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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 175, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499660

RESUMO

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of replacing corn with by-product from biscuit manufacture (BBM) on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, ingestive behavior, and growth performance of pure or crossbred Morada Nova sheep. Twenty-four non-castrated male lambs from two genetic groups (GG) were used: purebred red-coated Morada Nova (RMN) and red-coated Morada Nova x white-coated Morada Nova. Each GG had 12 lambs with an initial body weight (BW) of 15.0±0.84 and 18.8±0.88 kg for RMN and crossbred lambs, respectively. Treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design, according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, as follows: two genetic groups (RMN and crossbred) and two diets (ground corn and by-product from biscuit manufacture-BBM) with six replicates. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of GG on feed intake (g/day and as a fraction of BW). Lambs fed BBM had a lower feed intake (p < 0.05) than corn-fed lambs, except for the non-fibrous carbohydrate intake, which did not differ among diets (p > 0.05). No effects (p > 0.05) of GG or diets were observed on apparent digestibility, except for organic matter, which was higher for BBM-fed lambs (p < 0.05). Intake and N urinary excretion were lower (p < 0.05) for BBM-fed lambs when compared to corn-fed lambs. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of GG on growth performance. On the other hand, lambs fed BBM diet had a higher (p < 0.05) feed efficiency than corn-fed lambs. Total replacing corn with BBM in finishing lamb diets increases the efficiency of nutrient utilization, which results in higher feed efficiency. The crossbreeding between the red- and white-coated strains of Morada Nova sheep does not affect nutritional and growth performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Nitrogênio , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
2.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 240: 106974, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439682

RESUMO

Livestock production is considered an important factor influencing global warming; however, climate change has also been considered one of the major factors affecting livestock production and reproduction. The present study was carried out in the Southern region of Brazil and aimed to assess the seasonal influence of climatic factors and external morphology of the animals on the semen quality. Three ejaculates were obtained from each bull (Crioulo Lageano and Angus) in summer and winter seasons. Motile cells, sperm vigor, sperm concentration, sperm membrane status, and sperm abnormalities were analyzed in fresh and post-thawed semen. In addition, the sperm kinetics using CASA was assessed on post-thawed semen. Environmental data such as air temperature (AT), relative humidity (RH), mean radiant temperature (MRT) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were measured. Furthermore, body and testicular metrics, as well as hair coat characteristics, were recorded in each season on all bulls. Environmental traits differed significantly between seasons. Results of the PLS regression and Spearman's correlations confirmed a negative relationship between climatic variables and sperm traits in both seasons. Semen quality between breeds and seasons was similar, satisfactory, and heat stress was not sufficient to impair spermatozoa viability. External morphological traits were considered non-important in the final model. The findings of this study suggest that AT, MRT, and THI were the most important factors that could affect seminal characteristics of bulls raised in a subtropical climate.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen , Preservação do Sêmen , Animais , Bovinos , Masculino , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estações do Ano , Sêmen , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Contagem de Espermatozoides/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
3.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 297(2): 449-462, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150300

RESUMO

Since domestication, horse breeds have adapted to their environments and differentiated from one another. This paper uses two methods to detect selection signatures in 23 horse breeds, eight of which are Brazilian (610 animals), both cold-blooded and warm-blooded, from temperate and tropical regions. These animals were genotyped using the GGP Equine BeadChip and we analysed the data by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The samples were separated into groups based on their geographical area of origin and PCA results studied. The genomic regions under selection were detected by hapFLK and PCAdapt methodologies, identifying six regions under selection with at least one Brazilian horse breed. These regions contain genes associated with heat tolerance, skin colour, body size, energy production/metabolism, genes involved in protein degradation/turnover/DNA repair, genes reducing the impact of oxidative stress/cellular repair, and transcriptional regulation. This work confirmed LCORL and NCAPG gene regions in previous studies associated with body size on Equine Chromosome Autosome 3 (ECA3). On the same ECA3, a region implicating genes linked to coat colour was identified, also previously related to heat stress. Regions with genes coding heat shock proteins were found on ECA1 and 2, and many candidate genes for oxidation-reduction which are a natural response to heat stress. However, a larger sample size and whole-genome SNPs are needed to understand better and identify new candidate regions as well as their functional relation with heat tolerance.


