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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13501, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534162

RESUMO

Widespread release of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) or Yersinia pestis (plague) would prompt a public health emergency. During an exposure event, high-quality whole genome sequencing (WGS) can identify genetic engineering, including the introduction of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. Here, we developed rapid WGS laboratory and bioinformatics workflows using a long-read nanopore sequencer (MinION) for Y. pestis (6.5 h) and B. anthracis (8.5 h) and sequenced strains with different AMR profiles. Both salt-precipitation and silica-membrane extracted DNA were suitable for MinION WGS using both rapid and field library preparation methods. In replicate experiments, nanopore quality metrics were defined for genome assembly and mutation analysis. AMR markers were correctly detected and >99% coverage of chromosomes and plasmids was achieved using 100,000 raw sequencing reads. While chromosomes and large and small plasmids were accurately assembled, including novel multimeric forms of the Y. pestis virulence plasmid, pPCP1, MinION reads were error-prone, particularly in homopolymer regions. MinION sequencing holds promise as a practical, front-line strategy for on-site pathogen characterization to speed the public health response during a biothreat emergency.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 177-188, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256874

RESUMO

Although genome sequencing is increasingly available in clinical and research settings, many questions remain about the interpretation of sequencing data. In the MedSeq Project, we explored how much effort is required to evaluate and report on more than 4,500 genes reportedly associated with monogenic conditions, as well as pharmacogenomic (PGx) markers, blood antigen serotyping, and polygenic risk scores in 100 individuals (50 with cardiomyopathy and 50 healthy) randomized to the sequencing arm. We defined the quality thresholds for determining the need for Sanger confirmation. Finally, we examined the effort needed and new findings revealed by reanalyzing each genome (6-23 months after initial analysis; mean 13 months). Monogenic disease risk and carrier status were reported in 21% and 94% of participants, respectively. Only two participants had no monogenic disease risk or carrier status identified. For the PGx results (18 genotypes in six genes for five drugs), the identified diplotypes prompted recommendation for non-standard dosing of at least one of the analyzed drugs in 95% of participants. For blood antigen studies, we found that 31% of participants had a rare blood antigen genotype. In the cardiomyopathy cohort, an explanation for disease was identified in 48% of individuals. Over the course of the study, 14 variants were reclassified and, upon reanalysis, 18 new variants met criteria for reporting. These findings highlight the quantity of medically relevant findings from a broad analysis of genomic sequencing data as well as the need for periodic reinterpretation and reanalysis of data for both diagnostic indications and secondary findings.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1210-1222, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079897

RESUMO

We delineate a KMT2E-related neurodevelopmental disorder on the basis of 38 individuals in 36 families. This study includes 31 distinct heterozygous variants in KMT2E (28 ascertained from Matchmaker Exchange and three previously reported), and four individuals with chromosome 7q22.2-22.23 microdeletions encompassing KMT2E (one previously reported). Almost all variants occurred de novo, and most were truncating. Most affected individuals with protein-truncating variants presented with mild intellectual disability. One-quarter of individuals met criteria for autism. Additional common features include macrocephaly, hypotonia, functional gastrointestinal abnormalities, and a subtle facial gestalt. Epilepsy was present in about one-fifth of individuals with truncating variants and was responsive to treatment with anti-epileptic medications in almost all. More than 70% of the individuals were male, and expressivity was variable by sex; epilepsy was more common in females and autism more common in males. The four individuals with microdeletions encompassing KMT2E generally presented similarly to those with truncating variants, but the degree of developmental delay was greater. The group of four individuals with missense variants in KMT2E presented with the most severe developmental delays. Epilepsy was present in all individuals with missense variants, often manifesting as treatment-resistant infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Microcephaly was also common in this group. Haploinsufficiency versus gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects specific to these missense variants in KMT2E might explain this divergence in phenotype, but requires independent validation. Disruptive variants in KMT2E are an under-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

