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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 97(2): 199-215, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26166479

RESUMO

Discovering the genetic basis of a Mendelian phenotype establishes a causal link between genotype and phenotype, making possible carrier and population screening and direct diagnosis. Such discoveries also contribute to our knowledge of gene function, gene regulation, development, and biological mechanisms that can be used for developing new therapeutics. As of February 2015, 2,937 genes underlying 4,163 Mendelian phenotypes have been discovered, but the genes underlying ∼50% (i.e., 3,152) of all known Mendelian phenotypes are still unknown, and many more Mendelian conditions have yet to be recognized. This is a formidable gap in biomedical knowledge. Accordingly, in December 2011, the NIH established the Centers for Mendelian Genomics (CMGs) to provide the collaborative framework and infrastructure necessary for undertaking large-scale whole-exome sequencing and discovery of the genetic variants responsible for Mendelian phenotypes. In partnership with 529 investigators from 261 institutions in 36 countries, the CMGs assessed 18,863 samples from 8,838 families representing 579 known and 470 novel Mendelian phenotypes as of January 2015. This collaborative effort has identified 956 genes, including 375 not previously associated with human health, that underlie a Mendelian phenotype. These results provide insight into study design and analytical strategies, identify novel mechanisms of disease, and reveal the extensive clinical variability of Mendelian phenotypes. Discovering the gene underlying every Mendelian phenotype will require tackling challenges such as worldwide ascertainment and phenotypic characterization of families affected by Mendelian conditions, improvement in sequencing and analytical techniques, and pervasive sharing of phenotypic and genomic data among researchers, clinicians, and families.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genética Médica/métodos , Genética Médica/tendências , Fenótipo , Proteínas/genética , Humanos
2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(5): 841-9, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25957469

RESUMO

Multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare Mendelian conditions characterized by multiple pterygia, scoliosis, and congenital contractures of the limbs. MPS typically segregates as an autosomal-recessive disorder, but rare instances of autosomal-dominant transmission have been reported. Whereas several mutations causing recessive MPS have been identified, the genetic basis of dominant MPS remains unknown. We identified four families affected by dominantly transmitted MPS characterized by pterygia, camptodactyly of the hands, vertebral fusions, and scoliosis. Exome sequencing identified predicted protein-altering mutations in embryonic myosin heavy chain (MYH3) in three families. MYH3 mutations underlie distal arthrogryposis types 1, 2A, and 2B, but all mutations reported to date occur in the head and neck domains. In contrast, two of the mutations found to cause MPS in this study occurred in the tail domain. The phenotypic overlap among persons with MPS, coupled with physical findings distinct from other conditions caused by mutations in MYH3, suggests that the developmental mechanism underlying MPS differs from that of other conditions and/or that certain functions of embryonic myosin might be perturbed by disruption of specific residues and/or domains. Moreover, the vertebral fusions in persons with MPS, coupled with evidence of MYH3 expression in bone, suggest that embryonic myosin plays a role in skeletal development.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Miosinas/biossíntese , Artrogripose/fisiopatologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/biossíntese , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação , Miosinas/genética , Osteogênese/genética
3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(12): 3348-58, 2015 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25740846

RESUMO

Distal arthrogryposis is the most common known heritable cause of congenital contractures (e.g. clubfoot) and results from mutations in genes that encode proteins of the contractile complex of skeletal muscle cells. Mutations are most frequently found in MYH3 and are predicted to impair the function of embryonic myosin. We measured the contractile properties of individual skeletal muscle cells and the activation and relaxation kinetics of isolated myofibrils from two adult individuals with an R672C substitution in embryonic myosin and distal arthrogryposis syndrome 2A (DA2A) or Freeman-Sheldon syndrome. In R672C-containing muscle cells, we observed reduced specific force, a prolonged time to relaxation and incomplete relaxation (elevated residual force). In R672C-containing muscle myofibrils, the initial, slower phase of relaxation had a longer duration and slower rate, and time to complete relaxation was greatly prolonged. These observations can be collectively explained by a small subpopulation of myosin cross-bridges with greatly reduced detachment kinetics, resulting in a slower and less complete deactivation of thin filaments at the end of contractions. These findings have important implications for selecting and testing directed therapeutic options for persons with DA2A and perhaps congenital contractures in general.


Assuntos
Disostose Craniofacial/genética , Disostose Craniofacial/fisiopatologia , Contração Muscular/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Miosinas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Cálcio/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Disostose Craniofacial/patologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Miofibrilas/genética , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167(7): 1483-92, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25755104

RESUMO

Speech and language deficits are commonly associated with Kabuki syndrome. Yet little is known regarding the specific symptomatology of these disorders, preventing use of targeted treatment programs. Here we detail speech and language in 16 individuals with Kabuki syndrome (thirteen with KMT2D mutations, one with a KDM6A mutation, and two mutation-negative cases), aged 4-21 years. The most striking speech deficit was dysarthria, characterised by imprecise consonants, harsh vocal quality, hypernasality, reduced rate and stress, and distorted pitch. Oromotor functioning was also impaired. Delayed, rather than disordered, articulation and phonology was common. Both receptive and expressive language abilities were reduced in the majority and deficits were noted across all language sub-domains (i.e., semantics, syntax, morphology, and pragmatics) with no clear differentiation or specific language profile. Individuals with Kabuki syndrome present with a heterogenous pattern of oromotor, speech, and language deficits. This variability fits with the multisystem nature of the disorder, which may encompass neurological, orofacial structural, hearing, and cognitive deficits, any or all of which may contribute to speech or language impairment. Our results suggest that all individuals with Kabuki syndrome have some level of communication deficit, warranting speech pathology involvement in all cases.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Face/anormalidades , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Doenças Hematológicas/patologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/patologia , Distúrbios da Fala/patologia , Doenças Vestibulares/genética , Doenças Vestibulares/patologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Face/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(3): 462-73, 2015 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25683120

RESUMO

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, or distal arthrogryposis type 2A (DA2A), is an autosomal-dominant condition caused by mutations in MYH3 and characterized by multiple congenital contractures of the face and limbs and normal cognitive development. We identified a subset of five individuals who had been putatively diagnosed with "DA2A with severe neurological abnormalities" and for whom congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and global developmental delay had resulted in early death in three cases; this is a unique condition that we now refer to as CLIFAHDD syndrome. Exome sequencing identified missense mutations in the sodium leak channel, non-selective (NALCN) in four families affected by CLIFAHDD syndrome. We used molecular-inversion probes to screen for NALCN in a cohort of 202 distal arthrogryposis (DA)-affected individuals as well as concurrent exome sequencing of six other DA-affected individuals, thus revealing NALCN mutations in ten additional families with "atypical" forms of DA. All 14 mutations were missense variants predicted to alter amino acid residues in or near the S5 and S6 pore-forming segments of NALCN, highlighting the functional importance of these segments. In vitro functional studies demonstrated that NALCN alterations nearly abolished the expression of wild-type NALCN, suggesting that alterations that cause CLIFAHDD syndrome have a dominant-negative effect. In contrast, homozygosity for mutations in other regions of NALCN has been reported in three families affected by an autosomal-recessive condition characterized mainly by hypotonia and severe intellectual disability. Accordingly, mutations in NALCN can cause either a recessive or dominant condition characterized by varied though overlapping phenotypic features, perhaps based on the type of mutation and affected protein domain(s).


Assuntos
Contratura/genética , Extremidades/fisiopatologia , Face/anormalidades , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Artrogripose/genética , Disostose Craniofacial/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Exoma , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Canais de Sódio/metabolismo
6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(11): 2808-13, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25256237

RESUMO

Distal arthrogryposis (DA) syndromes are a group of disorders characterized by multiple congenital contractures. DA type 2A (DA2A or Freeman-Sheldon syndrome), caused by mutations in MYH3, is typically considered the most severe of the DA syndromes. However, there is wide phenotypic variability among individuals with DA2A. We characterized genotype-phenotype relationships in 46 families with DA2A. MYH3 mutations were found in 43/46 (93%) kindreds, with three mutations (p.T178I, p.R672C, and p.R672H) explaining 39/43 (91%) of cases. Phenotypic severity varied significantly by genotype (P=0.0055). Individuals with p.T178I were the most severely affected with both facial contractures and congenital scoliosis. Classification of individuals with DA2A into phenotypic groups of varying severity should facilitate providing families with more accurate information about natural history and suggests that individuals might benefit from personalized medical management motivated by MYH3 genotype.


Assuntos
Disostose Craniofacial/diagnóstico , Disostose Craniofacial/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Radiografia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 94(5): 734-44, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24726473

RESUMO

Gordon syndrome (GS), or distal arthrogryposis type 3, is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cleft palate and congenital contractures of the hands and feet. Exome sequencing of five GS-affected families identified mutations in piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 (PIEZO2) in each family. Sanger sequencing revealed PIEZO2 mutations in five of seven additional families studied (for a total of 10/12 [83%] individuals), and nine families had an identical c.8057G>A (p.Arg2686His) mutation. The phenotype of GS overlaps with distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWS). Using molecular inversion probes for targeted sequencing to screen PIEZO2, we found mutations in 24/29 (82%) DA5-affected families and one of two MWS-affected families. The presence of cleft palate was significantly associated with c.8057G>A (Fisher's exact test, adjusted p value < 0.0001). Collectively, although GS, DA5, and MWS have traditionally been considered separate disorders, our findings indicate that they are etiologically related and perhaps represent variable expressivity of the same condition.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Aracnodactilia/genética , Artrogripose/genética , Blefarofimose/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Pé Torto Equinovaro/genética , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Contratura/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Canais Iônicos/genética , Oftalmoplegia/genética , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Aracnodactilia/patologia , Artrogripose/patologia , Blefarofimose/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Pé Torto Equinovaro/patologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/patologia , Contratura/patologia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Oftalmoplegia/patologia , Linhagem , Doenças Retinianas/patologia
8.
Mamm Genome ; 24(9-10): 400-8, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23949773

RESUMO

Most mammals possess a tail, humans and the Great Apes being notable exceptions. One approach to understanding the mechanisms and evolutionary forces influencing development of a tail is to identify the genetic factors that influence extreme tail length variation within a species. In mice, the Tailless locus has proven to be complex, with evidence of multiple different genes and mutations with pleiotropic effects on tail length, fertility, embryogenesis, male transmission ratio, and meiotic recombination. Five cat breeds have abnormal tail length phenotypes: the American Bobtail, the Manx, the Pixie-Bob, the Kurilian Bobtail, and the Japanese Bobtail. We sequenced the T gene in several independent lineages of Manx cats from both the US and the Isle of Man and identified three 1-bp deletions and one duplication/deletion, each predicted to cause a frameshift that leads to premature termination and truncation of the carboxy terminal end of the Brachyury protein. Ninety-five percent of Manx cats with short-tail phenotypes were heterozygous for T mutations, mutant alleles appeared to be largely lineage-specific, and a maximum LOD score of 6.21 with T was obtained at a recombination fraction (Θ) of 0.00. One mutant T allele was shared with American Bobtails and Pixie-Bobs; both breeds developed more recently in the US. The ability of mutant Brachyury protein to activate transcription of a downstream target was substantially lower than wild-type protein. Collectively, these results suggest that haploinsufficiency of Brachyury is one mechanism underlying variable tail length in domesticated cats.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fetais/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Cauda/anatomia & histologia , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Gatos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Proteínas Fetais/química , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Haploinsuficiência , Escore Lod , Masculino , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Deleção de Sequência , Proteínas com Domínio T/química
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 92(4): 621-6, 2013 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23541344