Assuntos
Termotolerância , Animais , Brasil , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Cavalos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Seleção Genética , Termotolerância/genética
4.
Exp Parasitol ; 231: 108175, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740587

RESUMO

We evaluated Haemonchus contortus (HC) and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (TC) infection on the ruminal microbial community of Santa Ines lambs to better understand the pathophysiology of parasite infections and the interactions among gastrointestinal nematodes and gut resident microbiota. In this study, 18 six months of age lambs were maintained for 34 days in individual pens divided into three treatments that included animals infected with HC and TC, and control (infection-free). Haematological, ruminal parameter and microbial nitrogen absorbed by pune derivatives, as well as enteric methane emission (CH4), were analysed, and the rumen microbial taxonomic and functional profile assessed by shotgun metagenomics. The analysis showed that total protein, albumin, urea, and butyrate level were lower in animals infected by both parasites, while HC infection also decreased the haemoglobin level. Both infected groups (TC and HC) increased the enteric methane emission (CH4). TC and HC infections increased the diversity and richness of functional microbial genes. Most alterations in the rumen microbiome composition of infected groups are associated with the suppression of microbes involved in microbial homeostasis maintenance and expansion of the archaeal community in the infected animals. Infection led to an increased abundance of nitrogen, amino acid, protein, and energy metabolism genes. Overall, TC and HC infection increased the enteric methane emission, negatively affected taxon's responsible for maintenance de rumen homeostasis and modulated some important genes related to protein and energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hemoncose/veterinária , Rúmen/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongiloidíase/veterinária , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Ionização de Chama/veterinária , Hemoncose/complicações , Hemoncose/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Metano/análise , Metano/metabolismo , Purinas/urina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Ovinos , Tricostrongiloidíase/complicações , Tricostrongiloidíase/microbiologia
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 525, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709458

RESUMO

Among the animal species first introduced in Brazil during the country's discovery, horses (Equus caballus) stand out because of their evolutionary history and relationship with humans. Among the Brazilian horse breeds, the Pantaneiro draws attention due to its adaptative traits. Blood samples of 116 Pantaneiro horses were divided into six populations based on their sampling location, aiming to identify the existence of genetic structure and quantify genetic diversity within and between them. Populations were compared to elucidate genetic variability and differentiation better and assess the impact of Pantanal's natural geographic barriers on gene flow between populations. Data from the GGP Equine BeadChip (Geneseek-Neogen, 65.157 SNPs) was used to assess basic diversity parameters, genetic distance (FST), principal component analysis (PCA), and population structure (ADMIXTURE) for the sampled animals. Mantel test was also performed to investigate the correlation between the populations' genetic and geographic distances. Results showed high genetic variability in all populations, with elevated levels of admixture in their structure. High levels of admixture make it challenging to establish a racial pattern and, consequently, populations within the breed, being that only one of the populations differentiated itself from the others. No significant correlations between genetic and geographic distances were observed, indicating that environmental barriers did not hinder gene flow between populations, and neither farmers' selection practices might have change breed genetic composition significantly. Low genetic distance and similar heterozygosity values were observed among populations, suggesting strong genetic proximity and low differentiation. Thereby, the Pantaneiro breed does not exhibit genetic subpopulations and could be considered, for conservation purposes, a single big population in the Panatnal region. This study will support sampling strategies for National genebank.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Animais , Brasil , Cavalos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e29290261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495201

RESUMO

Public universities, and science in general, in Brazil, are under attack from key persons of the government in interviews and articles published in non-scientific journals. Here we look at bibliography data from international science metric platforms (Scival® and Incites®) and official Brazilian agencies such as CAPES and CNPq to reach some conclusions based on scientific analysis. Brazilian Science has shown a steady improvement in quantity and quality over the last 20 years but has recently suffered (since 2015) under severe financial restrictions. An increase in international collaboration also increased citation impact, reaching almost five times the world average. While the medical and natural sciences show the highest impact and prominence, social sciences and the humanities also have spotlight areas with international excellence. Different research institutions and universities offer a variety of production profiles and impacts. This diagnosis shows the need for universities and research institutes in Brazil and funding agencies to undergo strategic planning for definition of mission/vision, goals to be reached, and areas for priority development. Continued support of public universities by the government is necessary for Brazilian autonomy in science and technology and its full integration in the world scientific community.


