Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 92
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Chest ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has evolved substantially over the past two decades and varies according to etiology, functional class (FC), hemodynamic parameters, and other clinical factors. Current guidelines do not provide definitive recommendations regarding the use of oral prostacyclin pathway agents (PPAs) in PAH. To provide guidance on the use of these agents, an expert panel was convened to develop consensus statements for the initiation of oral PPAs in adults with PAH. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE. The established RAND/University of California Los Angeles Appropriateness Method, which incorporates the Delphi method and the nominal group technique, was utilized to create consensus statements. Idiopathic, heritable, repaired congenital heart defect, and drug- or toxin-induced PAH was considered as one etiological grouping (IPAH+). The process was focused on the use of oral treprostinil or selexipag in patients with IPAH+ or connective tissue disease-associated PAH and FC II or III symptoms receiving background dual endothelin receptor antagonist/phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy. RESULTS: The panel developed 14 consensus statements regarding the appropriate use of oral PPAs in the target population. The panel identified 13 clinical scenarios in which selexipag may be considered as a treatment option. CONCLUSION: The paucity of clinical evidence overall, and particularly from randomized trials in this setting creates a gap in knowledge. These consensus statements are intended to aid clinicians in navigating treatment options and utilizing oral PPAs in the most appropriate manner in patients with PAH.

2.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(12): 1286-1295, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension enrolled in the AMBITION trial with (excluded from the primary analysis set [ex-primary analysis set]) and without (primary analysis set) multiple risk factors for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. METHODS: Treatment-naive patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were randomized to once-daily ambrisentan and tadalafil combination therapy, ambrisentan monotherapy, or tadalafil monotherapy. The primary end point was time from randomization to first adjudicated clinical failure event. RESULTS: Primary analysis set patients (n = 500), compared with ex-primary analysis set patients (n = 105), were younger (mean, 54.4 vs 62.1 years) with greater baseline 6-minute walk distance (median, 363.7 vs 330.5 meters) and fewer comorbidities (e.g., hypertension and diabetes). Treatment effects of initial combination therapy vs pooled monotherapy were directionally the same for both populations, albeit of a lower magnitude for ex-primary analysis set patients. Initial combination therapy reduced the risk of clinical failure compared with pooled monotherapy in primary analysis set patients (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.72), whereas the effect was less clear in ex-primary analysis set patients (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-1.37). Overall, primary analysis set patients had fewer clinical failure events (25% vs 33%), higher rates of satisfactory clinical response (34% vs 24%), and lower rates of permanent study drug withdrawal due to adverse events (16% vs 31%) than ex-primary analysis set patients. CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy of initial combination therapy vs pooled monotherapy was directionally similar for primary analysis set and ex-primary analysis set patients. However, ex-primary analysis set patients (with multiple risk factors for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction) experienced higher rates of clinical failure events and the response to combination therapy vs monotherapy was attenuated. Tolerability was better in primary analysis set than ex-primary analysis set patients.

3.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 208, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil reduced the risk of clinical failure events for treatment-naïve participants with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as compared to monotherapy. Previous studies in PAH have demonstrated greater treatment benefits in more symptomatic participants. METHODS: AMBITION was an event-driven, double-blind study in which participants were randomized 2:1:1 to once-daily initial combination therapy with ambrisentan 10 mg plus tadalafil 40 mg, ambrisentan 10 mg plus placebo, or tadalafil 40 mg plus placebo. In this pre-specified subgroup analysis, we compared the efficacy data between those with functional class (FC) II vs. FC III symptoms at baseline. RESULTS: This analysis included 500 participants in the previously defined primary analysis set (n = 155 FC II, n = 345 FC III). Comparing combination therapy to pooled monotherapy, the risk of clinical failure events was reduced by 79% (hazard ratio, 0.21 [95% confidence interval: 0.071, 0.63]) for FC II patients and 42% (hazard ratio, 0.58 [95% confidence interval: 0.39, 0.86]) for FC III patients. In a post-hoc analysis, the risk of first hospitalization for worsening PAH was also reduced by combination therapy, particularly for FC II patients (0 combination vs. 11 [14%] pooled monotherapy). Adverse events were frequent but comparable between the subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment benefit from initial combination therapy appeared at least as great for FC II as for FC III participants. Hospitalizations for worsening PAH were not observed in FC II participants assigned to combination. The present data support an initial combination strategy for newly diagnosed patients even when symptoms are less severe. Funded by Gilead Sciences, Inc. and GlaxoSmithKline; AMBITION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01178073.

