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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1586, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707438

RESUMO

Human-driven threats are changing biodiversity, impacting ecosystem services. The loss of one species can trigger secondary extinctions of additional species, because species interact-yet the consequences of these secondary extinctions for services remain underexplored. Herein, we compare robustness of food webs and the ecosystem services (hereafter 'services') they provide; and investigate factors determining service responses to secondary extinctions. Simulating twelve extinction scenarios for estuarine food webs with seven services, we find that food web and service robustness are highly correlated, but that robustness varies across services depending on their trophic level and redundancy. Further, we find that species providing services do not play a critical role in stabilizing food webs - whereas species playing supporting roles in services through interactions are critical to the robustness of both food webs and services. Together, our results reveal indirect risks to services through secondary species losses and predictable differences in vulnerability across services.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Biodiversidade , Aves , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Peixes , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
2.
Autism Res ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694293

RESUMO

Population-level identification of children and youth with ASD is essential for surveillance and planning for required services. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an algorithm for the identification of children and youth with ASD using administrative health data. In this retrospective validation study, we linked an electronic medical record (EMR)-based reference standard, consisting 10,000 individuals aged 1-24 years, including 112 confirmed ASD cases to Ontario administrative health data, for the testing of multiple case-finding algorithms. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each algorithm. The optimal algorithm was validated in three external cohorts representing family practice, education, and specialized clinical settings. The optimal algorithm included an ASD diagnostic code for a single hospital discharge or emergency department visit or outpatient surgery, or three ASD physician billing codes in 3 years. This algorithm's sensitivity was 50.0% (95%CI 40.7-88.7%), specificity 99.6% (99.4-99.7), PPV 56.6% (46.8-66.3), and NPV 99.4% (99.3-99.6). The results of this study illustrate limitations and need for cautious interpretation when using administrative health data alone for the identification of children and youth with ASD. LAY SUMMARY: We tested algorithms (set of rules) to identify young people with ASD using routinely collected administrative health data. Even the best algorithm misses more than half of those in Ontario with ASD. To understand this better, we tested how well the algorithm worked in different settings (family practice, education, and specialized clinics). The identification of individuals with ASD at a population level is essential for planning for support services and the allocation of resources.

3.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 103(3): 227-234, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding time trends in age, demographic characteristics, and comorbidities is especially critical to highlight the effects on clinical practice change, outcomes, and the value of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify trends in the demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and episode-of-care outcomes for patients who underwent TKA from 2008 to 2018. METHODS: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) was queried to identify patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and episode-of-care outcomes in patients who underwent primary TKA from 2008 to 2018 (n = 350,879). Trends for continuous variables were analyzed using analysis of variance, and categorical variables were analyzed using chi-square tests. RESULTS: From 2008 to 2018, there was no clinically important difference in age, body mass index (BMI), and percentage of patients with BMI of >40 kg/m2 and no clinically important difference in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (3.5% in 2008 and 3.2% in 2018), congestive heart failure within 30 days (0.3% in both 2008 and 2018), and acute renal failure (0.1% in 2008 and <0.1% in 2018) among patients undergoing TKA. However, modifiable comorbidities, including smoking status (9.5% in 2008 and 7.7% in 2018; p < 0.001), hypertension (71.0% in 2008 and 63.7% in 2018; p < 0.001), and anemia (16.2% in 2008 and 9.7% in 2018; p < 0.001), functional status, and overall morbidity and mortality probability have improved, with no clinically important difference in the percentage of diabetes (19.0% in 2008 and 18.1% in 2018). The hospital length of stay (mean [and standard deviation], 3.8 ± 2.2 days in 2008 and 2.1 ± 2.0 days in 2018; p < 0.001) and 30-day readmission (4.6% in 2011 and 3.0% in 2018; p < 0.001) decreased, with a significant increase in home discharge (65.6% in 2011 and 87.8% in 2018; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The overall patient health status improved from 2008 to 2018, with improvement in the modifiable comorbidities of smoking status, malnutrition, hypertension, and anemia; the functional status; and the overall morbidity and mortality probability, with no clinically relevant change in patient age; patient BMI; percentage of patients with BMI of >40 kg/m2; or patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure within 30 days, or acute renal failure. Our findings may be a reflection of a global shift toward value-based care focusing on patient optimization prior to arthroplasty, quality of care, and improved outcomes. The results of our study highlight the potential increase in TKA procedural value, which is paramount for health-care policy changes in today's incentivized, value-based, health-care environment.