RESUMO

Scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp; minor anomalies of the external ears, digits, and nails; and malformations of the breast. We used linkage analysis and exome sequencing of a multiplex family affected by SEN syndrome to identify potassium-channel tetramerization-domain-containing 1 (KCTD1) mutations that cause SEN syndrome. Evaluation of a total of ten families affected by SEN syndrome revealed KCTD1 missense mutations in each family tested. All of the mutations occurred in a KCTD1 region encoding a highly conserved bric-a-brac, tram track, and broad complex (BTB) domain that is required for transcriptional repressor activity. KCTD1 inhibits the transactivation of the transcription factor AP-2α (TFAP2A) via its BTB domain, and mutations in TFAP2A cause cutis aplasia in individuals with branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), suggesting a potential overlap in the pathogenesis of SEN syndrome and BOFS. The identification of KCTD1 mutations in SEN syndrome reveals a role for this BTB-domain-containing transcriptional repressor during ectodermal development.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Síndrome Brânquio-Otorrenal/etiologia , Displasia Ectodérmica/etiologia , Exoma/genética , Hipospadia/etiologia , Hipotonia Muscular/etiologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Síndrome Brânquio-Otorrenal/patologia , Orelha Externa/anormalidades , Orelha Externa/patologia , Displasia Ectodérmica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipospadia/patologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Mamilos/anormalidades , Mamilos/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Couro Cabeludo/anormalidades , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(3): 550-5, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23401156

RESUMO

The distal arthrogryposis (DA) syndromes are a group of disorders characterized by non-progressive congenital contractures of the limbs. Mutations that cause distal arthrogryposis syndromes have been reported in six genes, each of which encodes a component of the contractile apparatus of skeletal myofibers. However, these reports have usually emanated from gene discovery efforts and thus potentially bias estimates of the frequency of pathogenic mutations at each locus. We characterized the spectrum of pathogenic variants in a cohort of 153 cases of DA1 (n = 48) and DA2B (n = 105). Disease-causing mutations in 56/153 (37%) kindreds including 14/48 (29%) with DA1 and 42/105 (40%) with DA2B were distributed nearly equally across TNNI2, TNNT3, TPM2, and MYH3. In TNNI2, TNNT3, and TPM2 the same mutation caused DA1 in some families and DA2B in others. We found no significant differences among the clinical characteristics of DA by locus or between each locus and DA1 or DA2B. Collectively, the substantial overlap between phenotypic characteristics and spectrum of mutations suggests that DA1 and DA2B should be considered phenotypic extremes of the same disorder.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Deleção de Sequência , Tropomiosina/genética , Troponina I/genética , Troponina T/genética
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 92(1): 137-43, 2013 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23273567

RESUMO

Opsismodysplasia is a rare, autosomal-recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, characteristic facial features, and in some cases severe renal phosphate wasting. We used linkage analysis and whole-genome sequencing of a consanguineous trio to discover that mutations in inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1 (INPPL1) cause opsismodysplasia with or without renal phosphate wasting. Evaluation of 12 families with opsismodysplasia revealed that INPPL1 mutations explain ~60% of cases overall, including both of the families in our cohort with more than one affected child and 50% of the simplex cases.


Assuntos
Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol-3,4,5-Trifosfato 5-Fosfatases
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 92(1): 150-6, 2013 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23261301

RESUMO

Distal arthrogryposis (DA) syndromes are the most common of the heritable congenital-contracture disorders, and ~50% of cases are caused by mutations in genes that encode contractile proteins of skeletal myofibers. DA type 5D (DA5D) is a rare, autosomal-recessive DA previously defined by us and is characterized by congenital contractures of the hands and feet, along with distinctive facial features, including ptosis. We used linkage analysis and whole-genome sequencing of a multiplex consanguineous family to identify in endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1) mutations that result in DA5D. Evaluation of a total of seven families affected by DA5D revealed in five families ECEL1 mutations that explain ~70% of cases overall. ECEL1 encodes a neuronal endopeptidase and is expressed in the brain and peripheral nerves. Mice deficient in Ecel1 exhibit perturbed terminal branching of motor neurons to the endplate of skeletal muscles, resulting in poor formation of the neuromuscular junction. Our results distinguish a second developmental pathway that causes congenital-contracture syndromes.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 158A(6): 1310-9, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22532433