6.
Circulation ; 139(21): 2440-2450, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide) levels are included in the multiparametric risk assessment approach for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) outlined in PAH guidelines. However, data supporting the use of NT-proBNP risk thresholds in assessing prognosis in PAH are limited. The GRIPHON trial (Prostacyclin [PGI2] Receptor Agonist In Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension) provides an opportunity to assess the prognostic value of NT-proBNP thresholds in a controlled clinical trial and to evaluate the response to selexipag according to these thresholds. METHODS: The event-driven GRIPHON trial randomly assigned patients to selexipag or placebo. NT-proBNP was measured at regular intervals in GRIPHON. Here, patients were categorized post hoc into low, medium, and high NT-proBNP subgroups according to 2 independent sets of thresholds: (1) baseline tertiles: <271 ng/L; 271 to 1165 ng/L; >1165 ng/L; and (2) 2015 European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines cutoffs: <300 ng/L; 300 to 1400 ng/L; >1400 ng/L. Hazard ratios (selexipag versus placebo) with 95% CIs were calculated for the primary end point (composite morbidity/mortality events) by NT-proBNP category at baseline using Cox proportional-hazards models, and at any time during the exposure period using a time-dependent Cox model. RESULTS: With both thresholds, baseline and follow-up NT-proBNP categories were highly prognostic for future morbidity/mortality events during the study ( P<0.0001). In the time-dependent analysis, the risk of experiencing a morbidity/mortality event was 92% and 83% lower in selexipag-treated patients with a low and medium NT-proBNP level, and 90% and 56% lower in placebo-treated patients with a low and medium NT-proBNP level, in comparison with patients with a high NT-proBNP level. Selexipag reduced the risk of morbidity/mortality events across all 3 NT-proBNP categories in both the baseline and time-dependent analyses, with a more pronounced treatment benefit of selexipag seen in the medium and low NT-proBNP subgroups (interaction P values 0.20 and 0.007 in the baseline and time-dependent analyses). CONCLUSIONS: These analyses further establish the prognostic relevance of NT-proBNP levels in PAH and provide first evidence for the association of NT-proBNP level and treatment response. Using 2 similar sets of thresholds, these analyses support the relevance of the low, medium, and high NT-proBNP categories as part of the multiparametric risk assessment approach outlined in the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society guidelines for the management of PAH patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01106014.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 352-359, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632656

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease (CHD-PAH) after defect correction have a poor prognosis compared with other CHD-PAH patients. Therefore, it is important that these patients are treated as early and effectively as possible. Evidence supporting the use of PAH therapies in patients with corrected CHD-PAH from randomised controlled trials is limited. The purpose of these analyses was to characterise the corrected CHD-PAH patients from the GRIPHON study and examine the response to selexipag. METHODS AND RESULTS: Out of the 110 patients diagnosed with corrected CHD-PAH, 55 had atrial septal defects, 38 had ventricular septal defects, 14 had persistent ducti arteriosus, and 3 had defects not further specified. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the primary composite endpoint were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. Compared with the non-CHD patients from GRIPHON, patients with corrected CHD-PAH were slightly younger, with a greater proportion being treatment-naive and in World Health Organization functional class I/II. The rate of the primary composite endpoint of morbidity/mortality was lower in patients with corrected CHD-PAH who were treated with selexipag compared with those treated with placebo (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.25, 1.37). The most common adverse events were those known to be related to selexipag. CONCLUSIONS: These post-hoc analyses of GRIPHON provide valuable information about a large population of patients with corrected CHD-PAH, and suggest that selexipag may delay disease progression and was well-tolerated in patients with corrected CHD-PAH.