4.
Bone ; 121: 163-171, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599297

RESUMO

Heterozygous pathogenic variants in the FN1 gene, encoding fibronectin (FN), have recently been shown to be associated with a skeletal disorder in some individuals affected by spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with "corner fractures" (SMD-CF). The most striking feature characterizing SMD-CF is irregularly shaped metaphyses giving the appearance of "corner fractures". An array of secondary features, including developmental coxa vara, ovoid vertebral bodies and severe scoliosis, may also be present. FN is an important extracellular matrix component for bone and cartilage development. Here we report five patients affected by this subtype of SMD-CF caused by five novel FN1 missense mutations: p.Cys123Tyr, p.Cys169Tyr, p.Cys213Tyr, p.Cys231Trp and p.Cys258Tyr. All individuals shared a substitution of a cysteine residue, disrupting disulfide bonds in the FN type-I assembly domains located in the N-terminal assembly region. The abnormal metaphyseal ossification and "corner fracture" appearances were the most remarkable clinical feature in these patients. In addition, generalized skeletal fragility with low-trauma bilateral femoral fractures was identified in one patient. Interestingly, the distal femoral changes in this patient healed with skeletal maturation. Our report expands the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of the FN1-related SMD-CF and emphasizes the importance of FN in bone formation and possibly also in the maintenance of bone strength.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 164-178, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580808

RESUMO

SMARCC2 (BAF170) is one of the invariable core subunits of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling BAF (BRG1-associated factor) complex and plays a crucial role in embryogenesis and corticogenesis. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding other components of the BAF complex have been associated with intellectual disability syndromes. Despite its significant biological role, variants in SMARCC2 have not been directly associated with human disease previously. Using whole-exome sequencing and a web-based gene-matching program, we identified 15 individuals with variable degrees of neurodevelopmental delay and growth retardation harboring one of 13 heterozygous variants in SMARCC2, most of them novel and proven de novo. The clinical presentation overlaps with intellectual disability syndromes associated with other BAF subunits, such as Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes and includes prominent speech impairment, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features such as hypertrichosis, thick eyebrows, thin upper lip vermilion, and upturned nose. Nine out of the fifteen individuals harbor variants in the highly conserved SMARCC2 DNA-interacting domains (SANT and SWIRM) and present with a more severe phenotype. Two of these individuals present cardiac abnormalities. Transcriptomic analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals highlights a group of differentially expressed genes with possible roles in regulation of neuronal development and function, namely H19, SCRG1, RELN, and CACNB4. Our findings suggest a novel SMARCC2-related syndrome that overlaps with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with variants in BAF-complex subunits.

6.
BMC Microbiol ; 18(1): 218, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and Burkholderia mallei, conventional broth microdilution (BMD) is considered the gold standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and, depending on the species, requires an incubation period of 16-20 h, or 24-48 h according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. After a diagnosis of plague, melioidosis or glanders during an outbreak or after an exposure event, the timely distribution of appropriate antibiotics for treatment or post-exposure prophylaxis of affected populations could reduce mortality rates. RESULTS: Herein, we developed and evaluated a rapid, automated susceptibility test for these Gram-negative bacterial pathogens based on time-lapse imaging of cells incubating in BMD microtitre drug panels using an optical screening instrument (oCelloScope). In real-time, the instrument screened each inoculated well containing broth with various concentrations of antibiotics published by CLSI for primary testing: ciprofloxacin (CIP), doxycycline (DOX) and gentamicin (GEN) for Y. pestis; imipenem (IPM), ceftazidime (CAZ) and DOX for B. mallei; and IPM, DOX, CAZ, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) for B. pseudomallei. Based on automated growth kinetic data, the time required to accurately determine susceptibility decreased by ≥70% for Y. pestis and ≥ 50% for B. mallei and B. pseudomallei compared to the times required for conventional BMD testing. Susceptibility to GEN, IPM and DOX could be determined in as early as three to six hours. In the presence of CAZ, susceptibility based on instrument-derived growth values could not be determined for the majority of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei strains tested. Time-lapse video imaging of these cultures revealed that the formation of filaments in the presence of this cephalosporin at inhibitory concentrations was detected as growth. Other ß-lactam-induced cell morphology changes, such as the formation of spheroplasts and rapid cell lysis, were also observed and appear to be strain- and antibiotic concentration-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid, functional AST was developed and real-time video footage captured ß-lactam-induced morphologies of wild-type B. mallei and B. pseudomallei strains in broth. Optical screening reduced the time to results required for AST of three Gram-negative biothreat pathogens using clinically relevant, first-line antibiotics compared to conventional BMD.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Burkholderia mallei/efeitos dos fármacos , Burkholderia pseudomallei/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo/métodos , Yersinia pestis/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , Burkholderia mallei/citologia , Burkholderia mallei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Burkholderia mallei/fisiologia , Burkholderia pseudomallei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Burkholderia pseudomallei/fisiologia , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Mormo/microbiologia , Humanos , Imipenem/farmacologia , Melioidose/microbiologia , Peste/microbiologia , Yersinia pestis/citologia , Yersinia pestis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Yersinia pestis/fisiologia
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 786-793, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343942

