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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being a parent alongside a cancer diagnosis presents unique challenges. It is unclear to what degree parenting considerations feature in routine care and how doctors approach treatment decision discussions. OBJECTIVE: To explore doctor perspectives regarding patients with cancer who have dependent children. METHODOLOGY: Focus groups and interviews conducted to ascertain doctor views. Responses were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. RESULTS: Twenty-eight doctors participated: medical oncology (7), haematology (10), palliative care (8), and psycho-oncology (3). Participants observed cancer impacted upon parenting across several domains: psycho-social, practical, and family implications. Having dependent children was perceived to influence the patient experience and decision-making by patients and clinicians. Participants identified this cohort as emotionally demanding to care for with a range of psychological effects identified for doctors, particularly in highly challenging circumstances (single-parent and non-English speaking families, scenarios involving communication difficulties). CONCLUSION: Participants recognised the presence of dependent children to profoundly influence the experience of being both a parent and a patient with cancer. Identifying patients with parental responsibilities was noted as relevant for management at diagnosis through to death. Greater understanding of doctors' experiences providing care for this cohort may inform the development of resources to assist doctors and their patients.

2.
J Cancer Educ ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230674

RESUMO

Australia, like many other nations, continues to become more culturally and linguistically diverse. Medical interpreters play a key role in bridging the linguistic gap between healthcare professionals (HCPs) and patients. Little research exists from the HCP's perspective about working with interpreters. This study aimed to explore the views of HCPs regarding working with interpreters in a cancer setting. This exploratory study utilised a cross-sectional, qualitative design, involving focus groups and semi-structured interviews. HCPs from the Oncology and Palliative Care units were invited to participate and were asked about their experiences of working with interpreters in a cancer setting. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. An inductive thematic analysis of qualitative data derived an understanding of attitudes and beliefs which may affect the way in which HCPs interact with interpreters and patients. Twenty-five participants were recruited. Five key themes emerged from the data: (1) communication practices and preferences, (2) training and supports, (3) alternative methods for translation, (4) challenges faced by HCPs and interpreters, and (5) limitations of translation. Communication with non-English-speaking patients using interpreters could be significantly improved with further training and support for both HCPs and interpreters, and a greater appreciation for the challenges each party faces.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115784

RESUMO

Guidelines endorse the use of chemoprevention for breast cancer risk reduction. This study examined the barriers and facilitators to chemoprevention use for Australian women at increased risk of breast cancer, and their clinicians. Surveys, based on the Theoretical Domains Framework, were mailed to 1,113 women at ≥16% lifetime risk of breast cancer who were enrolled in the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer cohort study (kConFab), and their 524 treating clinicians. 725 women (65%) and 221 (42%) clinicians responded. Only 10 (1.4%) kConFab women had ever taken chemoprevention. 378 (52%) kConFab women, two (3%) breast surgeons and 51 (35%) family physicians were not aware of chemoprevention. For women, the strongest barriers to chemoprevention were side-effects (31%) and inadequate information (23%) which operate in the Theoretical Domains Framework domains of "beliefs about consequences" and "knowledge", respectively. Strongest facilitators related to tamoxifen's long-term efficacy (35%, "knowledge", "beliefs about consequences" and "goals" domains), staying healthy for family (13%, "social role" and "goals" domains) and abnormal breast biopsy (13%, "environmental context" domain). The strongest barrier for family physicians was insufficient knowledge (45%, "knowledge" domain) and for breast surgeons was medication side-effects (40%, "beliefs about consequences" domain). The strongest facilitators for both clinician groups related to clear guidelines, strong family history and better tools to select patients ("environmental context and resources" domain). Clinician knowledge and resources, and beliefs about the side-effect consequences of chemoprevention are key domains that could be targeted to potentially enhance uptake.