10.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(1): 137-145, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449376

RESUMO

Prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is higher in women, and the mechanism remains unclear. Prognosis is overall better for female compared with male patients with PAH. Pregnancy is associated with significant risk, mortality, and morbidity in patients with PAH; consensus guidelines recommend against pregnancy and counsel about early termination in these patients. Recent advances in treatment showed improvement in prognosis in small case reports of pregnant patients with PAH, particularly with the early use of parental prostacyclin. Education remains fundamental for women with PAH of childbearing age for pregnancy prevention as well as discussion about birth control methods.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/métodos , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Risco Ajustado , Fatores de Risco
12.
Eur Respir J ; 53(1)2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545971

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a severe clinical condition despite the availability over the past 15 years of multiple drugs interfering with the endothelin, nitric oxide and prostacyclin pathways. The recent progress observed in medical therapy of PAH is not, therefore, related to the discovery of new pathways, but to the development of new strategies for combination therapy and on escalation of treatments based on systematic assessment of clinical response. The current treatment strategy is based on the severity of the newly diagnosed PAH patient as assessed by a multiparametric risk stratification approach. Clinical, exercise, right ventricular function and haemodynamic parameters are combined to define a low-, intermediate- or high-risk status according to the expected 1-year mortality. The current treatment algorithm provides the most appropriate initial strategy, including monotherapy, or double or triple combination therapy. Further treatment escalation is required in case low-risk status is not achieved in planned follow-up assessments. Lung transplantation may be required in most advanced cases on maximal medical therapy.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the randomized, double-blind, event-driven AMBITION study, initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil was associated with a 50% reduction in risk of clinical failure (first occurrence of all-cause death, hospitalization for worsening pulmonary arterial hypertension [PAH], disease progression, or unsatisfactory long-term clinical response) vs pooled monotherapy. These results were primarily driven by a reduction in PAH-related hospitalization in the combination therapy group, although a significant effect was not observed in a post-hoc analysis of all-cause hospitalization. METHODS: The effect of initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil in AMBITION was further explored to study PAH-related hospitalization, which was not reported in the primary publication. RESULTS: Initial combination therapy was associated with a 63% reduction in risk of PAH-related hospitalization when compared with pooled monotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.372, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.217 to 0.639, p = 0.0002). For every 9 patients treated with combination therapy vs monotherapy, 1 PAH-related hospitalization could be prevented over a 1-year period. Serious adverse events leading to hospitalization, not necessarily PAH-related, occurred in 87 of 253 (34%) and 89 of 247 (36%) of patients on combination therapy and pooled monotherapy, respectively (post-hoc summary). CONCLUSIONS: Initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil was found to reduce the risk of PAH-related hospitalization by 63% compared with pooled monotherapy.