4.
Intest Res ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396977

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Epidemiological associations have implicated factors associated with Westernization, including the Western diet, in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The role of diet in IBD etiopathogenesis, disease control and symptom management remains incompletely understood. Few studies have collected data on the dietary habits of immigrant populations living with IBD. Our aim was to describe the dietary practices and beliefs of British South Asians with IBD. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire was developed and consecutively administered to 255 British South Asians with IBD attending gastroenterology clinics in the United Kingdom. Results: Fifty-one percent of participants believed diet was the initiating factor for their IBD and 63% felt diet had previously triggered disease relapse. Eighty-nine percent avoided certain dietary items in the belief that this would prevent relapse. The most commonly avoided foods and drinks were spicy and fatty foods, carbonated drinks, milk products, alcohol, coffee, and red meat. A third of patients had tried a whole food exclusion diet, most commonly lactose- or gluten-free, and this was most frequently reported amongst those with clinically active IBD (P= 0.02). Almost 60% of participants avoided eating the same menu as their family, or eating out, at least sometimes, to prevent IBD relapse. Conclusions: British South Asians with IBD demonstrate significant dietary beliefs and food avoidance behaviors with increased frequency compared to those reported in Caucasian IBD populations. Studies in immigrant populations may offer valuable insights into the interaction between diet, Westernization and cultural drift in IBD pathogenesis and symptomatology.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300030

RESUMO

In November 2019, the NIH held the "Sensory Nutrition and Disease" workshop to challenge multidisciplinary researchers working at the interface of sensory science, food science, psychology, neuroscience, nutrition, and health sciences to explore how chemosensation influences dietary choice and health. This report summarizes deliberations of the workshop, as well as follow-up discussion in the wake of the current pandemic. Three topics were addressed: A) the need to optimize human chemosensory testing and assessment, B) the plasticity of chemosensory systems, and C) the interplay of chemosensory signals, cognitive signals, dietary intake, and metabolism. Several ways to advance sensory nutrition research emerged from the workshop: 1) refining methods to measure chemosensation in large cohort studies and validating measures that reflect perception of complex chemosensations relevant to dietary choice; 2) characterizing interindividual differences in chemosensory function and how they affect ingestive behaviors, health, and disease risk; 3) defining circuit-level organization and function that link and interact with gustatory, olfactory, homeostatic, visceral, and cognitive systems; and 4) discovering new ligands for chemosensory receptors (e.g., those produced by the microbiome) and cataloging cell types expressing these receptors. Several of these priorities were made more urgent by the current pandemic because infection with sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the ensuing coronavirus disease of 2019 has direct short- and perhaps long-term effects on flavor perception. There is increasing evidence of functional interactions between the chemosensory and nutritional sciences. Better characterization of this interface is expected to yield insights to promote health, mitigate disease risk, and guide nutrition policy.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although global reviews of infant RSV burden exist, none have summarized data from the United States or evaluated how RSV burden estimates are influenced by variations in study design. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of studies describing RSV-associated hospitalization rates among US infants and examined the impact of key study characteristics on these estimates. RESULTS: We reviewed 3328 articles through August 14, 2020 and identified 25 studies with 31 unique estimates of RSV-associated hospitalization rates. Among US infants <1 year of age, annual rates ranged from 8.4 to 40.8 per 1000 with a pooled rate= 19.4 (95%CI: 17.9-20.9). Study type influenced RSV-associated hospitalization rates (P=.003), with active surveillance studies having pooled rates (11.0; 95%CI: 9.8-12.2) that were half that of studies based on administrative claims (21.4; 95%CI: 19.5-23.3) or modeling approaches (23.2; 95%CI: 20.2-26.2). CONCLUSIONS: Applying our pooled rates to the 2020 US birth cohort suggests that 79,850 (95%CI: 73,680-86,020) RSV-associated infant hospitalizations occur each year. The full range of RSV-associated hospitalization rates identified in our review can better inform future evaluations of RSV prevention strategies. More research is needed to better understand differences in estimated RSV burden across study design.

