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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917883

RESUMO

Research has identified discrimination and a lack of knowledgeable providers as major barriers for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals seeking care, which contributes to greater stress and significant health disparities affecting this population. However, research involving TGD youth is limited. The aim of this study, therefore, was to describe TGD adolescents' experiences, concerns and needs in healthcare settings, including their feedback on themes previously identified by healthcare providers (i.e. discomfort with gender-related topics, reasons for not asking patients about gender and previous training regarding gender diversity). The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 TGD-identified adolescents aged 14-17, living in Minnesota, USA in 2017-2018. Inductive thematic analysis was used to summarise participant comments into themes and subthemes. Two main themes were directly relevant to concerns and needs of TGD youth in healthcare settings and their views on healthcare providers' concerns: (a) asking about gender and pronouns and (b) training for healthcare providers. Findings suggest the need for revisions to clinic materials, infrastructure and protocols. Adding training to all general medical and nursing education to increase knowledge, comfort and competence around gender identity would further improve care and ultimately reduce healthcare disparities affecting TGD youth.

2.
J Interpers Violence ; 35(3-4): 662-681, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294639

RESUMO

Retrospective studies using adult self-report data have demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase risk of violence perpetration and victimization. However, research examining the associations between adolescent reports of ACE and school violence involvement is sparse. The present study examines the relationship between adolescent reported ACE and multiple types of on-campus violence (bringing a weapon to campus, being threatened with a weapon, bullying, fighting, vandalism) for boys and girls as well as the risk of membership in victim, perpetrator, and victim-perpetrator groups. The analytic sample was comprised of ninth graders who participated in the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (n ~ 37,000). Multinomial logistic regression models calculated the risk of membership for victim only, perpetrator only, and victim-perpetrator subgroups, relative to no violence involvement, for students with ACE as compared with those with no ACE. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association between cumulative ACE and school-based violence, adjusting for age, ethnicity, family structure, poverty status, internalizing symptoms, and school district size. Nearly 30% of students were exposed to at least one ACE. Students with ACE represent 19% of no violence, 38% of victim only, 40% of perpetrator only, and 63% of victim-perpetrator groups. There was a strong, graded relationship between ACE and the probability of school-based victimization: physical bullying for boys but not girls, being threatened with a weapon, and theft or property destruction (ps < .001) and perpetration: bullying and bringing a weapon to campus (ps < .001), with boys especially vulnerable to the negative effects of cumulative ACE. We recommend that schools systematically screen for ACE, particularly among younger adolescents involved in victimization and perpetration, and develop the infrastructure to increase access to trauma-informed intervention services. Future research priorities and implications are discussed.

3.
Glob Health Promot ; : 1757975919878179, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749404

RESUMO

Adolescent and emerging adult risk behavior is a concern globally. Discussing health promotive and risk behaviors with adolescents and young adults can be challenging regardless of the country of data collection and dominant culture. In the United States, event history calendars have been used in both research and clinical settings to identify healthy and risky behaviors among adolescents and emerging adults, and contextual factors that may influence their behavior. After an unsuccessful attempt to employ a particular event history calendar on family life, negative and positive events, sexual behavior and substance use in data collection in rural fishing villages in Western Uganda, the current study aimed to modify the United States validated event history calendar for use with adolescents in Uganda, as a first step to cultural adaptation. Focus groups with 24 college students provided information about ways to modify the event history calendar for Ugandan youth. This paper discusses the modifications of the event history calendar for Ugandan young people.

4.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; : 1359104519868493, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We tested a model that incorporated potential developmental assets through which connections to parents and friends reduce the likelihood of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents. METHOD: Data came from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey, a population-based survey of 8th, 9th, and 11th grade students (N = 119,452). Chi-square test, t-test, and correlations evaluated bivariate relationships between all variables. Indirect effects of three developmental assets (social competency, positive identity, and empowerment) were modeled simultaneously on associations between connections to parents and friends, and past-year NSSI. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses demonstrated protective effects of parent and friend connections on NSSI and that all developmental assets were negatively associated with NSSI. After accounting for demographic variables and associations between developmental assets in a multiple mediator path model, connections to parents showed a stronger, negative direct relationship with NSSI than did connections to friends. Developmental assets, especially positive identity and empowerment, accounted for a greater proportion of the effect of connections to friends on NSSI than the effect of connections to parents. Finally, social competency was no longer significantly related to NSSI in the multiple mediator path model. CONCLUSION: Clinical efforts to prevent NSSI should focus on enhancing adolescents' sense of positive identity and empowerment, as well as connections to parents and prosocial friends.