Assuntos
Publicações , Universidades , Brasil
7.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438867

RESUMO

Under conditions of high temperature, humidity, and incidence of solar radiation, dairy cows use behavioral changes as a strategy to decrease the metabolic heat production at pasture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavioral and physiological responses of Gyr and Girolando (5/8 Holstein 3/8 Gyr, and ½ Holstein ½ Gyr) dairy cows submitted to environments with and without shade. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados (Technology Center for Dairy Zebu breeds-CTZL), Brasilia, Distrito Federal-Brazil, with 48 Gyr and Girolando cows total in the lactation group, with low to medium milk production, in full sun or shade with Eucalyptus urograndis (267 plants/ha-1). The physiological and behavioral characteristics evaluated were panting score, superficial temperature, and time spent grazing, ruminating, and lying down. Other traits included skin and coat thickness, hair diameter, density and length, and predominant coat color. In addition, body measurements, such as body length, the height of withers, chest circumference, and shin circumference, were measured. Shaded cows had 34% longer rumination times than cows in full sun (p = 0.01). With a temperature-humidity index ranging from 79 to 83, the rumination time was 1.7 times higher in cows under shade (p = 0.01) during a 24-h period of observation. There were no significant differences in the grazing time between the environments, but lying time was 23% longer in cows under the sun (p = 0.01). The panting score was not influenced by the environment (p = 0.17). Girolando cows had a 35% higher panting score than Gyr cows (p = 0.01) regardless of the environment. The panting score increased two and a half times during the afternoon compared with the morning (p = 0.01). The surface and rectal core temperatures had significant differences between treatments and time of the day. Body measurements were not different between cows in both environments, but there was a difference between breeds. The use of trees in pastures with a silvopastoral system for dairy zebu cows is indicated to improve grazing behavior, as well as time spent ruminating and lying down.

8.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 53-61, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111714

RESUMO

The interruption of the maternal-filial bond in young calves can alter the physiological responses due to increased stress at this moment. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the association between age at weaning and the immune responses of 64 beef calves weaned abruptly. The animals were distributed in three weaning (W) treatments: hyper-early (W30), early (W75) and conventional (W180). The treatments agree with the weaning ages used in cow-calf systems in South America. Blood samples were collected of all experimental animals on the day of weaning and days 1, 2 and 7 post-weaning day of the three treatments. Blood samples were used to analyze hematological variables, total plasma proteins (TPP), fibrinogen, serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and cortisol. The variables analyzed were influenced by the sampling day (P < 0.001) and the calf gender (P < 0.05), and an interaction between treatment x sampling day was observed. Over the study period, high serum cortisol levels were observed for W30 calves. The serum amyloid A protein was significantly influenced by sampling day. When compared to W180 calves, W30 and W75 animals showed prolonged concentrations in plasma fibrinogen. In addition, they presented neutrophilia and lymphopenia during the 180-187 days period, which resulted in a greater neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (N:L ratio). Calf gender resulted in changes in the number of blood leukocytes (P < 0.05). This result provides an alert for weaning at an early age, indicating that different management strategies must be tested to minimize physiological instabilities in critical periods of the life of animals.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Imunidade/fisiologia , Desmame , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 260, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852073