7.
J Knee Surg ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241545

RESUMO

Both advances in perioperative blood management, anesthesia, and surgical technique have improved transfusion rates following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and have driven substantial change in preoperative blood ordering protocols. Therefore, blood management in TKA has seen substantial changes with the implementation of preoperative screening, patient optimization, and intra- and postoperative advances. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine changes in blood management in primary TKA, a nationwide sample, to assess gaps and opportunities. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify TKA (n = 337,160) cases from 2011 to 2018. The following variables examined, such as preoperative hematocrit (HCT), anemia (HCT <35.5% for females and <38.5% for males), platelet count, thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 150,000/µL), international normalized ration (INR), INR > 2.0, bleeding disorders, preoperative, and postoperative transfusions. Analysis of variances were used to examine changes in continuous variables, and Chi-squared tests were used for categorical variables. There was a substantial decrease in postoperative transfusions from high of 18.3% in 2011 to a low of 1.0% in 2018, (p < 0.001), as well as in preoperative anemia from a high of 13.3% in 2011 to a low of 9.5% in 2016 to 2017 (p < 0.001). There were statistically significant, but clinically irrelevant changes in the other variables examined. There was a HCT high of 41.2 in 2016 and a low of 40.4 in 2011 to 2012 (p < 0.001). There was platelet count high of 247,400 in 2018 and a low of 242,700 in 201 (p < 0.001). There was a high incidence of thrombocytopenia of 5.2% in 2017 and a low of low of 4.4% in 2018 (p < 0.001). There was a high INR of 1.037 in 2011 and a low of 1.021 in 2013 (p < 0.001). There was a high incidence of INR >2.0 of 1.0% in 2012 to 2015 and a low of 0.8% in 2016 to 2018 (p = 0.027). There was a high incidence of bleeding disorders of 2.9% in 2013 and a low of 1.8% in 2017 to 2018 (p < 0.001). There was a high incidence of preoperative transfusions of 0.1% in 2011 to 2014 and a low of <0.1% in 2015 to 2018 (p = 0.021). From 2011 to 2018, there has been substantial decreases in patients receiving postoperative transfusions after primary TKA. Similarly, although a decrease in patients with anemia was seen, there remains 1 out 10 patients with preoperative anemia, highlighting the opportunity to further improve and address this potentially modifiable risk factor before surgery. These findings may reflect changes during TKA patient selection, optimization, or management, and emphasizes the need to further advance multimodal approaches for perioperative blood management of TKA patients. This is a Level III study.

