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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 231: 108175, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740587

RESUMO

We evaluated Haemonchus contortus (HC) and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (TC) infection on the ruminal microbial community of Santa Ines lambs to better understand the pathophysiology of parasite infections and the interactions among gastrointestinal nematodes and gut resident microbiota. In this study, 18 six months of age lambs were maintained for 34 days in individual pens divided into three treatments that included animals infected with HC and TC, and control (infection-free). Haematological, ruminal parameter and microbial nitrogen absorbed by pune derivatives, as well as enteric methane emission (CH4), were analysed, and the rumen microbial taxonomic and functional profile assessed by shotgun metagenomics. The analysis showed that total protein, albumin, urea, and butyrate level were lower in animals infected by both parasites, while HC infection also decreased the haemoglobin level. Both infected groups (TC and HC) increased the enteric methane emission (CH4). TC and HC infections increased the diversity and richness of functional microbial genes. Most alterations in the rumen microbiome composition of infected groups are associated with the suppression of microbes involved in microbial homeostasis maintenance and expansion of the archaeal community in the infected animals. Infection led to an increased abundance of nitrogen, amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism genes. Overall, TC and HC infection increased the enteric methane emission, negatively affected taxon's responsible for maintenance de rumen homeostasis and modulated some important genes related to protein and energy metabolism.

2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 260, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852073

RESUMO

This study was realized to analyze the combinations of climatic, physical, and socio-economic variables on distribution of breeding values for performance characteristics and scrotal circumference of Brangus cattle. Records of 84,703 Brangus animals, born from 2000 to 2010 distributed in 65 farms in Brazil were used. The characteristics analyzed were average daily gain from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling (WW and YW), visual scores of conformations (WC and YC), muscle score (WM and YM), precocity score (WP and YS), and size score (WS and YS) at weaning and yearling and scrotal circumference (SC) at yearling. Components of (co)variance estimated through the animal model employing methodology to AIREML. Mean estimates of direct heritability obtained for visual scores at weaning (WC 0.16, WM 0.16, WP 0.19, and WS 0.22) were lower than those obtained at yearling (YC 0.28, YM 0.26, YP 0.24, and YS 0.40). WW had heritability greater than YW (0.27 and 0.12) and a heritability of 0.36 obtained for SC. Canonical, discriminant, and cluster analyses were performed in the SAS® 9.4 program. Three clusters of genetic values averages per farm were formed according to climatic, physical, and socio-economic variables. Brangus animals are from states of RS, PR, SP, MG, GO, MG, and MS. The highest breeding values were strongly related to thermal amplitude and municipality area. Spatial distribution of the breeding value of Brangus animals can help in the development of environmental indices, genetic evaluations, and the choice of animals for certain environments.


Assuntos
Fatores Econômicos , Escroto , Animais , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Bovinos/genética , Masculino , Desmame
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 126, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449218

RESUMO

There are few animal germplasm/gene bank collections in Brazil, and basic studies are needed to attend the future internal and external demands from international partners. The aim of this work was to validate a "proof of concept" that integrates spatial (georeferenced data) and genetic data regarding the local of origin from 3518 DNA samples from 17 different genetic groups or breeds of sheep in the Brazilian Germplasm bank. Spatialisation shows that not all genetic groups have samples in the bank, and collection is concentrated in the conservation nuclei spread nationwide. Only 21% of states with a specific breed have samples in the gene bank. The mean number of animals sampled per collection was 32, while the mean distance travelled to collect samples was 262 km from the conservation nuclei. For example, the Brazilian Somali were only collected in the conservation nucleus in Ceará State. No samples were collected to date for the Cariri breed, which is recognised by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Only two farms and one breed in the bank are from the northern region. Of the 27 states, there are samples in the gene bank of sheep from 13, so several states have no samples, requiring collection from herds outside the official system of conservation to make sure that studies using this germplasm realised are not biased. Significant genetic differences are seen above 332 km, which should guide future sampling efforts. Suggestions are given for improving the quantity, quality and diversity of samples in the gene bank.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Cruzamento , Variação Genética , Ovinos/genética , Agricultura , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
4.
Ecol Evol ; 7(22): 9544-9556, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187988