14.
Chest ; 154(4): 848-861, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are important in assessing the impact of disease and treatment. The Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension-Symptoms and Impact Questionnaire is the first instrument for quantifying pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) symptoms and impacts developed according to the 2009 US Food and Drug Administration PRO guidance; previous qualitative research in patients with PAH supported its initial content validity. METHODS: Content finalization and psychometric validation were conducted by using data from A Study of Macitentan in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension to Validate the PAH-SYMPACT (SYMPHONY), a single-arm, 16-week trial with macitentan 10 mg in US patients with PAH. Item performance, Rasch analysis, and factor analyses were used to select the final item content of the PRO and to define its domain structure. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, known-group and construct validity, sensitivity to change, and influence of oxygen on item performance were evaluated. RESULTS: Data from 278 patients (79% female; mean age: 60 years) were analyzed. Following removal of redundant/misfitting items, the final questionnaire has 11 symptom items across two domains (cardiopulmonary and cardiovascular symptoms) and 11 impact items across two domains (physical and cognitive/emotional impacts). Differential item function analysis confirmed that PRO scoring is unaffected by oxygen use. For all four domains, internal consistency reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha > 0.80), and scores were highly reproducible in stable patients (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.84-0.94). Correlations with the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review questionnaire and the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Survey were moderate to high ([r] = 0.34-0.80). The questionnaire differentiated well between patients with varying disease severity levels and was sensitive to improvements in clinician- and patient-reported disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: The Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension-Symptoms and Impact Questionnaire is a brief, disease-specific PRO instrument possessing good psychometric properties that can be administered in clinical practice and clinical studies. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01841762; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(7): 752-763, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29447737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Registry data suggest that disease progression in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is indicative of poor prognosis. However, the prognostic relevance of PAH-related morbidity has not been formally evaluated in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of these analyses was to assess the impact of morbidity events on the risk of subsequent mortality using the landmark method and data from the SERAPHIN and GRIPHON studies. METHODS: For each study, the risk of all-cause death up to the end of the study was assessed from the landmark time point (months 3, 6, and 12) according to whether a patient had experienced a primary endpoint morbidity event before the landmark. Each analysis was conducted using data from all patients who were available for survival follow-up at the landmark. RESULTS: In the SERAPHIN study, on the basis of the 3-month landmark time point, patients who experienced a morbidity event before month 3 had an increased risk of death compared with patients who did not (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.94 to 5.92). In the GRIPHON study, on the basis of the 3-month landmark time point, there was also an increased risk with a HR of 4.48; (95% CI: 2.98 to 6.73). Analyses based on 6-month and 12-month landmarks also showed increased risk in patients who experienced morbidity events, albeit with a reduced HR. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the prognostic relevance of PAH-related morbidity as defined in the SERAPHIN and GRIPHON studies, highlighting the importance of preventing disease progression in patients with PAH and supporting the clinical relevance of SERAPHIN and GRIPHON morbidity events. (Study of Macitentan [ACT-064992] on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients With Symptomatic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension [SERAPHIN]; NCT00660179; Selexipag [ACT-293987] in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension [GRIPHON]; NCT01106014).

17.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 25(3): 820-827, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27896702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the safety of regadenoson stress testing in patients with PH. BACKGROUND: PH is increasingly recognized at more advanced ages. As many as one-third of patients with PH have coronary artery disease. Because of their physical limitations, patients with PH are unable to adequately exercise. Regadenoson can potentially have an adverse impact due to their tenuous hemodynamics. Current guidelines suggest performing a coronary angiography in patients with PH who have angina or multiple coronary risk factors. METHODS: We identified 67 consecutive patients with confirmed PH by catheterization (mean PA > 25 mmHg not due to left heart disease) who underwent MPI with regadenoson stress. Medical records were reviewed to determine hemodynamic and ECG response to regadenoson. RESULTS: No serious events occurred. Common side effects related to regadenoson were observed, dyspnea being the most common (70.6%). No syncope occurred. Heart rate increased from 74.6 ± 14 to 96.3 ± 18.3 bpm, systolic blood pressure increased from 129.8 ± 20.9 to 131.8 ± 31 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 77.1 ± 11.4 to 72.9 ± 15.3 mmHg. There was no ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or second- or third-degree atrioventricular block. CONCLUSION: Regadenoson stress MPI appears to be well tolerated and safe in patients with PH.