5.
J LGBT Youth ; 16(3): 235-254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156739

RESUMO

This study examines the intersection of sexual and gender identities among adolescents, including the prevalence of these groups and rates of emotional distress and bullying victimization. Data come from a large population-based sample; two measures of sexual orientation and gender identity create eight identity groups. Youth who report identifying both as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer/questioning (LGBQ) and as transgender/gender diverse (TGD) had significantly higher levels of two measures of emotional distress and four measures of bullying victimization than those who report only identifying as LGBQ non-TGD or straight TGD. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

6.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 33(4): 394-403, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined longitudinal associations between stressful life events and depressive symptoms, assessed during two time points of adolescence, and sexual risk behavior, assessed during young adulthood. METHODS: Structural equation modeling was conducted with three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. RESULTS: Analyses revealed bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and depressive symptoms during the two time points of adolescence. Adolescent depressive symptoms indirectly affected young adult sexual risk behavior through adolescent stressful life events. Adolescent stressful life events during late adolescence were directly associated with young adult sexual risk behavior. DISCUSSION: Findings highlight the need to screen for both depression and stressful life events during adolescence, to identify at-risk adolescents and deliver tailored interventions to prevent sexual risk behavior during young adulthood.

7.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 33(4): 379-385, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827755

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nurses and physicians receive minimal training about providing competent care to transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) patients, and training specific to TGD youth is particularly lacking. This qualitative study examined health care providers' experiences and attitudes about working with TGD youth to identify specific training needs. METHOD: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 nurses and physicians who work with adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to characterize participants' responses. RESULTS: Five themes summarized participants' responses to interview questions: Training Regarding Gender Diversity, Discomfort With Gender-Related Topics, Reasons for Not Asking About Gender, Talking About Gender With Patients, and Need for Resources. DISCUSSION: Findings highlight multiple opportunities to improve provider education and care experiences of TGD youth. Specific training is needed to help providers manage discomfort with gender-related topics and simultaneously develop their knowledge of and skills for discussing gender issues.

8.
J Adolesc Health ; 64(4): 516-522, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578117

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited longitudinal research has examined the adult health and behavioral outcomes associated with early adolescent sexual behavior. This paper examined whether adolescent sexual behavior predicted young adult health and social outcomes within longitudinal cohorts in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Adolescents were recruited in 2002 to be state-representative of school students in Victoria, Australia, and resurveyed in 2003 and 2004. The sample responded to a web-based survey as young adults in 2010/2011. Multivariate negative binomial regression models examined the predictive effect of sex by age 15 on young adult outcomes (average age 21) of sexual risk taking, substance use, antisocial behavior, and psychological distress (N = 2,147). RESULTS: After adjustment for other factors, sex at age 15 or younger (early sex) predicted higher rates of young adult sexual risk taking such as pregnancy, lifetime partners, and sex without using a condom. Early sex also predicted higher rates of young adult substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and/or illicit substance use) and antisocial behavior, but rates of adult psychological distress were not affected. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that early adolescent sex had unique predictive effects on a range of adverse young adulthood outcomes. Public health policies should synthesize longitudinal data on the risks of early sexual behavior, while advocating evidence-based adolescent sexual health promotion interventions.

