46,XY DSD and 48 with 46,XX DSD). Our targeted gene panel compares favorably with other sequencing platforms. We found a total of 28 diagnostic genes that are implicated in DSD, highlighting the genetic spectrum of this disorder. Sequencing revealed 93 previously unreported DSD gene variants. Overall, we identified a likely genetic diagnosis in 43% of patients with 46,XY DSD. In patients with 46,XY disorders of androgen synthesis and action the genetic diagnosis rate reached 60%. Surprisingly, little difference in diagnostic rate was observed between singletons and trios. In many cases our findings are informative as to the likely cause of the DSD, which will facilitate clinical management. CONCLUSIONS: Our massively parallel sequencing targeted DSD gene panel represents an economical means of improving the genetic diagnostic capability for patients affected by DSD. Implementation of this panel in a large cohort of patients has expanded our understanding of the underlying genetic etiology of DSD. The inclusion of research candidate genes also provides an invaluable resource for future identification of novel genes.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/patologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gônadas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/patologia
16.
BMJ Open ; 6(8): e011390, 2016 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27554102

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan African (SSA) women with breast cancer (BC) have low survival rates from this potentially treatable disease. An understanding of context-specific societal, health-systems and woman-level barriers to BC early detection, diagnosis and treatment are needed. METHODS: The African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) is a prospective hospital-based study of overall survival, impact on quality of life (QOL) and delays along the journey to diagnosis and treatment of BC in SSA. ABC-DO is currently recruiting in Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Women aged 18 years or older who present at participating secondary and tertiary hospitals with a new clinical or histocytological diagnosis of primary BC are invited to participate. For consented women, tumour characteristics, specimen and treatment data are obtained. Over a 2-year enrolment period, we aim to recruit 2000 women who, in the first instance, will be followed for between 1 and 3 years. A face-to-face baseline interview obtains information on socioeconomic, cultural and demographic factors, QOL, health and BC attitudes/knowledge, and timing of all prediagnostic contacts with caregivers in orthodox health, traditional and spiritual systems. Responses are immediately captured on mobile devices that are fed into a tailored mobile health (mHealth) study management system. This system implements the study protocol, by prompting study researchers to phone women on her mobile phone every 3 months and, failing to reach her, prompts contact with her next-of-kin. At follow-up calls, women provide updated information on QOL, care received and disease impacts on family and working life; date of death is asked of her next-of-kin when relevant. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by ethics committees of all involved institutions. All participants provide written informed consent. The findings from the study will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, presented to funders and relevant local organisations and at scientific conferences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Telefone Celular , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
17.
Indian Pediatr ; 53(6): 529-31, 2016 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27376611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of primary adrenal insufficiency has implications for further management of the condition. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: A 5-year-old boy presented in adrenal crisis with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. OBSERVATION: Investigations confirmed primary adrenal insufficiency and ruled out the common etiologies. Genetic testing identified a novel NR0B1/DAX gene mutation. MESSAGE: A genetic diagnosis in children with primary adrenal insufficiency is useful to provide genetic counselling.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal , Receptor Nuclear Órfão DAX-1/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X , Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Adrenal/genética , Insuficiência Adrenal/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipoadrenocorticismo Familiar , Masculino , Mutação/genética
18.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 11(1): 77, 2016 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27287197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases Diagnostic Service (RUDDS) refers to a genomic diagnostic platform operating within the Western Australian Government clinical services delivered through Genetic Services of Western Australia (GSWA). GSWA has provided a state-wide service for clinical genetic care for 28 years and it serves a population of 2.5 million people across a geographical area of 2.5milion Km(2). Within this context, GSWA has established a clinically integrated genomic diagnostic platform in partnership with other public health system managers and service providers, including but not limited to the Office of Population Health Genomics, Diagnostic Genomics (PathWest Laboratories) and with executive level support from the Department of Health. Herein we describe report presents the components of this service that are most relevant to the heterogeneity of paediatric clinical genetic care. RESULTS: Briefly the platform : i) offers multiple options including non-genetic testing; monogenic and genomic (targeted in silico filtered and whole exome) analysis; and matchmaking; ii) is delivered in a patient-centric manner that is resonant with the patient journey, it has multiple points for entry, exit and re-entry to allow people access to information they can use, when they want to receive it; iii) is synchronous with precision phenotyping methods; iv) captures new knowledge, including multiple expert review; v) is integrated with current translational genomic research activities and best practice; and vi) is designed for flexibility for interactive generation of, and integration with, clinical research for diagnostics, community engagement, policy and models of care. CONCLUSION: The RUDDS has been established as part of routine clinical genetic services and is thus sustainable, equitably managed and seeks to translate new knowledge into efficient diagnostics and improved health for the whole community.


Assuntos
Serviços de Diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Austrália , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(16): e2850, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27100409

RESUMO

It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors. This study generated a healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviors. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated from the adjusted models. There was a 5% lower risk (adjusted HR 0.952, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.946, 0.958) of all cancers per point score of the index for men and 4% (adjusted HR 0.961, 95% CI: 0.956, 0.966) for women. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a 28% and 24% lower risk for men and women respectively across all cancers, 41% and 33% for alcohol-related, 49% and 46% for tobacco-related, 41% and 26% for obesity-related, and 21% for female reproductive cancers. Findings suggest simple behavior modifications could have a sizeable impact on cancer prevention, especially for men.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Previsões , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 15: 394, 2015 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26385793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unequal access to health care contributes to disparities in cancer outcomes. We examined the ethnic disparity in barriers to accessing primary and specialist health care experienced by New Zealand women with breast cancer. METHODS: Women diagnosed with a primary invasive breast cancer between 2005 and 2007 were eligible. There were 1,799 respondents, n = 302 Maori (the indigenous population of NZ), n = 70 Pacific and n = 1,427 non-Maori/non-Pacific women. Participants completed a questionnaire listing 12 barriers grouped into three domains for analysis: personal; practical; and health care process factors, and reported the number of days between seeing a primary and a specialist care provider. Chi-squared, Fisher exact tests and logistic regression were used to assess uni- and multivariable differences in prevalence between ethnic groupings. RESULTS: The prevalence of reporting three or more barriers was 18% among Pacific, 10% among Maori and 3% among non-Maori/non-Pacific women (P <0.001). The most commonly reported barriers were fear (Maori women) and cost (Pacific and non-Maori/non-Pacific women). Ethnic differences in reported barriers were not explained by deprivation or diabetes prevalence. Women with diabetes reported a two-fold higher risk of experiencing barriers to care compared to those without diabetes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.06, 95%CI 1.20 to 3.57). Maori and Pacific women were more likely to face delays (median 14 days) in seeing a specialist than non-Maori/non-Pacific women (median 7 days); these differences were not explained by the reported barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of reported barriers to care differed according to ethnicity and were not explained by deprivation, or presence of co-morbidity. Maori and Pacific women are more likely to experience barriers to breast cancer care compared to non- Maori/non-Pacific women. We identified two key barriers affecting care for Maori and Pacific women; (a) delays in follow-up, and (b) the impact of co-morbid conditions. Future New Zealand work needs to focus attention on health care process factors and improving the interface between primary and secondary care to ensure quality health care is realised for all women with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Grupos Populacionais , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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