18.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 37(3): 401-408, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parenteral prostacyclin analogs that target the prostacyclin pathway have been used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) since the 1990s. Abrupt discontinuation of parenteral prostacyclin analogs can be associated with acute deterioration of PAH. Less is known about temporary interruption of oral therapies that target the prostacyclin pathway, such as selexipag. METHODS: We evaluated the frequency, duration, reasons, and consequences of temporary selexipag interruptions among PAH patients enrolled in the Prostacyclin (PGI2) Receptor Agonist in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (GRIPHON) study. In GRIPHON, patients were randomized to selexipag or placebo and titrated to an individualized highest tolerated dose (200 to 1,600 µg twice daily) over 12 weeks, after which patients entered the maintenance phase. Treatment interruptions were allowed; if the interruption was < 3 days, treatment was restarted at the previous highest tolerated dose; if the interruption was ≥ 3 days, retitration from 200 µg twice daily was required. Descriptive analyses were performed. RESULTS: At least 1 treatment interruption occurred in 111 of 574 patients (19.3%) in the selexipag group and in 58 of 582 (10.0%) in the placebo group. Baseline characteristics were similar between patients with and without an interruption. Of the 111 patients in whom selexipag was temporarily interrupted, 94 (85%) were receiving background PAH therapy. Adverse events were the most common reason for selexipag interruption. Selexipag interruptions and reinstitution of treatment were well tolerated. There were no episodes of acute deterioration during treatment interruption. CONCLUSIONS: Based on observations from GRIPHON, selexipag interruptions can be expected in clinical practice. However, temporarily interrupting selexipag was well tolerated and manageable.

19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(1): 128-132, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc). In this longitudinal study, we aimed to identify factors associated with an unfavourable outcome in patients with SSc with early PAH (SSc-PAH) from the DETECT cohort. METHODS: Patients with SSc-PAH enrolled in DETECT were observed for up to 3 years. Associations between cross-sectional variables and disease progression (defined as the occurrence of any of the following events: WHO Functional Class worsening, combination therapy for PAH, hospitalisation or death) were analysed by univariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 57 patients with PAH (median observation time 12.6 months), 25 (43.9%) had disease progression. The following factors (OR (95% CI)) were associated with disease progression: male gender (4.1 (1.2 to 14.1)), high forced vital capacity % predicted/carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity (DLCO)% predicted ratio (3.6 (1.2 to 10.7)), high Borg Dyspnoea Index (1.7 (1.1 to 2.6)) and low DLCO% predicted (non-linear relationship). CONCLUSION: More than 40% of early-diagnosed patients with SSc-PAH had disease progression during a short follow-up time, with male gender, functional capacity and pulmonary function tests at PAH diagnosis being associated with progression. This suggests that even mild PAH should be considered a high-risk complication of SSc.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Capacidade Pulmonar Total
20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 17(1): 216, 2017 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following positive results from the Phase III CHEST-1 study in patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), the Phase IIIb CTEPH early access study (EAS) was designed to assess the safety and tolerability of riociguat in real-world clinical practice, as well as to provide patients with early access to riociguat before launch. Riociguat is approved for the treatment of inoperable and persistent/recurrent CTEPH. METHODS: We performed an open-label, uncontrolled, single-arm, early access study in which 300 adult patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent CTEPH received riociguat adjusted from 1 mg three times daily (tid) to a maximum of 2.5 mg tid. Patients switching from unsatisfactory prior pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-targeted therapy (n = 84) underwent a washout period of at least 3 days before initiating riociguat. The primary aim was to assess the safety and tolerability of riociguat, with World Health Organization functional class and 6-min walking distance (6MWD) as exploratory efficacy endpoints. RESULTS: In total, 262 patients (87%) completed study treatment and entered the safety follow-up (median treatment duration 47 weeks). Adverse events were reported in 273 patients (91%). The most frequently reported serious adverse events were syncope (6%), right ventricular failure (3%), and pneumonia (2%). There were five deaths, none of which was considered related to study medication. The safety and tolerability of riociguat was similar in patients switched from other PAH-targeted therapies and those who were treatment naïve. In patients with data available, mean ± standard deviation 6MWD had increased by 33 ± 42 m at Week 12 with no clinically relevant differences between the switched and treatment-naïve subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Riociguat was well tolerated in patients with CTEPH who were treatment naïve, and in those who were switched from other PAH-targeted therapies. No new safety signals were observed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.org NCT01784562 . Registered February 4, 2013.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA