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1.
Indoor Air ; 28(1): 102-111, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741740

RESUMO

Although many U.S. children spend time in child care, little information exists on exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) in this environment, even though PM may be associated with asthma and other respiratory illness, which is a key concern for young children. To address this data gap, we measured ultrafine particles (UFP), PM2.5 , PM10 , and black carbon in 40 California child-care facilities and examined associations with potential determinants. We also tested a low-cost optical particle measuring device (Dylos monitor). Median (interquartile range) concentrations for indoor UFP, gravimetric PM2.5 , real-time PM2.5 , gravimetric PM10 , and black carbon over the course of a child-care day were 14 000 (11 000-29 000) particles/cm3 , 15 (9.6-21) µg/m3 , 15 (11-23) µg/m3 , 48 (33-73) µg/m3 , and 0.43 (0.25-0.65) ng/m3 , respectively. Indoor black carbon concentrations were inversely associated with air exchange rate (Spearman's rho = -.36) and positively associated with the sum of all Gaussian-adjusted traffic volume within a one-kilometer radius (Spearman's rho = .45) (P-values <.05). Finally, the Dylos may be a valid low-cost alternative to monitor PM levels indoors in future studies. Overall, results indicate the need for additional studies examining particle levels, potential health risks, and mitigation strategies in child-care facilities.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , California , Carbono/análise , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
2.
Indoor Air ; 27(1): 104-113, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26804044

RESUMO

Little information is available about air quality in early childhood education (ECE) facilities. We collected single-day air samples in 2010-2011 from 40 ECE facilities serving children ≤6 years old in California and applied new methods to evaluate cancer risk in young children. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were detected in 100% of samples. The median (max) indoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels (µg/m3 ) were 17.8 (48.8) and 7.5 (23.3), respectively, and were comparable to other California schools and homes. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were inversely associated with air exchange rates (Pearson r = -0.54 and -0.63, respectively; P < 0.001). The buildings and furnishings were generally >5 years old, suggesting other indoor sources. Formaldehyde levels exceeded California 8-h and chronic Reference Exposure Levels (both 9 µg/m3 ) for non-cancer effects in 87.5% of facilities. Acetaldehyde levels exceeded the U.S. EPA Reference Concentration in 30% of facilities. If reflective of long-term averages, estimated exposures would exceed age-adjusted 'safe harbor levels' based on California's Proposition 65 guidelines (10-5 lifetime cancer risk). Additional research is needed to identify sources of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and strategies to reduce indoor air levels. The impact of recent California and proposed U.S. EPA regulations to reduce formaldehyde levels in future construction should be assessed.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Creches , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Formaldeído/análise , California , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco
3.
Indoor Air ; 27(3): 609-621, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27659059

RESUMO

Little information exists about exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in early childhood education (ECE) environments. We measured 38 VOCs in single-day air samples collected in 2010-2011 from 34 ECE facilities serving California children and evaluated potential health risks. We also examined unknown peaks in the GC/MS chromatographs for indoor samples and identified 119 of these compounds using mass spectral libraries. VOCs found in cleaning and personal care products had the highest indoor concentrations (d-limonene and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane [D5] medians: 33.1 and 51.4 µg/m³, respectively). If reflective of long-term averages, child exposures to benzene, chloroform, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene exceeded age-adjusted "safe harbor levels" based on California's Proposition 65 guidelines (10-5 lifetime cancer risk) in 71%, 38%, 56%, and 97% of facilities, respectively. For VOCs without health benchmarks, we used information from toxicological databases and quantitative structure-activity relationship models to assess potential health concerns and identified 12 VOCs that warrant additional evaluation, including a number of terpenes and fragrance compounds. While VOC levels in ECE facilities resemble those in school and home environments, mitigation strategies are warranted to reduce exposures. More research is needed to identify sources and health risks of many VOCs and to support outreach to improve air quality in ECE facilities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Creches , Detergentes , Escolas Maternais , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , California , Pré-Escolar , Materiais de Construção/análise , Cosméticos/análise , Detergentes/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lactente , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Indoor Air ; 27(4): 829-839, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859724

RESUMO

We present a screening-level exposure-assessment method which integrates exposure from all plausible exposure pathways as a result of indoor residential use of cleaning products. The exposure pathways we considered are (i) exposure to a user during product use via inhalation and dermal, (ii) exposure to chemical residues left on clothing, (iii) exposure to all occupants from the portion released indoors during use via inhalation and dermal, and (iv) exposure to the general population due to down-the-drain disposal via inhalation and ingestion. We use consumer product volatilization models to account for the chemical fractions volatilized to air (fvolatilized ) and disposed down the drain (fdown-the-drain ) during product use. For each exposure pathway, we use a fate and exposure model to estimate intake rates (iR) in mg/kg/d. Overall, the contribution of the four exposure pathways to the total exposure varies by the type of cleaning activities and with chemical properties. By providing a more comprehensive exposure model and by capturing additional exposures from often-overlooked exposure pathways, our method allows us to compare the relative contribution of various exposure routes and could improve high-throughput exposure assessment for chemicals in cleaning products.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Produtos Domésticos/análise , Administração Cutânea , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Inalação , Modelos Biológicos , Pele/química , Volatilização
5.
Indoor Air ; 26(6): 836-856, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26562829

RESUMO

Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is a major contributor to the global human disease burden. The indoor environment is of particular importance when considering the health effects associated with PM2.5 exposures because people spend the majority of their time indoors and PM2.5 exposures per unit mass emitted indoors are two to three orders of magnitude larger than exposures to outdoor emissions. Variability in indoor PM2.5 intake fraction (iFin,total ), which is defined as the integrated cumulative intake of PM2.5 per unit of emission, is driven by a combination of building-specific, human-specific, and pollutant-specific factors. Due to a limited availability of data characterizing these factors, however, indoor emissions and intake of PM2.5 are not commonly considered when evaluating the environmental performance of product life cycles. With the aim of addressing this barrier, a literature review was conducted and data characterizing factors influencing iFin,total were compiled. In addition to providing data for the calculation of iFin,total in various indoor environments and for a range of geographic regions, this paper discusses remaining limitations to the incorporation of PM2.5 -derived health impacts into life cycle assessments and makes recommendations regarding future research.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Humanos
6.
Indoor Air ; 26(2): 331-43, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25639183

RESUMO

We assessed the chronic health risks from inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM2.5) in U.S. offices, schools, grocery, and other retail stores and evaluated how chronic health risks were affected by changes in ventilation rates and air filtration efficiency. Representative concentrations of VOCs and PM2.5 were obtained from available data. Using a mass balance model, changes in exposure to VOCs and PM2.5 were predicted if ventilation rate were to increase or decrease by a factor of two, and if higher efficiency air filters were used. Indoor concentrations were compared to health guidelines to estimate percentage exceedances. The estimated chronic health risks associated with VOC and PM2.5 exposures in these buildings were low relative to the risks from exposures in homes. Chronic health risks were driven primarily by exposures to PM2.5 that were evaluated using disease incidence of mortality, chronic bronchitis, and non-fatal stroke. The leading cancer risk factor was exposure to formaldehyde. Using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to account for both cancer and non-cancer effects, results suggest that increasing ventilation alone is ineffective at reducing chronic health burdens. Other strategies, such as pollutant source control and the use of particle filtration, should also be considered.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Exposição Ambiental , Filtração , Formaldeído , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Local de Trabalho
7.
Indoor Air ; 24(3): 260-71, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24118221

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Consumer products and building materials emit a number of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the indoor environment. Because indoor SVOCs accumulate in dust, we explore the use of dust to determine source strength and report here on analysis of dust samples collected in 30 US homes for six phthalates, four personal care product ingredients, and five flame retardants. We then use a fugacity-based indoor mass balance model to estimate the whole-house emission rates of SVOCs that would account for the measured dust concentrations. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) were the most abundant compounds in these dust samples. On the other hand, the estimated emission rate of diethyl phthalate is the largest among phthalates, although its dust concentration is over two orders of magnitude smaller than DEHP and DiNP. The magnitude of the estimated emission rate that corresponds to the measured dust concentration is found to be inversely correlated with the vapor pressure of the compound, indicating that dust concentrations alone cannot be used to determine which compounds have the greatest emission rates. The combined dust-assay modeling approach shows promise for estimating indoor emission rates for SVOCs. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The combined dust-assay modeling approach in this study can be used to predict the source strength of indoor released compounds, integrating emissions from consumer products, building materials, and other home furnishings. Our findings show that estimated emission rates are closely related to not only the level of compounds on dust, but also the vapor pressure of the compound. Thus, a fugacity-based indoor mass balance model and measured dust concentrations can be used to estimate the whole-house emission rates from all sources in actual indoor settings, when individual sources of emissions are unknown.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poeira/análise , Modelos Químicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , California , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Maryland , Pennsylvania , Gravidez
8.
Indoor Air ; 21(2): 92-109, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21392118

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper-bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for five activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes, and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM(2.5). Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM(2.5), formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO(2). PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This analysis identifies key chemical contaminants of concern in residential indoor air using a comprehensive and consistent hazard-evaluation protocol. The identification of a succinct group of chemical hazards in indoor air will allow for successful risk ranking and mitigation prioritization for the indoor residential environment. This work also indicates some common household activities that may lead to the acute levels of pollutant exposure and identifies hazardous chemicals for priority removal from consumer products and home furnishings.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Habitação , Material Particulado/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/química , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
10.
Risk Anal ; 24(1): 73-85, 2004 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15028002

RESUMO

Assessments of aggregate exposure to pesticides and other surface contamination in residential environments are often driven by assumptions about dermal contacts. Accurately predicting cumulative doses from realistic skin contact scenarios requires characterization of exposure scenarios, skin surface loading and unloading rates, and contaminant movement through the epidermis. In this article we (1) develop and test a finite-difference model of contaminant transport through the epidermis; (2) develop archetypal exposure scenarios based on behavioral data to estimate characteristic loading and unloading rates; and (3) quantify 24-hour accumulation below the epidermis by applying a Monte Carlo simulation of these archetypal exposure scenarios. The numerical model, called Transient Transport through the epiDERMis (TTDERM), allows us to account for variable exposure times and time between exposures, temporal and spatial variations in skin and compound properties, and uncertainty in model parameters. Using TTDERM we investigate the use of a macro-activity parameter (cumulative contact time) for predicting daily (24-hour) integrated uptake of pesticides during complex exposure scenarios. For characteristic child behaviors and hand loading and unloading rates, we find that a power law represents the relationship between cumulative contact time and cumulative mass transport through the skin. With almost no loss of reliability, this simple relationship can be used in place of the more complex micro-activity simulations that require activity data on one- to five-minute intervals. The methods developed in this study can be used to guide dermal exposure model refinements and exposure measurement study design.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Modelos Biológicos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Difusão , Poluentes Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacocinética , Mãos , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Praguicidas/farmacocinética , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Pele/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 37(14): 3123-32, 2003 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12901660

RESUMO

In multimedia mass-balance models, the soil compartment is an important sink as well as a conduit for transfers to vegetation and shallow groundwater. Here a novel approach for constructing soil transport algorithms for multimedia fate models is developed and evaluated. The resulting algorithms account for diffusion in gas and liquid components; advection in gas, liquid, or solid phases; and multiple transformation processes. They also provide an explicit quantification of the characteristic soil penetration depth. We construct a compartment model using three and four soil layers to replicate with high reliability the flux and mass distribution obtained from the exact analytical solution describing the transient dispersion, advection, and transformation of chemicals in soil layers with different properties but a fixed boundary condition at the air-soil surface. The soil compartment algorithms can be dynamically linked to other compartments (air, vegetation, groundwater, surface water) in multimedia fate models. We demonstrate and evaluate the performance of the algorithms in a model with applications to benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, MTBE, TCDD, and tritium.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Modelos Teóricos , Multimídia , Poluentes do Solo , Algoritmos , Difusão , Previsões , Plantas
12.
Chemosphere ; 51(6): 501-8, 2003 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12615102