9.
J Hosp Infect ; 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is often more severe and life-threatening than community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in CAP is well-understood, but its role in HAP is unclear. AIM: The objective of this study was to summarize the available literature on the prevalence of S. pneumoniae in HAP episodes. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for peer-reviewed articles on the microbiology of HAP in individuals aged ≥18 years, published between 2008-2018. We calculated pooled estimates of the prevalence of S. pneumoniae in episodes of HAP using a random-effects, inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. FINDINGS: 47/1908 articles met the inclusion criteria. Bacterial specimen isolation techniques for microbiologically-defined HAP episodes included bronchoalveolar lavage, protective specimen brush, tracheobronchial aspirate and sputum, as well as blood culture. Culture was performed in all studies; five studies also used urine antigen detection (5/47; 10.6%). S. pneumoniae was identified in 5.1% (95%CI: 3.8-6.6%) of microbiologically-defined HAP episodes (n=20), with 5.4% (95%CI: 4.3-6.7%, n=29) in ventilator-associated HAP and 6.0% (95%CI: 4.1-8.8%, n=6) in non-ventilator-associated HAP. S. pneumoniae was identified in 5.3% (95%CI: 4.5-6.3%) of HAP occurring in the intensive care unit (ICU, n=41) and in 5.6% (95%CI: 3.3-9.5%, n=5) outside the ICU. A higher proportion of early-onset HAP (10.3%; 95%CI: 8.3-12.8%, n=16) identified S. pneumoniae as compared to late-onset HAP (3.3%; 95%CI: 2.5-4.4%, n=16). CONCLUSION: S. pneumoniae was identified by culture in 5.1% of microbiologically-defined HAP episodes. The importance of HAP as part of the disease burden caused by S. pneumoniae merits further research.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United States has been heavily impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding micro-level patterns in US rates of COVID-19 can inform specific prevention strategies. METHODS: Using a negative binomial mixed-effects regression model we evaluated the association between a broad set of US county-level sociodemographic, economic, and health-status-related characteristics and cumulative rates of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths between January 22, 2020 and August 31, 2020. RESULTS: Rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths were higher in US counties that were more urban or densely-populated or that had more crowded housing, air pollution, women, 20-49-year-olds, racial/ethnic minorities, residential segregation, income inequality, uninsured, diabetics, or mobility outside the home during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study provides the most comprehensive multivariable analysis of county-level predictors of rates of COVID-19 cases and deaths conducted to date. Our findings make clear that ensuring that COVID-19 preventive measures, including vaccines when available, reach vulnerable and minority communities and are distributed in a manner that meaningfully disrupts transmission (in addition to protecting those at highest risk of severe disease) will likely be critical to stem the pandemic.

11.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 40: 164-170, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) commonly affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and predisposes to malnutrition. Few studies assessed body composition in outpatients with SSc or used more than one method for comparison over time. The aim of this study was to describe markers of nutrition and body composition in patients with SSc and to identify predictors of unintentional weight loss. METHODS: We consecutively included outpatients with SSc and performed a one-year follow-up. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement was evaluated from clinical investigations. Patients completed questionnaires for organ involvement and functional status. Clinical assessment included body mass index (BMI), the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), inter-incisor distance, anthropometry, and bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA). RESULTS: In total, 168 consecutive patients with SSc were included, and 127 (76%) completed one-year follow-up. Thirteen (8%) died before follow-up. Based on MUST scores, 12% of patients were at high and 14% at medium risk of malnutrition. A low BMI was associated with small intestinal involvement (p < 0.0001). Percentage body fat correlated with BMI, both when using four-site anthropometry (r = 0.65, p < 0.01) and BIA (r = 0.49, p < 0.01). Nine (7%) patients had >5% unintentional weight loss at follow-up. Independent baseline predictors of unintentional weight loss included upper GI involvement and disease severity estimated by Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index score. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional risk and GI involvement are frequent and closely correlated in patients with SSc. BIA and four-site anthropometry are comparable in the clinical assessment of patients with SSc. Unintentional weight loss is discrete and related to disease-specific characteristics.

12.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e14033, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contention surrounds hydrogen and methane breath tests as putative measures of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. We aimed to explore the clinical characteristics associated with positive and negative results to help clarify their role. METHODS: 525 glucose hydrogen/methane breath tests completed over 3 years were analyzed to look for positively and negatively associated predictive factors. Characteristics such as height and weight and underlying medical conditions, medications, and surgical history were collated. KEY RESULTS: There were 85 and 42 positive hydrogen and methane tests, respectively. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (HR = 0.17, p = 0.004) and those with a higher body mass index (HR = 0.93, p = 0.004) were significantly less likely to have a positive test. Patients who underwent the test post-surgically were significantly more likely to have a positive test (HR = 2.76, p = 0.001). A sub-analysis of post-surgical patients by type and region of surgical resection demonstrated that none were statistically more likely than the next to have a positive test. However, for the surgical group as a whole the number of motility-depressing drugs taken (such as opioids) was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of a positive test (HR = 0.752, p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that patients with a diagnosis of IBS are statistically less likely to have a positive test and it is of limited utility in this group. Post-surgical patients are more likely to have a positive test, possibly secondary to fast transit rather than bacterial overgrowth, as suggested by a significantly negative association with motility-suppressing drugs in this sub-group.