RESUMO

This study was realized to analyze the combinations of climatic, physical, and socio-economic variables on distribution of breeding values for performance characteristics and scrotal circumference of Brangus cattle. Records of 84,703 Brangus animals, born from 2000 to 2010 distributed in 65 farms in Brazil were used. The characteristics analyzed were average daily gain from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling (WW and YW), visual scores of conformations (WC and YC), muscle score (WM and YM), precocity score (WP and YS), and size score (WS and YS) at weaning and yearling and scrotal circumference (SC) at yearling. Components of (co)variance estimated through the animal model employing methodology to AIREML. Mean estimates of direct heritability obtained for visual scores at weaning (WC 0.16, WM 0.16, WP 0.19, and WS 0.22) were lower than those obtained at yearling (YC 0.28, YM 0.26, YP 0.24, and YS 0.40). WW had heritability greater than YW (0.27 and 0.12) and a heritability of 0.36 obtained for SC. Canonical, discriminant, and cluster analyses were performed in the SAS® 9.4 program. Three clusters of genetic values averages per farm were formed according to climatic, physical, and socio-economic variables. Brangus animals are from states of RS, PR, SP, MG, GO, MG, and MS. The highest breeding values were strongly related to thermal amplitude and municipality area. Spatial distribution of the breeding value of Brangus animals can help in the development of environmental indices, genetic evaluations, and the choice of animals for certain environments.


Assuntos
Fatores Econômicos , Escroto , Animais , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Bovinos/genética , Masculino , Desmame
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 126, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449218

RESUMO

There are few animal germplasm/gene bank collections in Brazil, and basic studies are needed to attend the future internal and external demands from international partners. The aim of this work was to validate a "proof of concept" that integrates spatial (georeferenced data) and genetic data regarding the local of origin from 3518 DNA samples from 17 different genetic groups or breeds of sheep in the Brazilian Germplasm bank. Spatialisation shows that not all genetic groups have samples in the bank, and collection is concentrated in the conservation nuclei spread nationwide. Only 21% of states with a specific breed have samples in the gene bank. The mean number of animals sampled per collection was 32, while the mean distance travelled to collect samples was 262 km from the conservation nuclei. For example, the Brazilian Somali were only collected in the conservation nucleus in Ceará State. No samples were collected to date for the Cariri breed, which is recognised by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Only two farms and one breed in the bank are from the northern region. Of the 27 states, there are samples in the gene bank of sheep from 13, so several states have no samples, requiring collection from herds outside the official system of conservation to make sure that studies using this germplasm realised are not biased. Significant genetic differences are seen above 332 km, which should guide future sampling efforts. Suggestions are given for improving the quantity, quality and diversity of samples in the gene bank.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Cruzamento , Variação Genética , Ovinos/genética , Agricultura , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 61, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389175

RESUMO

This study was designed to evaluate the seasonal expression of seminal plasma proteins from two bovine breeds adapted to a subtropical climate and their associations with post-thawing sperm and environmental characteristics. Semen samples were obtained three times in summer and three times in winter from four Crioulo Lageano and four Angus bulls. Seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation, and the other portion of the semen was cryopreserved. Seminal plasma proteins were identified by 2D-nanoUPLC-MSE. Post-thawing assessments of sperm kinetics, morphology and membrane integrity were performed. Environmental data such as air temperature, air humidity and black globe temperature (BGT) were recorded, and the temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated in summer and winter. Results showed that the climate varied significantly between seasons. Although no statistical differences were observed in semen quality between breeds, the protein profiles varied within and between seasons. We suggest that the most critical proteins in summer affecting sperm characteristics were TIMP-2, DNase, Clusterin, CFAH and GPx6. TIMP-2 and DNase showed a higher abundance in Crioulo Lageano in comparison with Angus, while Clusterin, CFAH and GPx6 presented a lower abundance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recently evolved type of glutathione peroxidase, GPx6, in seminal plasma of bovines. In winter, five proteins were considered to be more critical: BSP1, BSP3, CCL2, Sulfhydryl oxidase and TIMP-2. BSP1 and TIMP-2 showed a lower abundance while BSP3, CCL2 and Sulfhydryl oxidase presented a higher abundance in this season in Crioulo Lageano in comparison with Angus.


RESUMO: Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a expressão sazonal de proteínas plasmáticas seminais de duas raças bovinas adaptadas ao clima subtropical e suas associações com espermatozóides pós-descongelamento e características ambientais. Amostras de sêmen foram obtidas três vezes no verão e três no inverno de quatro touros Crioulo Lageano e quatro Angus. O plasma seminal foi obtido por centrifugação e outra porção do sêmen foi criopreservada. As proteínas plasmáticas seminais foram identificadas por 2D-nanoUPLC-MSE. Foram realizadas avaliações pós-descongelamento da cinética espermática, morfologia e integridade da membrana. Dados ambientais como temperatura do ar, umidade do ar e temperatura do globo negro (BGT) foram registrados, e o índice temperatura-umidade (THI) foi calculado no verão e no inverno. Os resultados mostraram que o clima variou significativamente entre as estações. Embora não tenham sido observadas diferenças estatísticas na qualidade do sêmen entre as raças, os perfis proteicos variaram dentro e entre as estações. Sugerimos que as proteínas mais críticas no verão que afetam as características espermáticas foram TIMP-2, DNase, Clusterin, CFAH e GPx6. TIMP-2 e DNase apresentaram maior abundância em Crioulo Lageano em comparação com Angus, enquanto Clusterin, CFAH e GPx6 apresentaram menor abundância. Até onde sabemos, este é o primeiro relato de um tipo recentemente desenvolvido de glutationa peroxidase, GPx6, no plasma seminal de bovinos. No inverno, cinco proteínas foram consideradas mais críticas: BSP1, BSP3, CCL2, sulfidril oxidase e TIMP-2. BSP1 e TIMP-2 apresentaram menor abundância, enquanto BSP3, CCL2 e Sulfidril oxidase apresentaram maior abundância nesta temporada em Crioulo Lageano em comparação com Angus.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Bovinos/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Proteínas de Plasma Seminal/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Cruzamento , Criopreservação/veterinária , Umidade , Masculino , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Sêmen , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides , Temperatura
12.
J Dairy Res ; 87(4): 444-447, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121555

RESUMO

This research communication addresses the hypothesis that, during the summer in the subtropics, natural tree shade helps to improve milk functional characteristics such as stability and acidity. Sixteen Holstein lactating cows were enrolled. The study consisted of three periods (pre-stress, heat stress and post-stress) based on allocating grazing cows into two treatments (with and without access to shade during the Heat Stress period). Overall THI during the trial was (mean ± se) 76.0 ± 3.4. Access to shade prevented the heat stress-related decrease in milk stability both in the ethanol and in the coagulation time test, as well as maintained milk acidity within an acceptable range (14 to 18°D).


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Indústria de Laticínios , Meio Ambiente , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química , Árvores , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária
13.
Scientometrics ; 125(3): 2745-2772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071387

RESUMO

The study of international collaborations can help in understanding the benefits of such relationships and aid in developing national financing policies. In this paper, the international collaboration of Brazilian scientists was studied using SciVal® and Incites® database, looking at its effect on the universities, financing agencies and different areas of knowledge and research topic clusters. Cluster and principal component analyses of scientometric data were carried out. While the results confirmed known knowledge that international collaboration increases impact, this study shows that Brazilian researchers are contributing to prominent research topics worldwide, in all areas of knowledge. This finding is contrary to several points of view that identify Brazil as a regional and not an international partner in science. Important also to note the impact of Brazilian authors in international collaboration that is well above the world mean. The collaboration of Brazil with foreign partners brings benefits for both sides, creating the opportunity of Brazilian research access to financing from international agencies. Increases in measures of impact are also seen for both sides. Foreign partners likewise benefit from higher impact factors in the same topic cluster, when collaborating with Brazilian partners. Publishing open access in high impact journals is fundamental for maintaining Brazilian science at the forefront.