RESUMO

PCGF2 encodes the polycomb group ring finger 2 protein, a transcriptional repressor involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and embryogenesis. PCGF2 is a component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), a multiprotein complex which controls gene silencing through histone modification and chromatin remodelling. We report the phenotypic characterization of 13 patients (11 unrelated individuals and a pair of monozygotic twins) with missense mutations in PCGF2. All the mutations affected the same highly conserved proline in PCGF2 and were de novo, excepting maternal mosaicism in one. The patients demonstrated a recognizable facial gestalt, intellectual disability, feeding problems, impaired growth, and a range of brain, cardiovascular, and skeletal abnormalities. Computer structural modeling suggests the substitutions alter an N-terminal loop of PCGF2 critical for histone biding. Mutant PCGF2 may have dominant-negative effects, sequestering PRC1 components into complexes that lack the ability to interact efficiently with histones. These findings demonstrate the important role of PCGF2 in human development and confirm that heterozygous substitutions of the Pro65 residue of PCGF2 cause a recognizable syndrome characterized by distinctive craniofacial, neurological, cardiovascular, and skeletal features.

9.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 86, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ATP8A2 mutations have recently been described in several patients with severe, early-onset hypotonia and cognitive impairment. The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical phenotype of patients with ATP8A2 mutations. METHODS: An observational study was conducted at multiple diagnostic centres. Clinical data is presented from 9 unreported and 2 previously reported patients with ATP8A2 mutations. We compare their features with 3 additional patients that have been previously reported in the medical literature. RESULTS: Eleven patients with biallelic ATP8A2 mutations were identified, with a mean age of 9.4 years (range 2.5-28 years). All patients with ATP8A2 mutations (100%) demonstrated developmental delay, severe hypotonia and movement disorders, specifically chorea or choreoathetosis (100%), dystonia (27%) and facial dyskinesia (18%). Optic atrophy was observed in 78% of patients for whom funduscopic examination was performed. Symptom onset in all (100%) was noted before 6 months of age, with 70% having symptoms noted at birth. Feeding difficulties were common (91%) although most patients were able to tolerate pureed or thickened feeds, and 3 patients required gastrostomy tube insertion. MRI of the brain was normal in 50% of the patients. A smaller proportion was noted to have mild cortical atrophy (30%), delayed myelination (20%) and/or hypoplastic optic nerves (20%). Functional studies were performed on differentiated induced pluripotent cells from one child, which confirmed a decrease in ATP8A2 expression compared to control cells. CONCLUSIONS: ATP8A2 gene mutations have emerged as the cause of a novel neurological phenotype characterized by global developmental delays, severe hypotonia and hyperkinetic movement disorders, the latter being an important distinguishing feature. Optic atrophy is common and may only become apparent in the first few years of life, necessitating repeat ophthalmologic evaluation in older children. Early recognition of the cardinal features of this condition will facilitate diagnosis of this complex neurologic disorder.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054298