4.
Intern Med J ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) is highly lethal. Combination chemotherapy regimens improve overall survival (OS). Historically, only one third of mPDAC patients in Victoria received chemotherapy (1) . AIM: To describe current Australian chemotherapy utilisation and outcomes in patients with mPDAC using the multi-site PURPLE (Pancreatic cancer: Understanding Routine Practice and Lifting End Results) registry. METHODS: PURPLE collects longitudinal data on consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer seen since January 2016. Data was collated for patients with mPDAC from six Victorian sites, and analysed descriptively. RESULTS: Three-hundred-and-sixty-three patients with mPDAC were identified. Median age was 70 years (20-94). First line chemotherapy was administered in 195 patients (54%). Prevalent regimens included gemcitabine-nab-paclitaxel (71%), gemcitabine alone (10%) and FOLFIRINOX (6%). Sixty-two of 195 (32%) patients who received first line treatment have proceeded to second line chemotherapy. Chemotherapy treated patients were younger (69 versus 73 years, p<0.01), with better ECOG performance status (ECOG 0-1 89% vs. 66%, p<0.01) and lower median Charlson comorbidity index (3 vs. 4, p<0.01) compared with untreated patients. Median OS of the entire cohort from diagnosis of metastases was 5.1 months. Median OS was 9.3 months in the chemotherapy treated patients, and 2.5 months in chemotherapy-untreated patients (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of patients with mPDAC still do not receive active treatment, which may in part by explained by age, poor performance status and comorbidity. Gemcitabine-nab-paclitaxel was the preferred first line chemotherapy regimen. Median OS for treated patients in this cohort was comparable to that of recent published clinical trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894819

RESUMO

AIM: As therapeutic options for cancer evolve and become more complex, the concept of financial toxicity has emerged. The comprehensive score for financial toxicity (COST) and iMTA Productivity Cost questionnaires (iPCQ) represent two tools developed to measure the concept. The aim of this pilot study was to review the impact of financial toxicity in patients with cancer in an Australian public setting where there is a universal health care model. METHODS: This pilot study utilized an exploratory, cross-sectional design in a single Australian large inner-city tertiary center. After providing written consent eligible patients, in an ambulatory setting, completed four self-reporting questionnaires, which were written in English (basic demographics, COST, iPCQ and the European Organization Research Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 [EORTC-QLQ-C30]). RESULTS: Of 97 patients approached, 66 consented to participate. The median age was 63.5 years. Fifty-five percent were female. Fifty-three completed COST questionnaires. The median score for financial toxicity was 18 (range 1-42). Higher COST scores indicated greater financial concerns and were associated with poorer quality of life (P = .004). This was maintained after adjusting for confounders (age, gender, regional postcode.) Univariate analysis demonstrated younger age was associated with higher COST scores (P < .001), while gender (P = .243) and geographical location (P = .243) were not. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patients receiving systemic cancer therapy in an Australian public setting, financial toxicity was associated with poorer quality of life. Despite a universal health-model, the COST questionnaire identified a substantial proportion of patients who experienced financial toxicity.

6.
JCO Oncol Pract ; : OP2000158, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926663

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In patients with rectal cancer who achieve a clinical complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation, it may be reasonable to adopt a watch-and-wait (W&W) strategy rather than proceed to immediate resection of the rectum. Patient preferences for this strategy are unknown. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the feasibility of assessing hypothetical recurrence and survival differences that relevant patients would tolerate to avoid immediate resection of the rectum. A secondary aim included estimating patients' tolerance thresholds and the factors that might predict them. METHODS: We developed a study-specific written questionnaire based on a previously validated instrument. Hypothetical time tradeoff tasks were used to determine the recurrence rate patients would accept to adopt a W&W strategy and the survival benefit that would be needed to justify choosing immediate resection over W&W. Feasibility was measured on the basis of response rate, the stated ease of completion and the satisfaction of task, and time used. RESULTS: Twenty of 31 potentially eligible patients completed the study-specific questionnaire. The majority of respondents felt that questions were clear (70%) and not hard to understand (65%). The median acceptable recurrence risk to adopt a W&W strategy was 20% (interquartile range [IQR], 10%-35%). Patients required a median of 2.0 extra years of survival (IQR, 1.0-3.0 years) over a baseline 7.0 years, and they required a median extra 10% (IQR, 4%-19%) over baseline 70% survival rates to justify immediate resection. CONCLUSION: Measuring the preferences of patients with rectal cancer using time tradeoff methods seemed to be feasible. Larger studies are needed to confirm how acceptable a W&W strategy would be for relevant patients.