RESUMO

In environmental life-cycle assessments (LCA), fate and exposure factors account for the general fate and exposure properties of chemicals under generic environmental conditions by means of 'evaluative' multi-media fate and exposure box models. To assess the effect of using different generic environmental conditions, fate and exposure factors of chemicals emitted under typical conditions of (1). Western Europe, (2). Australia and (3). the United States of America were compared with the multi-media fate and exposure box model USES-LCA. Comparing the results of the three evaluative environments, it was found that the uncertainty in fate and exposure factors for ecosystems and humans due to choice of an evaluative environment, as represented by the ratio of the 97.5th and 50th percentile, is between a factor 2 and 10. Particularly, fate and exposure factors of emissions causing effects in fresh water ecosystems and effects on human health have relatively high uncertainty. This uncertainty is mainly caused by the continental difference in the average soil erosion rate, the dimensions of the fresh water and agricultural soil compartment, and the fraction of drinking water coming from ground water.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Multimídia , Austrália , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Previsões , Geografia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
13.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 20(4): 928-39, 2001 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11345472

RESUMO

The human toxicity potential (HTP), a calculated index that reflects the potential harm of a unit of chemical released into the environment, is based on both the inherent toxicity of a compound and its potential dose. It is used to weight emissions inventoried as part of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) or in the toxics release inventory (TRI) and to aggregate emissions in terms of a reference compound. Total emissions can be evaluated in terms of benzene equivalence (carcinogens) and toluene equivalents (noncarcinogens). The potential dose is calculated using a generic fate and exposure model, CalTOX, which determines the distribution of a chemical in a model environment and accounts for a number of exposure routes, including inhalation, ingestion of produce, fish, and meat, and dermal contact with water and soil. Toxicity is represented by the cancer potency q1* for carcinogens and the safe dose (RfD, RfC) for noncarcinogens. This article presents cancer and noncancer HTP values for air and surface-water emissions of 330 compounds. This list covers 258 chemicals listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency TRI, or 79 weight-% of the TRI releases to air reported in 1997.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Envelhecimento , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Toxicologia/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 35(1): 142-8, 2001 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11352000

RESUMO

The spatial range is a generic indicator for how far pollutants are likely to travel. It also indicates the appropriate, pollutant-specific area of a multimedia model, which is the square of the spatial range. Formulations of the spatial range can be based on advective or dispersive transport. They differ in whether they take the extent and shape of the earth's surface into account. We suggest the common element of the different approaches is that all account for the persistence and mobility of pollutants. The mobility is the expected travel speed and depends on the partitioning. This paper extends the concept of a pollutant-specific model scale through the introduction of a characteristic atmospheric scale height. It is the height of the atmosphere that would be needed to contain all the pollutant if the entire atmosphere had ground-level concentration, taking into account deposition and degradation. We define the spatial range as the expected advection-driven travel distance of a pollutant molecule released to a specific compartment. This novel analytical formulation is more comprehensive but encompasses all previous advection-based proposals of a spatial range. We evaluate the spatial range and scale height of 288 chemicals for releases to air, surface water, and surface soil. We find a strong correlation between the spatial range for air releases and the scale height because both depend on persistence. We investigate the effect of the spatial scale on calculations of the human toxicity potential, a screening-level risk indicator based on toxicity and potential dose. The product of model area and potential dose is found to be the same for calculations using a fixed model area and those using the pollutant-specific spatial scale. The introduction of the scale height, however, can change the potential dose by more than 1 order of magnitude.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 35(6): 1181-9, 2001 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11347931