RESUMO

Samples of 191 animals from 18 different Brazilian locally adapted swine genetic groups were genotyped using Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip in order to identify selection signatures related to the monthly variation of Brazilian environmental variables. Using BayeScan software, 71 SNP markers were identified as FST outliers and 60 genotypes (58 markers) were found by Samßada software in 371 logistic models correlated with 112 environmental variables. Five markers were identified in both methods, with a Kappa value of 0.073 (95% CI: 0.011-0.134). The frequency of these markers indicated a clear north-south country division that reflects Brazilian environmental differences in temperature, solar radiation, and precipitation. Global spatial territory correlation for environmental variables corroborates this finding (average Moran's I = 0.89, range from 0.55 to 0.97). The distribution of alleles over the territory was not strongly correlated with the breed/genetic groups. These results are congruent with previous mtDNA studies and should be used to direct germplasm collection for the National gene bank.

5.
Genet Mol Biol ; 40(3): 604-609, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28863209

RESUMO

The first horses were brought to Brazil by the colonizers after 1534. Over the centuries, these animals evolved and adapted to local environmental conditions usually unsuitable for exotic breeds, thereby originating locally adapted Brazilian breeds. The present work represents the first description of maternal genetic diversity in these horse breeds based on D-loop sequences. A D-Loop HSV-I fragment of 252 bp, from 141 horses belonging to ten Brazilian breeds / genetic groups (locally adapted and specialized breeds) were analysed. Thirty-five different haplotypes belonging to 18 haplogroups were identified with 33 polymorphic sites. Haplotype diversity (varying from 0.20 to 0.96) and nucleotide diversity (varying from 0.0039 to 0.0239) was lower for locally adapted than for specialized breeds, with the same pattern observed for FST values. Haplogroups identified in Brazilian breeds are in agreement with previous findings in South American samples. The low variability observed mainly in locally adapted breeds, indicates that, to ensure conservation of these breeds, careful reproductive management is needed. Additional genetic characterization studies are required to support accurate decision-making.

6.
Genet. mol. biol ; 40(3): 604-609, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-892429

RESUMO

Abstract The first horses were brought to Brazil by the colonizers after 1534. Over the centuries, these animals evolved and adapted to local environmental conditions usually unsuitable for exotic breeds, thereby originating locally adapted Brazilian breeds. The present work represents the first description of maternal genetic diversity in these horse breeds based on D-loop sequences. A D-Loop HSV-I fragment of 252 bp, from 141 horses belonging to ten Brazilian breeds / genetic groups (locally adapted and specialized breeds) were analysed. Thirty-five different haplotypes belonging to 18 haplogroups were identified with 33 polymorphic sites. Haplotype diversity (varying from 0.20 to 0.96) and nucleotide diversity (varying from 0.0039 to 0.0239) was lower for locally adapted than for specialized breeds, with the same pattern observed for FST values. Haplogroups identified in Brazilian breeds are in agreement with previous findings in South American samples. The low variability observed mainly in locally adapted breeds, indicates that, to ensure conservation of these breeds, careful reproductive management is needed. Additional genetic characterization studies are required to support accurate decision-making.

7.
Vet Parasitol ; 235: 106-112, 2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28215860

RESUMO

This paper presents a study on the use of low resolution infrared images to detect ticks in cattle. Emphasis is given to the main factors that influence the quality of the captured images, as well as to the actions that can increase the amount of information conveyed by these images. In addition, a new automatic method for analyzing the images and counting the ticks is introduced. The proposed algorithm relies only on color transformations and simple mathematical morphology operations, thus being easy to implement and computationally light. Tests were carried out using a large database containing images of the neck and hind end of the animals. It was observed that the proposed algorithm is very effective in detecting ticks visible in the images, even if the contrast with the background is not high. On the other hand, due to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, the thermographic images used in this study did not always succeed in creating enough contrast between ticks and cattle's hair coat. Although these problems can be mitigated by following some directives, currently only rough estimates for tick counts can be achieved using infrared images with low spatial resolution.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Termografia/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Feminino , Raios Infravermelhos , Masculino , Termografia/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/diagnóstico , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
8.
Ciênc. rural ; 46(10): 1830-1837, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-792538

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Wharton's jelly is a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that had not yet been tested for bovine embryo production by nuclear transfer (NT). Thus, the objective of this study was to isolate, characterize and test MSCs derived from Wharton's jelly for embryo and pregnancy production by NT in cattle. The umbilical cord was collected during calving and cells derived from Wharton's jelly (WJCs) were isolated by explant and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium. Skin Fibroblasts (FB) were isolated after 6 months of life. Morphological analysis was performed by bright field and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) during cell culture. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and differentiation induction in cell lineages were performed for WJC. In the NT procedure, oocytes at the arrested metaphase II stage were enucleated using micromanipulators, fused with WJCs or FB and later activated artificially. SEM micrographs revealed that WJCs have variable shape under culture. Mesenchymal markers of MSCs (CD29+, CD73+, CD90+ and CD105+) were expressed in bovine-derived WJC cultures, as evidenced by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. When induced, these cells differentiated into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. After classification, the WJCs were used in NT. Blastocyst formation rate by NT with WJCs at day 7 was 25.80±0.03%, similar to blatocyst rate with NT using skin fibroblasts (19.00±0.07%). Pregnancies were obtained and showed that WJCs constitute a new cell type for use in animal cloning.


RESUMO: A geleia de Wharton é uma fonte de células tronco mesenquimais (CTMs) que ainda não havia sido testada para a produção de embriões bovinos por transferência nuclear (TN). O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar, caracterizar e testar as CTMs derivadas da geleia de Wharton para produção de embriões e gestações por transferência nuclear em bovinos. O cordão umbilical foi coletado durante o nascimento e as células derivadas da geleia de Wharton (CGWs) foram isoladas por explante e cultivadas em Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium. Fibroblastos (FB) da pele foram isolados após 6 meses de vida. As análises morfológicas foram realizadas pelas microscopias de campo claro e eletrônica de varredura durante o cultivo celular. Caracterização fenotípica e genotípica por citometria de fluxo, imunocitoquímica, RT-PCR e indução da diferenciação em linhagens celulares foi realizada com as CGWs. No procedimento de TN, ovócitos no estágio de metáfase II foram enucleados usando micromanipuladores, fusionados com CGWs ou FB e então ativados artificialmente. Micrografias de microscopia de varredura revelaram que CGWs tiveram forma variada sob cultivo. Os marcadores mesenquimais de CTMs (CD29+, CD73+, CD90+ and CD105+) foram expressos em cultura de CGWs bovina, como evidenciado por citometria de fluxo, imunocitoquímica e RT-PCR. Quando induzidas, estas células diferenciaram-se em osteócitos, condrócitos e adipócitos. Após classificação, as CGWs foram utilizadas na TN. A taxa de formação de blastocistos por TN com CGWs no sétimo dia de cultivo foi de 25,80±0,03%, similar a produção de blastócitos por TN com fibroblastos de pele (19,00±0,07). Gestações foram obtidas e mostraram que CGWs constituem um novo tipo celular para ser usado na clonagem animal.

9.
Int J Biometeorol ; 60(2): 245-53, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26062817

RESUMO

Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Temperatura Corporal , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Variação Genética , Cabelo/anatomia & histologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/genética , Taxa Respiratória , Pele/anatomia & histologia
10.
Ciênc. rural ; 45(3): 480-484, 03/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-741411

RESUMO

The aim of this experiment was to identify improvement demands for farms with different levels of competitiveness in the west of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. A total of 63 owners of large farms were interviewed (farms with an area greater than 900ha) by applying a semi-structured questionnaire, guided by four drivers: technology (TEC), management (MAN), market relations (MR) and the institutional environment (IE).It was used the Statistical Analysis System 9.2 software to perform the cluster analysis and identify farmers' characteristics. Three random clusters with different levels of competitiveness were observed: low competitiveness level (LCL), middle competitiveness level (MCL) and high competitiveness level (HCL). The 29 variables (sub factors) were evaluated in the cluster analysis according to level of impact on competitiveness, being classified into variables of high, medium or low impact. Stratification was carried out, ranking demands for improvements from aspects attributed by experts in relation to sub factors. The farmers with low competitiveness level (LTL) had an unfavorable status for MAN, while the farmers belonging to clusters MCL and HCL have, respectively, favorable and neutral status for the same driver. The management characteristics determined the level of competitiveness of the farms surveyed.


O objetivo deste experimento é a identificação das demandas de melhorias para fazendas com diferentes níveis de competitividade no Oeste do RS. Entrevistaram-se 63 produtores grandes (área= +900 ha) por meio de um questionário semi-estruturado, dividido em quatro direcionadores: tecnologia (TEC), gestão (MAN), relações de mercado (MR) e ambiente institucional (IE). Utilizou-se o software SAS 2002, versão 9.0, para realização da análise de cluster, realizando a tipologia dos produtores. Nesta análise, formaram-se aleatoriamente três clusters, sendo denominados de baixo nível de competitividade (LCL), médio nível de competitividade (MCL) e alto nível de competitividade (HCL). Dividiram-se as 29 variáveis (subfatores) avaliadas na análise de cluster de acordo com nível de impacto na competitividade das fazendas de bovinos de corte, sendo classificadas em variáveis de alto, médio ou baixo impacto. Esta estratificação do ranking de demanda de melhorias foi realizada a partir dos pesos atribuídos pelos especialistas aos subfatores. Os pecuaristas com baixo nível de competitividade apresentaram status desfavorável para MAN, enquanto os pecuaristas pertencentes aos clusters MCL e HCL apresentaram, respectivamente, status neutro e favorável para o mesmo direcionador. Portanto, a gestão é determinante para definir o nível de competitividade das fazendas entrevistadas.

11.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 28(4): 476-84, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25656190

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (-0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd.

12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 30(6): 1819-1836, nov./dec. 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-948216

RESUMO

A localização de todos os rebanhos de cabras de raça pura no Brasil foi espacializada de acordo com os controles climáticos (Índice de Temperatura e Umidade, precipitação, topografia, umidade relativa do ar) e controles ambientais (altitude, tipo de pastagem). Os dados foram analisados através de uma análise de regressão, variância, logistica e cluster. Matrizes de distância foram construídas de acordo com a longitude/ latitude e os controles ambientais foram correlacionados por meio do teste de Mantel. O ponto médio para a maioria das raças foi encontrado no estado da Bahia, mas no estado de Pernambuco encontraram-se os pontos médias das raças localmente adaptadas. A Anglonubiana foi a raça comercial com o ponto médio mais ao norte, enquanto as raças Toggenburg, Saanen e Alpina tiveram o ponto médio de produção mais ao sul do país. Houve pouca diferença entre os controles ambientais para as raças localamente adaptadas e comerciais, mas raças dupla aptidão encontraram-se nas regiões com menor precipitação e Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano , mas com as temperaturas e área de mata mais elevadas . As raças comerciais são mais difundidas no Brasil do que raças locais, sendo que as últimas ocorrem um maior risco de extinção devido a doenças, seca ou cruzamento com outras raças.


The localization of all flocks of purebred goats in Brazil was spatialized in ARCGIS along with climatic (THI, precipitation, topography, relative humidity) and physical environmental controls (altitude, pasture type). Data were analysed using analysis of variance, logisitic regression and cluster analyses. Distance matrices were constructed using longitude/latitude and those from environmental controls and these were correlated using Mantel test. Midpoint for most breeds was in Bahia State, but in Pernambuco for locally adapted breeds. The Anglonubian was the commercial breed with the northernmost midpoint. Toggenburg, Saanen and Apline breeds had the southernmost midpoint. There was little difference between environmental controls for locally adapted and commercial breeds, but dual purpose breeds were in regions with lower rainfall and HDI but higher temperatures and shrubland. Commercial herds are more widespread in Brazil than local breeds putting the latter at higher risk of extinction through drought, disease or crossing with other breeds.