7.
Intern Med J ; 50(10): 1282-1285, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951279

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Department of Health and Human Services Victoria (DHHS), the Monash Partners Comprehensive Cancer Consortium (MPCCC) and Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre (VCCC) pooled their combined infrastructure to establish the Victorian COVID-19 Cancer Network (VCCN) backed by a Taskforce of expert members. In a few short months, this state-wide clinical network implemented a number of new models of care including clinics to manage acutely presenting cancer patients away from emergency departments, chemotherapy in the home, telehealth models and addressing sustainability of clinical trials.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Vitória/epidemiologia
8.
Palliat Med ; 34(8): 1108-1117, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Communities have limited understanding of palliative care, creating barriers to informed choice around consideration of a full range of care options in the event of serious illness. Few empirically tested interventions are available to educate community about palliative care, and ultimately improve timely access to these services. AIM: To test the acceptability (primary outcome), and feasibility of a narrative approach to public health communication seeking to improve attitudes to possible access to palliative care in the event of serious illness. DESIGN: Randomised phase II trial with six parallel experimental conditions. Outcomes tested included measures of acceptability, feasibility and change in attitudes to possible access to palliative care post-intervention. Contrasts planned for exploratory testing included format, message content and narrator. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Community-based sample of consecutive English-speaking adults who volunteered their participation in response to a study advertisement distributed online through established community groups. RESULTS: A narrative approach to public health communication was found to be acceptable to community members, and feasible to deliver online. Exploratory data suggested it immediately improved attitudes towards possible access to palliative care in the event of serious illness, with the narrative detailing a description of the evidence delivered by a healthcare professional appearing to be the most promising strategy. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary data to inform a future, longitudinal trial evaluating effectiveness and ultimately other evidence-based, public health approaches to improve community engagement with palliative care. Further studies are required to confirm the generalisability of findings to a broader representative sample and other settings including internationally.

9.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(2): e175-e182, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multidisciplinary cancer meetings (MDMs) are an integral component of quality care; however, little research exists regarding patients' views on this model of care. We aimed to explore and understand the attitudes of patients toward MDMs. METHODS: A mixed methods exploratory design was used. Qualitative data from patients with a current or previous diagnosis of cancer were collected and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results informed the development of a questionnaire survey that was administered to patients with a current or previous diagnosis of cancer. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Nine patients participated in 3 focus groups, and 152 patients (response rate, 90%) completed the questionnaire. Patients were strongly supportive of MDMs and thought that all patients with cancer should be routinely discussed. More than 90% of surveyed patients believed MDMs were reassuring, meant all treatment modalities were considered, and led to evidence-based treatment recommendations. Patients wanted MDMs to focus on medical treatment planning rather than psychosocial issues, and 87% regarded the meeting as confidential. Patients described a preference for doctor-led decision making, and most (84%) wanted MDM treatment decisions to be discussed with them in a subsequent consultation, with 73% of patients also wanting this in a written format. CONCLUSION: Patients strongly endorse MDMs as a means to develop an evidence-based, medical treatment plan agreed to by consensus. They want to be purposely informed of the meeting and its outcomes. Results from this study can help inform future guidelines on the conduct of MDMs.

10.
Cancer Res ; 80(1): 116-125, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578201

RESUMO

Although physical activity is associated with lower breast cancer risk for average-risk women, it is not known if this association applies to women at high familial/genetic risk. We examined the association of recreational physical activity (self-reported by questionnaire) with breast cancer risk using the Prospective Family Study Cohort, which is enriched with women who have a breast cancer family history (N = 15,550). We examined associations of adult and adolescent recreational physical activity (quintiles of age-adjusted total metabolic equivalents per week) with breast cancer risk using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for demographics, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. We tested for multiplicative interactions of physical activity with predicted absolute breast cancer familial risk based on pedigree data and with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status. Baseline recreational physical activity level in the highest four quintiles compared with the lowest quintile was associated with a 20% lower breast cancer risk (HR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.93). The association was not modified by familial risk or BRCA mutation status (P interactions >0.05). No overall association was found for adolescent recreational physical activity. Recreational physical activity in adulthood may lower breast cancer risk for women across the spectrum of familial risk. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that physical activity might reduce breast cancer risk by about 20% for women across the risk continuum, including women at higher-than-average risk due to their family history or genetic susceptibility.See related commentary by Niehoff et al., p. 23.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Palliat Med ; 34(2): 245-252, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative care is predominantly accessed late in the course of an illness, despite evidence to suggest the benefits of early engagement. Strategies are required to reduce the barriers to the delivery of palliative care. AIM: To describe community understandings of and attitudes to palliative care and explore characteristics significantly associated with favourable attitudes towards palliative care. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data were collected including several sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of palliative care and attitudes to palliative care. Correlational analyses identified factors related to positive attitudes to palliative care. Those of significance (p ⩽ 0.01) were examined using a multiple regression model to determine their predictive value. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A community-based sample of consecutive English-speaking adults who volunteered their participation in response to a study advertisement distributed online through established community groups. RESULTS: A total of 421 participants (75% female, mean age: 51 ± 15.1) reported a median of at least three misperceptions of palliative care. Older age, previously undertaking a caregiving role, knowing someone who had received palliative care and reporting more accurate knowledge of palliative care significantly predicted favourable attitudes to palliative care (adjusted R2 = 0.24, F(8, 333) = 13.2, p < 0.001). Other factors typically associated with health literacy such as tertiary education, working at a medical facility and speaking a language other than English at home were not predictive. CONCLUSION: Gaps in knowledge about palliative care exist in community, which may limit citizen's potential access to quality care in the event of serious illness. These results point to a role for public education programmes, which may, in turn, also shift attitudes to palliative care.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 368-378, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(4): 418-422, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584660

