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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(2): 982-993, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26709188

RESUMO

Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration varied among samples and individual elements. The findings of this study support the use of trace elements and stable isotope ratios to test the authenticity of goat WMP, which can likely be applied to other dairy goat products. This approach could be used test to the factory of origin (and potentially batch of origin) of products in the supply chain, thus providing the ability to audit the supply chain and monitor for fraudulent activity.


Assuntos
Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Cabras , Leite/química , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Isótopos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Países Baixos , Nova Zelândia , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Oligoelementos/análise
2.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 89(1): 232-54, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23980752

RESUMO

Worldwide, coastal systems provide some of the most productive habitats, which potentially influence a range of marine and terrestrial ecosystems through the transfer of nutrients and energy. Several reviews have examined aspects of connectivity within coastal seascapes, but the scope of those reviews has been limited to single systems or single vectors. We use the transfer of carbon to examine the processes of connectivity through multiple vectors in multiple ecosystems using four coastal seascapes as case studies. We discuss and compare the main vectors of carbon connecting different ecosystems, and then the natural and human-induced factors that influence the magnitude of effect for those vectors on recipient systems. Vectors of carbon transfer can be grouped into two main categories: detrital particulate organic carbon (POC) and its associated dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC/DIC) that are transported passively; and mobile consumers that transport carbon actively. High proportions of net primary production can be exported over meters to hundreds of kilometers from seagrass beds, algal reefs and mangroves as POC, with its export dependent on wind-generated currents in the first two of these systems and tidal currents for the last. By contrast, saltmarshes export large quantities of DOC through tidal movement, while land run-off plays a critical role in the transport of terrestrial POC and DOC into temperate fjords. Nekton actively transfers carbon across ecosystem boundaries through foraging movements, ontogenetic migrations, or 'trophic relays', into and out of seagrass beds, mangroves or saltmarshes. The magnitude of these vectors is influenced by: the hydrodynamics and geomorphology of the region; the characteristics of the carbon vector, such as their particle size and buoyancy; and for nekton, the extent and frequency of migrations between ecosystems. Through a risk-assessment process, we have identified the most significant human disturbances that affect the integrity of connectivity among ecosystems. Loss of habitat, net primary production (NPP) and overfishing pose the greatest risks to carbon transfer in temperate saltmarsh and tropical estuaries, particularly through their effects on nekton abundance and movement. In comparison, habitat/NPP loss and climate change are likely to be the major risks to carbon transfer in temperate fjords and temperate open coasts through alteration in the amount of POC and/or DOC/DIC being transported. While we have highlighted the importance of these vectors in coastal seascapes, there is limited quantitative data on the effects of these vectors on recipient systems. It is only through quantifying those subsidies that we can effectively incorporate complex interactions into the management of the marine environment and its resources.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Atividades Humanas , Humanos
3.
Ecology ; 88(4): 809-16, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17536697

RESUMO

Forest litter is often considered to be a minor energy source to marine communities due to its refractory nature. Large volumes of forest litter are deposited in the New Zealand fjords, and likely recycled into available energy by microbial activity. In this study we used evidence from stable isotope analyses to test whether recycled carbon from chemoautotrophs was an important contributor to the diet of hagfish (Eptatretus cirrhatus). We then analyzed fatty acid biomarkers from the chemoautotrophic clam Solemya parkinsoni and E. cirrhatus to further discriminate the contribution of marine, terrestrial, and chemoautotrophic sources. Bulk isotopic signatures of E. cirrhatus varied considerably (delta13C, from -29.2 per thousand to -16.7 per thousand; delta15N, from -2.8 per thousand to +15.5 per thousand; delta34S, from -21.7 per thousand to +16.7 per thousand) and indicated that a significant percentage of organic matter (38-51%) originated from chemoautotrophs (delta13C, -31.3 per thousand +/- 0.1 per thousand [mean +/- SE]; delta15N, -5.7 per thousand +/- 0.2 per thousand; delta34S, -32.per thousand +/- 3.8 per thousand). Fatty acid biomarkers were depleted in 13C, particularly cis-vaccenic acid (18:1omega7: delta13C, -39.0 per thousand) indicating specific microbial origins of carbon. A high proportion of forest litter in sediments, coupled with isotopic and fatty acid biomarker results, indicates that terrestrial organic matter is a dominant contributor to this marine benthic system. This study demonstrates a clear linkage between terrestrial and marine ecological processes.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Crescimento Quimioautotrófico/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Feiticeiras (Peixe)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono , Nova Zelândia , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Solo/análise , Fatores de Tempo
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