Assuntos
Temperatura , Ruminantes , Pastagens , Monitoramento Ambiental
13.
Genet Mol Biol ; 37(1): 54-60, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24688291

RESUMO

Brazilian goats are generally kept in small herds and extensive rearing systems, mainly in the northeastern region of the country. Despite production improvement in recent years, the lack of pedigree control has affected genetic progress. This study aimed to validate a panel of 16 microsatellites for parentage testing in locally adapted and commercial goats breeds raised in Brazil, as well as to compare its efficiency with the panel recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supplies (MAPA) in 2004. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity (He) per marker ranged from four to 18, and from 0.051 to 0.831, respectively. Using all markers, 100% of parentage cases of the validation dataset were resolved with a strict confidence level of 95%. The 16 microsatellites panel showed adequate exclusion power (99.99%) and identity accuracy (99.99%). Suggestions for improvement of the marker panel endorsed by MAPA are provided.

14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(4): 485-494, Oct-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-698021

RESUMO

This experiment was carried out on 8 ha of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania pastures, with rotational grazing consisting of 7 days of occupation and 21 days of rest. Four treatments were evaluated: cattle grazing alone (BOV), sheep grazing alone (OVI), cattle and sheep grazing simultaneously (SIM) and cattle grazing followed by sheep (alternate - ALT). Twenty heifers and 30 male Santa Inês lambs were used. Fecal egg count (FEC) and fecal cultures were carried out. Blood was also collected to examine red and white cell series, total plasma protein (TPP), albumin and hemoglobin. FEC and estimated nematode pathogenicity index in sheep were lower in the SIM treatment. The Haemonchus spp. proportion was higher in isolated grazing systems. For sheep, mixed grazing was shown to reduce endoparasite infection, and SIM was better than ALT. For cattle, no difference between grazing systems was seen. Therefore, simultaneous grazing (sheep and cattle) may be a tool for reducing the need for anthelmintic treatments in sheep.


O experimento foi realizado em 8ha de pasto de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, com pastejo rotacionado de 7 dias de ocupação e 21 dias de descanso. Quatro tratamentos foram avaliados: bovinos pastejando isoladamente (BOV), ovinos pastejando isoladamente (OVI), bovinos e ovinos pastejando simultaneamente (SIM), e bovinos pastejando previamente aos ovinos (alternado - ALT). Vinte novilhas e 30 cordeiros Santa Inês foram utilizados. Contagem de ovos nas fezes (FEC) e coproculturas foram realizados. Sangue também foi colhido para examinar a série vermelha e branca, proteínas plasmáticas totais (TPP), albumina e hemoglobina. FEC e índice de patogenicidade estimada de nematoides nos ovinos foram menores no tratamento SIM. A proporção de Haemonchus spp. foi maior nos sistemas isolados de pastejo. Para os ovinos, os sistemas consorciados apresentaram redução na infecção endoparasitária, sendo SIM melhor que ALT. Para os bovinos, nenhuma diferença entre os sistemas de pastejo foi verificado. Entretanto, o pastejo simultâneo (ovinos e bovinos) pode ser uma ferramenta para reduzir a necessidade de tratamentos anti-helmínticos em ovinos.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Masculino , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Herbivoria , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Genet Mol Biol ; 36(2): 207-13, 2013 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23885203

RESUMO

Heritability and genetic correlations for honey (HP) and propolis production (PP), hygienic behavior (HB), syrup-collection rate (SCR) and percentage of mites on adult bees (PMAB) of a population of Africanized honeybees were estimated. Data from 110 queen bees over three generations were evaluated. Single and multi-trait models were analyzed by Bayesian Inference using MTGSAM. The localization of the hive was significant for SCR and HB and highly significant for PP. Season-year was highly significant only for SCR. The number of frames with bees was significant for HP and PP, including SCR. The heritability estimates were 0.16 for HP, 0.23 for SCR, 0.52 for HB, 0.66 for PP, and 0.13 for PMAB. The genetic correlations were positive among productive traits (PP, HP and SCR) and negative between productive traits and HB, except between PP and HB. Genetic correlations between PMAB and other traits, in general, were negative, except with PP. The study permitted to identify honeybees for improved propolis and honey production. Hygienic behavior may be improved as a consequence of selecting for improved propolis production. The rate of syrup consumption and propolis production may be included in a selection index to enhance honeybee traits.