RESUMO

The performance of breast cancer risk models for women with a family history but negative BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation test results is uncertain. We calculated the cumulative 10-year invasive breast cancer risk at cohort entry for 14 657 unaffected women (96.1% had an affected relative) not known to carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations at baseline using three pedigree-based models (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm, BRCAPRO, and International Breast Cancer Intervention Study). During follow-up, 482 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Mutation testing was conducted independent of incident cancers. All models underpredicted risk by 26.3%-56.7% for women who tested negative but whose relatives had not been tested (n = 1363; 63 breast cancers). Although replication studies with larger sample sizes are needed, until these models are recalibrated for women who test negative and have no relatives tested, caution should be used when considering changing the breast cancer risk management intensity of such women based on risk estimates from these models.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 128, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC), but it is unclear whether these associations vary by a woman's familial BC risk. METHODS: Using the Prospective Family Study Cohort, we evaluated associations between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and BC risk. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We examined whether associations were modified by familial risk profile (FRP), defined as the 1-year incidence of BC predicted by Breast Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA), a pedigree-based algorithm. RESULTS: We observed 1009 incident BC cases in 17,435 women during a median follow-up of 10.4 years. We found no overall association of smoking or alcohol consumption with BC risk (current smokers compared with never smokers HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.85-1.23; consuming ≥ 7 drinks/week compared with non-regular drinkers HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.92-1.32), but we did observe differences in associations based on FRP and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Women with lower FRP had an increased risk of ER-positive BC associated with consuming ≥ 7 drinks/week (compared to non-regular drinkers), whereas there was no association for women with higher FRP. For example, women at the 10th percentile of FRP (5-year BOADICEA = 0.15%) had an estimated HR of 1.46 (95% CI 1.07-1.99), whereas there was no association for women at the 90th percentile (5-year BOADICEA = 4.2%) (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.80-1.44). While the associations with smoking were not modified by FRP, we observed a positive multiplicative interaction by FRP (pinteraction = 0.01) for smoking status in women who also consumed alcohol, but not in women who were non-regular drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased BC risk, particularly for women with ER-positive BC, but only for those at lower predicted familial BC risk (5-year BOADICEA < 1.25). For women with a high FRP (5-year BOADICEA ≥ 6.5%) who also consumed alcohol, being a current smoker was associated with increased BC risk.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs ; 6(4): 356-362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572755

RESUMO

Objective: The cancer care coordinator (CCC) role has become a priority in providing coordinated, patient-centered, supported care for patients, and their families experiencing cancer. The CCC role exists with heterogeneity across tumor streams, clinical disciplines, and institutions. This study explored CCCs perceptions and experiences of their role, scope of practice, and potential for future role development. Methods: This research used a mixed methods design. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 CCCs from two tertiary public teaching hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. A thematic analysis approach was used. A quantitative record of relative time spent on tasks was also collected. Results: Three major themes were identified: (1) Perceptions of role legitimacy, (2) Structure and funding of the role determines scope of practice, and (3) Reflections on the potential for the role. Variability was evident in predominant tasks undertaken, integration into the unit, level of patient contact, and regard from other professional colleagues. Variability appears to relate to employment time assigned to the role, and history and structure of the role. Conclusions: The findings underline the need when establishing and reviewing CCC roles for explicit attention to be given to the reporting, integration, structural, and collegiate support for the role as this will profoundly influence its success.