13.
Autism Res ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098262

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder requiring significant health and educational resources for affected individuals. A reference standard for ASD was generated from an existing population-based cohort of 10,000 children and youth aged 1-24 years who were randomly selected for chart abstraction from 29,256 patients from 119 family physicians. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify children and youth with ASD within an electronic medical record system (N = 80,237, aged 1-24 years) in order to examine the prevalence of comorbidities and quantify health system utilization within the cohort. We identified 1,062 children and youth with ASD representing a prevalence of 1.32%. Compared to individuals without ASD, those with ASD had a higher prevalence of asthma, were more likely to visit a specialist, undergo surgery, and be hospitalized for psychiatric reasons. Children and youth with ASD in Ontario have complex health system needs, illustrated through a significant burden of comorbidities and increased health system utilization. LAY SUMMARY: Our paper generates population-based estimates of health system use by children and youth with ASD, who have a higher burden of comorbidities than the general population. We developed a case-finding algorithm and applied it in electronic medical records to create a cohort of children and youth with ASD, thereby generating an important resource to further study the health care needs of individuals with ASD.

14.
Retina ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between choriocapillaris (CC) flow deficits and structural OCT biomarkers, and the progression of intermediate AMD (iAMD) to complete retinal pigment epithelial and outer retinal atrophy (cRORA). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with iAMD with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Odds ratios of intraretinal hyperreflective foci (IRHF), hyporeflective drusen cores (hDC), subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), presence of drusen volume (DV) ≥ 0.03 mm within a central 3-mm circle, fellow eye with late stage of AMD, CC FD at baseline and months of follow-up were estimated from logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 112 eyes with iAMD were included. Eyes which progressed were significantly more likely to show IRHF, hDC and DV ≥ 0.03 mm. The CC flow deficit was also significantly greater in eyes which developed cRORA. IRHF, hDC, DV ≥ 0.03 mm and higher CC flow deficit were significantly and independently associated with the development of cRORA. CONCLUSIONS: CC flow deficit was significantly greater in iAMD eyes that progressed to cRORA, and remained an independent risk factor when structural OCT biomarkers were considered. CC flow deficit may be useful for enhancing risk stratification and prognostication of patients with iAMD.

15.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036155

RESUMO

Stevia is a non-nutritive sweetener, providing sweet taste with no calories. This randomised, controlled, open-label 2-parallel arm trial examined the effects of daily stevia consumption on glycaemia in healthy adults. Secondary endpoints included body weight (BW) and energy intake (EI). Healthy participants (n = 28; aged 25 ± 5y, body mass index 21.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2) were randomised into either the stevia group (n = 14)-required to consume a stevia extract daily-or to the control group (n = 14). At weeks 0 and 12, the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test were measured; BW and EI were assessed at weeks 0, 6, and 12. There was no significant difference in the glucose or insulin responses. There was a significant main effect of group on BW change (F(1,26) = 5.56, p = 0.026), as the stevia group maintained their weight as opposed to the control group (mean weight change at week 12: -0.22 kg, 95%CI [-0.96, 0.51] stevia group, +0.89 kg, 95%CI [0.16, 1.63] control group). The energy intake was significantly decreased between week 0 and 12 in the stevia group (p = 0.003), however no change was found in the control group (p = 0.973). Although not placebo-controlled, these results suggest that daily stevia consumption does not affect glycaemia in healthy individuals, but could aid in weight maintenance and the moderation of EI.

17.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.