RESUMO

Scientific evidence on the extent to which ethical concerns about privacy, confidentiality, and return of results for whole genome sequencing (WGS) are effectively conveyed by informed consent (IC) is lacking. The aim of this study was to learn, via qualitative interviews, about participant expectations and perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Participants in two families with Miller syndrome consented for WGS were interviewed about their experiences of the IC process and their perceptions of risks, benefits, and harms of WGS. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for common themes. IC documents are included in the Supplementary Materials. Participants expressed minimal concerns about privacy and confidentiality with regard to both their participation and sharing of their WGS data in restricted access databases. Participants expressed strong preferences about how results should be returned, requesting both flexibility of the results return process and options for the types of results to be returned. Participant concerns about risks to privacy and confidentiality from broad sharing of WGS data are likely to be strongly influenced by social and medical context. In these families with a rare Mendelian syndrome, the perceived benefits of participation strongly trumped concerns about risks. Individual preferences, for results return, even within a family, varied widely. This underscores the need to develop a framework for results return that allows explicitly for participant preferences and enables modifications to preferences over time. Web-based tools that facilitate participant management of their individual research results could accommodate such a framework.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Análise de Sequência de DNA/ética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/diagnóstico , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Disostose Mandibulofacial/diagnóstico , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Micrognatismo/diagnóstico , Micrognatismo/genética , Privacidade , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 155A(7): 1511-6, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21671394

RESUMO

Kabuki syndrome is a rare, multiple malformation disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, cardiac anomalies, skeletal abnormalities, and mild to moderate intellectual disability. Simplex cases make up the vast majority of the reported cases with Kabuki syndrome, but parent-to-child transmission in more than a half-dozen instances indicates that it is an autosomal dominant disorder. We recently reported that Kabuki syndrome is caused by mutations in MLL2, a gene that encodes a Trithorax-group histone methyltransferase, a protein important in the epigenetic control of active chromatin states. Here, we report on the screening of 110 families with Kabuki syndrome. MLL2 mutations were found in 81/110 (74%) of families. In simplex cases for which DNA was available from both parents, 25 mutations were confirmed to be de novo, while a transmitted MLL2 mutation was found in two of three familial cases. The majority of variants found to cause Kabuki syndrome were novel nonsense or frameshift mutations that are predicted to result in haploinsufficiency. The clinical characteristics of MLL2 mutation-positive cases did not differ significantly from MLL2 mutation-negative cases with the exception that renal anomalies were more common in MLL2 mutation-positive cases. These results are important for understanding the phenotypic consequences of MLL2 mutations for individuals and their families as well as for providing a basis for the identification of additional genes for Kabuki syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Doenças Vestibulares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Alelos , Face/anormalidades , Ordem dos Genes , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico
15.
Nat Genet ; 42(9): 790-3, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20711175

RESUMO

We demonstrate the successful application of exome sequencing to discover a gene for an autosomal dominant disorder, Kabuki syndrome (OMIM%147920). We subjected the exomes of ten unrelated probands to massively parallel sequencing. After filtering against existing SNP databases, there was no compelling candidate gene containing previously unknown variants in all affected individuals. Less stringent filtering criteria allowed for the presence of modest genetic heterogeneity or missing data but also identified multiple candidate genes. However, genotypic and phenotypic stratification highlighted MLL2, which encodes a Trithorax-group histone methyltransferase: seven probands had newly identified nonsense or frameshift mutations in this gene. Follow-up Sanger sequencing detected MLL2 mutations in two of the three remaining individuals with Kabuki syndrome (cases) and in 26 of 43 additional cases. In families where parental DNA was available, the mutation was confirmed to be de novo (n = 12) or transmitted (n = 2) in concordance with phenotype. Our results strongly suggest that mutations in MLL2 are a major cause of Kabuki syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Frequência do Gene , Ligação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Síndrome , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
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