16.
Clin Liver Dis ; 23(3): 487-492, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266622

RESUMO

Current recommendations concerning hepatitis C virus (HBV) reactivation are limited, with nearly all guidelines focused on its occurrence in patients with hematological malignancies or some solid tumors, who are treated with immunosuppressive therapies. Few of the guidelines address reactivation in patients receiving immunosuppression with organ transplants or treatment with any of the many immunosuppressive agents in use today for the treatment of multiple different diseases, or in patients receiving the direct-acting antivirals used in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV). This article covers the immunology of HBV reactivation, mechanisms of viral clearance, and recommendations for screening and prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Ativação Viral/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hepatite B/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Prevenção Primária , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco
17.
Clin Liver Dis ; 23(3): 493-509, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266623

RESUMO

Organ transplantation is a lifesaving procedure for many patients. To prevent rejection or graft-versus-host disease, recipients require long-term immunosuppression. In patients who have ever been exposed to hepatitis B, it is possible for reactivation to occur; this includes patients who are anti-hepatitis B core antibody-positive only or both anti-hepatitis B core antibody-positive and hepatitis B surface antibody-positive. The susceptibility to this varies with the nature of the transplant. Hepatitis B can be transmitted from donor to recipient. It is important to assess the hepatitis B status and formulate a strategy to prevent transmission and prevent reactivation.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Ativação Viral/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/fisiopatologia , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplantados , Resultado do Tratamento , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Clin Liver Dis ; 23(3): 511-519, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266624

RESUMO

Patients with malignancies require chemotherapy and other immunosuppressive therapies for treatment. Because of this immunosuppression, in patients who have ever been exposed to hepatitis B it is possible for reactivation to occur. This reactivation can be fatal. Reactivation is particularly likely in patients who receive B cell-active agents such as rituximab. The occurrence of reactivation flares may also delay further chemotherapy, which can negatively affect the outcome of the underlying malignancy. Accordingly, it is important to screen patients for markers of hepatitis B and institute antiviral prophylaxis to prevent reactivation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Ativação Viral/imunologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Neoplasias/imunologia , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Clin Liver Dis ; 23(3): 521-534, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266625

RESUMO

Because of the relatively high prevalence of both hepatitis B infection and various forms of autoimmune inflammatory diseases treated with aggressive immunotherapy, reactivation of hepatitis B occurs in a substantial number of patients. The risk of reactivation depends on the degree and duration of immunosuppression. A large number of drug treatments have resulted in reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection and, based on the mechanisms and extent of immunosuppression, recommendations for some of the newer classes of immunosuppressive drugs are provided.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Ativação Viral/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Med J Aust ; 210(10): 462-468, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or past exposure to HBV infection have a substantial risk of reactivation during immunosuppressive cancer therapy. HBV reactivation can lead to liver failure, cancer treatment interruption or death. Clinical concordance with screening and treatment guidelines is inconsistent in practice, and existing international guidelines are not specific to the Australian context. We developed an Australian consensus statement with infectious diseases, hepatology, haematology and oncology specialists to inform hepatitis B screening and antiviral management for immunocompromised patients with haematological and solid organ malignancies in Australia. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations address four key areas of HBV infection management for immunocompromised patients with haematological and solid organ malignancies: who to test for HBV infection, when to start antiviral agents, when to stop antiviral agents, and how to monitor patients during cancer therapy. We recommend testing all patients undergoing cancer treatment for hepatitis B (including HBV surface antigen [HBsAg], HBV core antibody [anti-HBc], and HBV surface antibody) before cancer treatment. Individuals with chronic HBV infection (HBsAg positive) or past exposure (HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive) receiving higher risk chemotherapy require antiviral prophylaxis using entecavir or tenofovir. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS A RESULT OF THIS STATEMENT: This consensus statement will simplify the approach to testing and prophylaxis for HBV infection during cancer therapy, and harmonise approaches to discontinuing and monitoring individuals which have been highly variable in practice. We advocate for broader Medicare Benefits Schedule and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme access to HBV testing and treatment for patients undergoing cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Oncologia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Ativação Viral
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