18.
Prev Med Rep ; 20: 101189, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117641

RESUMO

Family history (FH) of a first-degree relative with colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with two to fourfold increased risk, yet screening uptake is suboptimal despite proven mortality reduction. We developed a FH-based CRC Risk Triage/Management tool for family physicians (FPs), and educational booklet for patients with CRC FH. This report describes physician referral and patient screening behavior 5 and 10 years post-educational intervention, and factors associated with screening. Longitudinal cohort study. FPs/patients in Ontario and Newfoundland, Canada were sent questionnaires at baseline (2005), 5 and 10 years (2015) following tool/booklet receipt. FPs were asked about CRC screening, patients about FH, screening type and timing. "Correct" screening was concordance with tool recommendations. Results reported for 29/121 (24%) FPs and 98/297 (33%) patients who completed all 3 questionnaires. Over 10 years 2/3 patients received the correct CRC screening test at appropriate timing (baseline 75%, 5-year 62%, 10-year 65%). About half reported their FP recommended CRC screening (5-year 51%, 10-year 63%). Fewer than half the patients correctly assessed their CRC risk (44%, 40%, 41%). Patients were less likely to have correct screening timing if female (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.61, 0.99; p = 0.045). Patients were less likely to have both correct test and timing if moderate/high CRC risk (RR 0.66; 95% CI 0.47, 0.93; p = 0.017) and more likely if their physician recommended screening (RR1.69; 95% CI 1.15, 2.49; p = 0.007). Physician discussion of CRC risk and screening can positively impact patient screening behavior. Efforts are particularly needed for women and patients at moderate/high CRC risk.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diet is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in generating symptoms. Few studies have explored dietary practices in people with IBD, in which participants perceived strong links between diet in triggering flares and maintaining remission. Fewer studies have explored dietary habits in self-reported remission. Our aim was to describe dietary practices and beliefs in those with inactive ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed and prospectively administered to 208 participants with inactive ulcerative colitis attending IBD clinics. RESULTS: Thirty-one percent believed diet was the initiating factor for ulcerative colitis with 37% believing diet could trigger relapse. Fifty-nine percent avoided dietary items to prevent relapse. Most frequently avoided were spicy (43%) and fatty (38%) foods, alcohol (27%), carbonated drinks (26%), coffee (24%) and milk products (21%). Females were more likely to practice dietary avoidance (P = 0.007). Twenty-three percent had used exclusion diets, most commonly gluten- or lactose-free. Those reporting relapse in the previous year were more likely to avoid the same menu as their family (P = 0.01) and females were less likely to eat out in order to prevent relapse (P = 0.004). Information resources guiding food avoidance included participants' own experiences (90%), healthcare professionals' advice (19%) and the internet (11%). CONCLUSION: People with inactive ulcerative colitis hold dietary beliefs and display practices with a high level of consistency around perceived triggers. Food avoidance whilst in remission raises the possibility of visceral hypersensitivity or altered physiology alongside psychosocial, neurocognitive or co-existing functional factors.

20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 1025-1042, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959149

RESUMO

While childbearing protects against risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), few studies have explored the impact on maternal EOC risk of sex of offspring, which may affect the maternal environment during pregnancy. We performed a pooled analysis among parous participants from 12 case-controls studies comprising 6872 EOC patients and 9101 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression for case-control associations and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations, all adjusted for potential confounders. In general, no associations were found between offspring sex and EOC risk. However, compared to bearing only female offspring, bearing one or more male offspring was associated with increased risk of mucinous EOC (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.01-2.07), which appeared to be limited to women reporting menarche before age 13 compared to later menarche (OR = 1.71 vs 0.99; P-interaction = 0.02). Bearing increasing numbers of male offspring was associated with greater risks of mucinous tumors (OR = 1.31, 1.84, 2.31, for 1, 2 and 3 or more male offspring, respectively; trend-p = 0.005). Stratifying by hormonally-associated conditions suggested that compared to bearing all female offspring, bearing a male offspring was associated with lower risk of endometrioid cancer among women with a history of adult acne, hirsutism, or polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28-0.83) but with higher risk among women without any of those conditions (OR = 1.64 95% CI = 1.14-2.34; P-interaction = 0.003). Offspring sex influences the childbearing-EOC risk relationship for specific histotypes and conditions. These findings support the differing etiologic origins of EOC histotypes and highlight the importance of EOC histotype-specific epidemiologic studies. These findings also suggest the need to better understand how pregnancy affects EOC risk.

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