16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 22(4): 485-94, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24473872

RESUMO

This experiment was carried out on 8 ha of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania pastures, with rotational grazing consisting of 7 days of occupation and 21 days of rest. Four treatments were evaluated: cattle grazing alone (BOV), sheep grazing alone (OVI), cattle and sheep grazing simultaneously (SIM) and cattle grazing followed by sheep (alternate - ALT). Twenty heifers and 30 male Santa Inês lambs were used. Fecal egg count (FEC) and fecal cultures were carried out. Blood was also collected to examine red and white cell series, total plasma protein (TPP), albumin and hemoglobin. FEC and estimated nematode pathogenicity index in sheep were lower in the SIM treatment. The Haemonchus spp. proportion was higher in isolated grazing systems. For sheep, mixed grazing was shown to reduce endoparasite infection, and SIM was better than ALT. For cattle, no difference between grazing systems was seen. Therefore, simultaneous grazing (sheep and cattle) may be a tool for reducing the need for anthelmintic treatments in sheep.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Herbivoria , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 52(4): 981-984, July/Aug. 2009. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-525619

RESUMO

Metabolizable energy (ME) of corn with different geometric diameters was determined in European quail with 26 days of age with 124 g of mean live weight, using the Total Collection of Excreta Method. One hundred and twenty five quails were divided in five treatments, five replications with five quails each, with one treatment used to determine endogenous losses. Values of Average Geometric Diameter (AGD) of the corn were 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 µm. ME of corn was not affected by AGD. Average values were 3079, 3274, 3300, 3137 Kcal/kg respectively for apparent metabolizable energy, corrected apparent metabolizable energy, true metabolizable energy, corrected true metabolizable energy.


Determinou-se o valor de energia metabolizável (EM) do milho com diferentes diâmetros geométrico médio em codornas com 26 dias de idade e 124 g de peso médio, utilizando-se a metodologia da coleta total de excretas. Foram utilizadas 125 codornas distribuídas em cinco tratamentos com cinco repetições de cinco aves, sendo um tratamento para determinar as perdas endógenas. Os valores de diâmetro geométrico médio (DGM) do milho estudado foram 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 µm. O DGM não apresentou influência significativa sobre a EM do milho que apresentou valores médios de 3079, 3274, 3300, verdadeira, energia metabolizável verdadeira corrigida.

18.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 45(5): 362-370, 2008. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-504630

RESUMO

Body index measurements on 2248 horses registered by the Brazilian Association of Pantaneiro Horse Breeders (ABCCP), in the period from 1972 to 2000 were analyzed. Data was analyzed using SAS and DFREML to calculate genetic parameters. The Dactyl Thoracic Index indicated that these animals are intermediary (not light horses but not suitable for traction), while the BARON and CREVAT index confirmed this result. The Chest Index presented animals that are good for speed as they have long legs but looking at the Body index the indication was that these horses are neither suitable for speed nor traction (intermediary). The analysis of other conformation indices indicated that, in general, these horses are medilines, show good speed and chest development, making them suitable for dealing with cattle and resistance for long treks. The environmental factor analysis verified that these horses have changed in recent years possibly due to selection by the breeder which may affect their adaptive capacity.


Foram estudados índices zootécnicos de 2.248 animais registrados na Associação Brasileira de Criadores do Cavalo Pantaneiro (ABCCP), no período compreendido entre 1972 e 2000. Os dados foram analisados usando o programa SAS e o DFREML para estimação de parâmetros genéticos. Na análise dos índices corporais, o índice dáctilo torácico (IDT) apresentou animais intermediários (nem leves e nem aptos para tração). O índice de BARON e CREVAT também confirmou este resultado. Na determinação do índice peitoral (IP), os animais foram considerados, em geral, favoráveis à velocidade por apresentarem membros longos. Já no índice corporal (IC), a maioria dos animais não foi apta à velocidade e nem à tração (mediolíneos). Através da análise dos índices de conformação verificou-se que, em geral, os Pantaneiros são mediolíneos, aptos para velocidade e possuem bom desenvolvimento torácico, proporcionando velocidade na lida do gado e resistência a longas caminhadas. Na análise dos fatores ambientais, verificou-se que nos últimos anos alguns índices têm sofrido alterações, provavelmente devido à seleção já exercida pelo criador, que pode afetar a capacidade de adaptação dos cavalos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cavalos , Modelos Lineares , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Moldes Genéticos
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