RESUMO

We describe two unrelated patients, a 12-yr-old female and a 6-yr-old male, with congenital contractures and severe congenital muscular atrophy. Exome and genome sequencing of the probands and their unaffected parents revealed that they have the same de novo deletion in BICD2 (c.1636_1638delAAT). The variant, which has never been reported, results in an in-frame 3-bp deletion and is predicted to cause loss of an evolutionarily conserved asparagine residue at position 546 in the protein. Missense mutations in BICD2 cause autosomal dominant spinal muscular atrophy, lower-extremity predominant 2 (SMALED2), a disease characterized by muscle weakness and arthrogryposis of early onset and slow progression. The p.Asn546del clusters with four pathogenic missense variants in a region that likely binds molecular motor KIF5A. Protein modeling suggests that removing the highly conserved asparagine residue alters BICD2 protein structure. Our findings support a broader phenotypic spectrum of BICD2 mutations that may include severe manifestations such as cerebral atrophy, seizures, dysmorphic facial features, and profound muscular atrophy.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1104-1114, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861107

RESUMO

Transient neonatal hyperparathyroidism (TNHP) is etiologically a heterogeneous condition. One of the etiologies is an insufficient maternal-fetal calcium transport through the placenta. We report six subjects with homozygous and/or compound-heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6), an epithelial Ca2+-selective channel associated with this condition. Exome sequencing on two neonates with skeletal findings consistent with neonatal hyperparathyroidism identified homozygous frameshift mutations before the first transmembrane domain in a subject born to first-cousins parents of Pakistani descent as well as compound-heterozygous mutations (a combination of a frameshift mutation and an intronic mutation that alters mRNA splicing) in an individual born to a non-consanguineous couple of African descent. Subsequently, targeted mutation analysis of TRPV6 performed on four other individuals (born to non-consanguineous Japanese parents) with similar X-rays findings identified compound-heterozygous mutations. The skeletal findings improved or resolved in most subjects during the first few months of life. We identified three missense variants (at the outer edges of the second and third transmembrane domains) that alter the localization of the TRPV6: one recurrent variant at the S2-S3 loop and two recurrent variants (in the fourth ankyrin repeat domain) that impair TRPV6 stability. Compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations for the pathogenic frameshift allele and the allele with an intronic c.607+5G>A mutation resulted in the most severe phenotype. These results suggest that TNHP is an autosomal-recessive disease caused by TRPV6 mutations that affect maternal-fetal calcium transport.

12.
Hum Genet ; 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740699

RESUMO

Many genetic causes of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD/ID) are extremely rare, and robust discovery of these requires both large-scale DNA sequencing and data sharing. Here we describe a GeneMatcher collaboration which led to a cohort of 13 affected individuals harboring protein-altering variants, 11 of which are de novo, in MED13; the only inherited variant was transmitted to an affected child from an affected mother. All patients had intellectual disability and/or developmental delays, including speech delays or disorders. Other features that were reported in two or more patients include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, optic nerve abnormalities, Duane anomaly, hypotonia, mild congenital heart abnormalities, and dysmorphisms. Six affected individuals had mutations that are predicted to truncate the MED13 protein, six had missense mutations, and one had an in-frame-deletion of one amino acid. Out of the seven non-truncating mutations, six clustered in two specific locations of the MED13 protein: an N-terminal and C-terminal region. The four N-terminal clustering mutations affect two adjacent amino acids that are known to be involved in MED13 ubiquitination and degradation, p.Thr326 and p.Pro327. MED13 is a component of the CDK8-kinase module that can reversibly bind Mediator, a multi-protein complex that is required for Polymerase II transcription initiation. Mutations in several other genes encoding subunits of Mediator have been previously shown to associate with DD/ID, including MED13L, a paralog of MED13. Thus, our findings add MED13 to the group of CDK8-kinase module-associated disease genes.