14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(6): 3869-3883, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094421

RESUMO

Brazil is one of the world's largest milk producers. Several scientific studies have been developed related to landscape analyses that combine genetic with landscape structure data. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the relationship between genetic, environmental, and socioeconomic aspects of production in Girolando cattle in Brazil, as well as verify the spatial patterns of its genetic diversity. Genetic values and accuracy of 46,289 animals were used as well as information from DNA of 310 Girolando animals. Canonic, discriminant, and cluster analyses were conducted in SAS® and K-means method in ArcGIS 10.3 software. The relationship between genetic and geographic distance was analyzed using different methods in software Alleles in Space®. Clusters with animals with higher genetic values for milk production are located in municipalities with lower gross domestic product, fewer family-based establishments, and lower human development index. These clusters are associated with regions with higher area planted with crops, lower percentage of pastures that were less degraded, higher humidity, lower temperature range, and lower normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values. The greater the geographical distance between groups of animals, the greater the genetic distance between them with a significant distinction over 504 km. There is high genetic heterogeneity among animals. From these results, it will be possible to develop methodologies for better evaluation of the animals within the production systems.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Meio Ambiente , Variação Genética , Animais , Brasil , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894763

RESUMO

This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to summarize the effects of maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy on fetal weight and morphometric measurements during pregnancy, at birth, and postnatal period in sheep. After completing the search, selection, and data extraction steps, the measure of effect was generated by the individual comparison of each indicator with the average of the control and treated group (undernutrition or overnutrition) using the DerSimonian and Laird method for random effects. Subgroup analyses were also performed for lambing order, litter size, sex, as well as level, timing, and duration of the intervention. Fetal weight during the first third of pregnancy was not affected by maternal undernutrition or overnutrition. On the other hand, undernutrition in the second and last third of gestation reduces the weight of the lamb both during pregnancy, at birth, and during the postnatal period, requiring at least 120 postnatal days to achieve the same weight as its contemporaries in the control treatment. However, this reduction in weight is not accompanied by reductions in morphometric measurements, demonstrating that the animals were lighter, but of equal size. In overnutrition, there is an increase in fetal weight in the second third of gestation. However, in the last third of the gestational period, there are no differences in fetal weight for the multiparous subgroup, but it was reduced in primiparous ewes. There are no effects of overnutrition on birth weight; however, this result is highly heterogeneous. Thus, maternal nutrition of ewe during pregnancy has effects on fetal and postnatal weight, but not on size. Furthermore, the effects of undernutrition are more homogeneous while overnutrition showed heterogeneous responses.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal , Desnutrição/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Hipernutrição/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Peso Fetal , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Parto , Gravidez , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Genetica ; 148(3-4): 183-193, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770285

RESUMO

The Monteiro is a feral pig found in the Brazilian Pantanal ecosystem. The goal of this research is to generate data and knolewdge related to animal populations wich can be used for management and development of an in vitro conservation program for animal resourses at Pantanal ecosystem. The present study evaluated animals sampled from 10 distinct locations within the region, using 19 microsatellite markers (N = 189) and the control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (N = 392). Low genetic differences were found between populations with the microsatellite data. The FST range was between 0.009 and 0.063 (p-value < 0.05). The Mantel test corroborated with previous results, as low correlations between genetic and geographic distances were observed (r2 = 0.2309, p = 0.06). Bayesian analysis for genetic structure identification placed the Monteiro pigs into three main clusters (MOB, Pop 1 and all others Pantanal populations). Most of the Monteiro pigs share a single European haplotype as seen by mtDNA analyses. This haplotype is not exclusive, as it is shared with other swine populations (commercial and other locally adapted breeds). Monteiro populations from different geographic locations within Pantanal are not isolated and can be considered as a large unique population. Since animals roam freely to seek food and water, or even due to seasonal flooding of their habitat, the Monteiro populations presented absence of major genetic structure and evidence of high gene flow. These results can be used to create a management plan and in situ and ex situ conservation program for conservation and use of the Monteiro breed in the Pantanal ecosystem.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Suínos/genética , Áreas Alagadas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogeografia , Suínos/fisiologia
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20200328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785445