RESUMO

The United Nations Environment Program has recently developed criteria to identify and restrict chemicals with a potential for persistence and long-range transport (persistent organic pollutants or POPs). There are many stakeholders involved, and the issues are not only scientific but also include social, economic, and political factors. This work focuses on one aspect of the POPs debate, the criteria for determining the potential for long-range transport (LRT). Our goal is to determine if current models are reliable enough to support decisions that classify a chemical based on the LRT potential. We examine the robustness of two multimedia fate models for determining the relative ranking and absolute spatial range of various chemicals in the environment. We also consider the effect of parameter uncertainties and the model uncertainty associated with the selection of an algorithm for gas-particle partitioning on the model results. Given the same chemical properties, both models give virtually the same ranking. However, when chemical parameter uncertainties and model uncertainties such as particle partitioning are considered, the spatial range distributions obtained for the individual chemicals overlap, preventing a distinct rank order. The absolute values obtained for the predicted spatial range or travel distance differ significantly between the two models for the uncertainties evaluated. We find that to evaluate a chemical when large and unresolved uncertainties exist, it is more informative to use two or more models and include multiple types of uncertainty. Model differences and uncertainties must be explicitly confronted to determine how the limitations of scientific knowledge impact predictions in the decision-making process.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Modelos Teóricos , Multimídia , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Compostos Orgânicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Política Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Risk Anal ; 21(1): 25-42, 2001 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11332550

RESUMO

Very little quantitative analysis is currently available on the cumulative effects of exposure to multiple hazardous agents that have either similar or different mechanisms of action. Over the past several years, efforts have been made to develop the methodologies for risk assessment of chemical mixtures, but mixed exposures to two or more dissimilar agents such as radiation and one or more chemical agents have not yet been addressed in any substantive way. This article reviews the current understanding of the health risks arising from mixed exposures to ionizing radiation and specific chemicals. Specifically discussed is how mixed radiation/chemical exposures, when evaluated in aggregation, were linked to chronic health endpoints such as cancer and intermediate health outcomes such as chromosomal aberrations. Also considered is the extent to which the current practices are consistent with the scientific understanding of the health risks associated with mixed-agent exposures. From this the discussion moves to the research needs for assessing the cumulative health risks from aggregate exposures to ionizing radiation and chemicals. The evaluation indicates that essentially no guidance has been provided for conducting risk assessment for two agents with different mechanisms of action (i.e., energy deposition from ionizing radiation versus DNA interactions with chemicals) but similar biological endpoints (i.e., chromosomal aberrations, mutations, and cancer). The literature review also reveals the problems caused by the absence of both the basic science and an appropriate evaluation framework for the combined effects of mixed-agent exposures. This makes it difficult to determine whether there is truly no interaction or somehow the interaction is masked by the scale of effect observation or inappropriate dose-response assumptions.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Animais , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Neoplasias/etiologia , Medição de Risco/normas
17.
Risk Anal ; 20(4): 439-54, 2000 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11051069

RESUMO

Multimedia fate and exposure models are widely used to regulate the release of toxic chemicals, to set cleanup standards for contaminated sites, and to evaluate emissions in life-cycle assessment. CalTOX, one of these models, is used to calculate the potential dose, an outcome that is combined with the toxicity of the chemical to determine the Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), used to aggregate and compare emissions. The comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty in the potential dose calculation in this article serves to provide the information necessary to evaluate the reliability of decisions based on the HTP A framework for uncertainty analysis in multimedia risk assessment is proposed and evaluated with four types of uncertainty. Parameter uncertainty is assessed through Monte Carlo analysis. The variability in landscape parameters is assessed through a comparison of potential dose calculations for different regions in the United States. Decision rule uncertainty is explored through a comparison of the HTP values under open and closed system boundaries. Model uncertainty is evaluated through two case studies, one using alternative formulations for calculating the plant concentration and the other testing the steady state assumption for wet deposition. This investigation shows that steady state conditions for the removal of chemicals from the atmosphere are not appropriate and result in an underestimate of the potential dose for 25% of the 336 chemicals evaluated.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Modelos Biológicos , Medição de Risco , Clima , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Método de Monte Carlo , Plantas , Probabilidade , Chuva , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Processos Estocásticos , Estados Unidos , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 34(17): 380A-7A, 2000 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21662006

RESUMO

The current framework used to assess incinerator health effects considers local populations, but often excludes workers and regional populations.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 34(23): 498A-9A, 2000 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21662295
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