13.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0189910, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287100

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii is a human pathogen that causes the serious zoonotic disease Q fever. It is ubiquitous in the environment and due to its wide host range, long-range dispersal potential and classification as a bioterrorism agent, this microorganism is considered an HHS Select Agent. In the event of an outbreak or intentional release, laboratory strain typing methods can contribute to epidemiological investigations, law enforcement investigation and the public health response by providing critical information about the relatedness between C. burnetii isolates collected from different sources. Laboratory cultivation of C. burnetii is both time-consuming and challenging. Availability of strain collections is often limited and while several strain typing methods have been described over the years, a true gold-standard method is still elusive. Building upon epidemiological knowledge from limited, historical strain collections and typing data is essential to more accurately infer C. burnetii phylogeny. Harmonization of auspicious high-resolution laboratory typing techniques is critical to support epidemiological and law enforcement investigation. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -based genotyping approach offers simplicity, rapidity and robustness. Herein, we demonstrate SNPs identified within 16S rRNA gene sequences can differentiate C. burnetii strains. Using this method, 55 isolates were assigned to six groups based on six polymorphisms. These 16S rRNA SNP-based genotyping results were largely congruent with those obtained by analyzing restriction-endonuclease (RE)-digested DNA separated by SDS-PAGE and by the high-resolution approach based on SNPs within multispacer sequence typing (MST) loci. The SNPs identified within the 16S rRNA gene can be used as targets for the development of additional SNP-based genotyping assays for C. burnetii.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii/classificação , Genes Bacterianos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Gend Soc ; 31(3): 333-358, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056822

RESUMO

Many working women will experience sexual harassment at some point in their careers. While some report this harassment, many leave their jobs to escape the harassing environment. This mixed-methods study examines whether sexual harassment and subsequent career disruption affect women's careers. Using in-depth interviews and longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, we examine the effect of sexual harassment for women in the early career. We find that sexual harassment increases financial stress, largely by precipitating job change, and can significantly alter women's career attainment.

15.
Sociol Q ; 58(1): 91-110, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239198

RESUMO

Responding to the longer and more variable transition to adulthood, parents are stepping in to help their young adult children. Little is known, however, about the extent to which parental support promotes success, and whether parental support has different effects for young adult sons and daughters. Using longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study, we find that parental scaffolding assistance for educational expenses predicts college graduation for both men and women. Negative life events experienced during the transition to adulthood are associated with lower earnings by the early 30s, although there is some variation by type of event. More frequent parental support during times of need does not predict long-term economic attainment for sons or daughters.

16.
J Clin Microbiol ; 55(3): 959-970, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053211

RESUMO

During high-impact events involving Bacillus anthracis, such as the Amerithrax incident of 2001 or the anthrax outbreaks in Russia and Sweden in 2016, critical decisions to reduce morbidity and mortality include rapid selection and distribution of effective antimicrobial agents for treatment and postexposure prophylaxis. Detection of antimicrobial resistance currently relies on a conventional broth microdilution method that requires a 16- to 20-h incubation time for B. anthracis Advances in high-resolution optical screening offer a new technology to more rapidly evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility and to simultaneously assess the growth characteristics of an isolate. Herein, we describe a new method developed and evaluated as a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test for B. anthracis This method is based on automated digital time-lapse microscopy to observe the growth and morphological effects of relevant antibiotics with an optical screening instrument, the oCelloScope. B. anthracis strains were monitored over time in the presence or absence of penicillin, ciprofloxacin, or doxycycline. Susceptibility to each antibiotic was determined in ≤4 h, 75 to 80% less than the time required for conventional methods. Time-lapse video imaging compiled from the optical screening images revealed unexpected differences in growth characteristics among strains of B. anthracis, which is considered to be a clonal organism. This technology provides a new approach for rapidly detecting phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and for documenting growth attributes that may be beneficial in the further characterization of individual strains.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus anthracis/classificação , Bacillus anthracis/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo/métodos , Automação Laboratorial/métodos , Bacillus anthracis/genética , Bacillus anthracis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Genet Med ; 19(5): 575-582, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While the diagnostic success of genomic sequencing expands, the complexity of this testing should not be overlooked. Numerous laboratory processes are required to support the identification, interpretation, and reporting of clinically significant variants. This study aimed to examine the workflow and reporting procedures among US laboratories to highlight shared practices and identify areas in need of standardization. METHODS: Surveys and follow-up interviews were conducted with laboratories offering exome and/or genome sequencing to support a research program or for routine clinical services. The 73-item survey elicited multiple choice and free-text responses that were later clarified with phone interviews. RESULTS: Twenty-one laboratories participated. Practices highly concordant across all groups included consent documentation, multiperson case review, and enabling patient opt-out of incidental or secondary findings analysis. Noted divergence included use of phenotypic data to inform case analysis and interpretation and reporting of case-specific quality metrics and methods. Few laboratory policies detailed procedures for data reanalysis, data sharing, or patient access to data. CONCLUSION: This study provides an overview of practices and policies of experienced exome and genome sequencing laboratories. The results enable broader consideration of which practices are becoming standard approaches, where divergence remains, and areas of development in best practice guidelines that may be helpful.Genet Med advance online publication 03 Novemeber 2016.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Laboratórios/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Revelação , Testes Genéticos/normas , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Disseminação de Informação , Laboratórios/ética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Relatório de Pesquisa , Tamanho da Amostra , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 8(364): 364ra151, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27831900