RESUMO

Publishing profiles can help institutions and financing agencies understand the different needs of knowledge areas and regions for development within a country. Incites ® (Web of Science) was used to see where Brazilian authors were publishing, the impact, and the cost of this publishing. The USA was the country of choice for publishing journals, along with Brazil, England, and the Netherlands. While Brazilian authors continue to publish in hybrid journals, they are more often opting for closed access, with 89% of the papers published in Brazil being open access, compared with 21% of papers published abroad. The correlation between the cost of publishing and the number of citations was positive and significant. Publishing patterns were different depending on the area of knowledge and the Brazilian region. Stagnation or reduction in publications with international collaboration, industry collaboration, or in high impact open access journals may be the cause of a reduction in citation impact. These data can help in elaborating public and institutional policies for financing publications in Brazil, especially when looking at unfavourable changes in currency exchange rates.


Assuntos
Publicações , Editoração , Brasil
18.
Front Genet ; 11: 710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754198

RESUMO

Cattle breeding routinely uses crossbreeding between subspecies (Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus) to form composite breeds, such as Brangus. These composite breeds provide an opportunity to identify recent selection signatures formed in the new population and evaluate the genomic composition of these regions of the genome. Using high-density genotyping, we first identified runs of homozygosity (ROH) and calculated genomic inbreeding. Then, we evaluated the genomic composition of the regions identified as selected (selective sweeps) using a chromosome painting approach. The genomic inbreeding increased at approximately 1% per generation after composite breed formation, showing the need of inbreeding control even in composite breeds. Three selected regions in Brangus were also identified as Angus selection signatures. Two regions (chromosomes 14 and 21) were identified as signatures of selection in Brangus and both founder breeds. Five of the 10 homozygous regions in Brangus were predominantly Angus in origin (probability >80%), and the other five regions had a mixed origin but always with Brahman contributing less than 50%. Therefore, genetic events, such as drift, selection, and complementarity, are likely shaping the genetic composition of founder breeds in specific genomic regions. Such findings highlight a variety of opportunities to better control the selection process and explore heterosis and complementarity at the genomic level in composite breeds.

19.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(11): 1981-1983, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691150

RESUMO

Tight junctions are almost impermeable structures located near the apical border of epithelial cells; increase in the permeability of mammary gland cells' tight junctions may alter milk composition and its suitability for industrialization. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows were studied to evaluate mammary gland cells' tight junction permeability (indicated by plasma lactose levels) from cows producing stable or unstable milk to ethanol at 72 °GL concentration. Rectal temperature, respiratory rate and milk parameters were also compared and weather conditions (temperature-humidity index) monitored. Temperature-humidity index did not vary for cows producing stable or unstable milk, so there were no differences in physiological traits. Cows producing unstable milk presented elevated tight junctions' permeability, probably due to higher days in milk. The odds of cows producing unstable milk (clots formation when mixed with ethanol below or equal 72 °GL) increases according to elevations in days in milk and tight junction permeability.


Assuntos
Leite , Junções Íntimas , Animais , Bovinos , Etanol , Feminino , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Permeabilidade
20.
Theriogenology ; 155: 157-167, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679441

RESUMO

Climatic variables can trigger physiological, biochemical, haematological and hormonal alterations that influence the maintenance of homeothermy and can affect production and productivity in sheep. Different mechanisms are responsible for tolerance to heat stress (HS) including coat and skin colour, body size, fat distribution, physiological reactions and not just coat type (hair/wool). This review looks at physical, physiological, molecular and genetic aspects of heat tolerance in sheep and how they affect hair and wool sheep. We propose that it is the adaptation to hot environments and not the type of coat (wool/hair) itself that determines the capacity of the resistance of the animal to HS, due to modifications in essential pathways such as energy metabolism, physiological responses and body size. When studied in similar environments, commercial wool breeds tend to show higher heat stress, but hair breeds tend not to differ from wool breeds that are adapted to hot environments.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Cabelo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética ,
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