RESUMO

In populations that have not been selected for family history of disease, it is unclear how commonly pathogenic variants (PVs) in disease-associated genes for rare Mendelian conditions are found and how often they are associated with clinical features of these conditions. We conducted independent, prospective analyses of participants in two community-based epidemiological studies to test the hypothesis that persons carrying PVs in any of 56 genes that lead to 24 dominantly inherited, actionable conditions are more likely to exhibit the clinical features of the corresponding diseases than those without PVs. Among 462 European American Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and 3223 African-American Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants who were exome-sequenced, we identified and classified 642 and 4429 unique variants, respectively, in these 56 genes while blinded to clinical data. In the same participants, we ascertained related clinical features from the participants' clinical history of cancer and most recent echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and lipid measurements, without knowledge of variant classification. PVs were found in 5 FHS (1.1%) and 31 JHS (1.0%) participants. Carriers of PVs were more likely than expected, on the basis of incidence in noncarriers, to have related clinical features in both FHS (80.0% versus 12.4%) and JHS (26.9% versus 5.4%), yielding standardized incidence ratios of 6.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7 to 16.5; P = 7 × 10-4) in FHS and 4.7 (95% CI, 1.9 to 9.7; P = 3 × 10-4) in JHS. Individuals unselected for family history who carry PVs in 56 genes for actionable conditions have an increased aggregated risk of developing clinical features associated with the corresponding diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Mutação , Penetrância , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Exoma , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genes Dominantes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(4): 991-999, 2016 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27693232

RESUMO

The ASXL genes (ASXL1, ASXL2, and ASXL3) participate in body patterning during embryogenesis and encode proteins involved in epigenetic regulation and assembly of transcription factors to specific genomic loci. Germline de novo truncating variants in ASXL1 and ASXL3 have been respectively implicated in causing Bohring-Opitz and Bainbridge-Ropers syndromes, which result in overlapping features of severe intellectual disability and dysmorphic features. ASXL2 has not yet been associated with a human Mendelian disorder. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing in six unrelated probands with developmental delay, macrocephaly, and dysmorphic features. All six had de novo truncating variants in ASXL2. A careful review enabled the recognition of a specific phenotype consisting of macrocephaly, prominent eyes, arched eyebrows, hypertelorism, a glabellar nevus flammeus, neonatal feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and developmental disabilities. Although overlapping features with Bohring-Opitz and Bainbridge-Ropers syndromes exist, features that distinguish the ASXL2-associated condition from ASXL1- and ASXL3-related disorders are macrocephaly, absence of growth retardation, and more variability in the degree of intellectual disabilities. We were also able to demonstrate with mRNA studies that these variants are likely to exert a dominant-negative effect, given that both alleles are expressed in blood and the mutated ASXL2 transcripts escape nonsense-mediated decay. In conclusion, de novo truncating variants in ASXL2 underlie a neurodevelopmental syndrome with a clinically recognizable phenotype. This report expands the germline disorders that are linked to the ASXL genes.


Assuntos
Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma/genética , Sobrancelhas/anormalidades , Humanos , Hipertelorismo/genética , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Megalencefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Síndrome
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