9.
J Gambl Stud ; 35(1): 79-92, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343416

RESUMO

Most gambling research utilizes general youth samples and focuses on binary gender categories; few studies examine and compare gambling behaviors between transgender and gender diverse (TGD) youth and their cisgender peers. The current study used population-based data from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey to compare the prevalence of gambling behaviors and problem gambling among TGD versus cisgender adolescents, in addition to examining differences by birth-assigned sex. The analytic sample consisted of 80,929 students (including, n = 2168 [2.7%] TGD) in 9th and 11th grades. Chi-square tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used for all comparisons. TGD youth reported greater involvement in most gambling behaviors and problem gambling compared to cisgender youth. In comparisons by birth-assigned sex, TGD youth assigned male at birth were particularly at risk for gambling involvement and problem gambling. TGD youth assigned female at birth also reported higher rates of problem gambling than both cisgender youth assigned male and female at birth. Results suggest that examining rates of gambling behavior and problem gambling as well as identifying disparities in vulnerable youth populations is crucial in order to develop culturally responsive and gender inclusive prevention, intervention, and outreach programs.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Addict Behav ; 89: 240-247, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between psychosocial risk factors (e.g., perceptions of health risk, peer and parent influences, and school climate) and adolescent tobacco use. However, whether internal assets (IAs), factors that promote healthy youth development, can mitigate the adverse effects of psychosocial risks on tobacco use has not been well researched. METHOD: Using a population-based sample of middle and high school students (N = 112,364), multilevel logistic and negative binomial regression models estimated the direct effects of cumulative psychosocial risks and IAs on student tobacco use (e.g., combustible, non-combustible, alternative delivery systems) and assessed whether IAs moderated the relationship between psychosocial risks and tobacco use. RESULTS: Results indicate that every additional psychosocial risk factor was associated with an estimated 100% (AOR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.88-2.22) to 57% (AOR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.52-1.62) increase in the odds of using tobacco and a 60% increase in the estimated number of products used. IAs were inversely associated with tobacco use and attenuated the association between cumulative psychosocial risks and use. Among students experiencing all five psychosocial risks, boys had an estimated 20% reduction, and girls an estimated 50% reduction, in the probability of tobacco use at the highest mean scores of IAs. CONCLUSION: Universal, school-based prevention programs will benefit from identifying and targeting a set of shared risk and protective factors for tobacco use. Bolstering resilience by facilitating students' IAs represents a promising direction for youth focused prevention efforts.

11.
J Rural Health ; 35(2): 270-281, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the root causes of the substantial disparities in risk and protective factors among transgender and gender diverse (TGD) adolescents is essential to the development and expansion of resources and supports for this vulnerable population. This study examines differences in emotional distress, bullying victimization, and protective factors among TGD high school students in city, suburban, town, and rural locations. METHODS: Data come from a statewide school-based survey conducted in Minnesota in 2016 (n = 2,168 TGD youth). Analysis of covariance models were used to predict the prevalence of multiple indicators of emotional distress, bullying victimization, and protective factors across the 4 location categories, with multiple adjustments. FINDINGS: Significant linear trends were observed for 2 emotional distress outcomes and 2 bullying victimization outcomes, with urban TGD students having the lowest rates and rural having the highest prevalences. Additional significant differences in emotional distress were noted, with unexpectedly high rates of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among suburban students. CONCLUSIONS: Helping TGD adolescents in all types of locations identify resources and supportive professionals is critical to supporting this population.

12.
Arch Suicide Res ; 23(2): 203-221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461934

RESUMO

This study sought to identify factors distinguishing transgender/gender non-conforming (GNC) adolescents across three groups: no self-harm, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) only, and NSSI and suicide attempt (NSSI + SA). Data were from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey. The final analytic sample included 1,635 transgender/GNC students in grades 9 and 11. Logistic regression analyses determined factors that best distinguished transgender/GNC students who reported self-harm (NSSI only or NSSI + SA) from those who reported no self-harm, and transgender/GNC adolescents who reported NSSI + SA from those who reported NSSI only. Final models were developed over 3 stages of analysis that tested associations of variables within risk factor, protective factor, and health-risk behavior domains to self-harm. Over half (51.6%) of transgender/GNC adolescents reported past-year self-harm behavior. Factors that consistently distinguished transgender/GNC youth who reported self-harm from those who reported no self-harm included reports of a mental health problem, depression, running away from home, and substance use (alcohol or marijuana use). Factors that distinguished the NSSI + SA group from the NSSI only group were reports of a mental health problem, physical or sexual abuse, relationship violence, bullying victimization, less parent connectedness, lower grades, lower levels of perceived school safety, and running away from home. Clinicians and school personnel need to be prepared to address risk factors and enhance protective factors that may reduce the likelihood this population of vulnerable youth will engage in NSSI and/or attempt suicide.

13.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(6): 787-794, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Important mental and physical health disparities exist for transgender and gender diverse youth compared with cisgender youth (i.e., those whose birth-assigned sex and gender identity align), yet little is known about factors that protect transgender and gender diverse youth from health problems. The objective of this paper is to identify modifiable protective factors in the lives of transgender and gender diverse adolescents, with the goal of informing efforts to eliminate disparities in depression, suicidality, and substance use in this population. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey examined associations between eight protective factors (connectedness to parents, adult relatives, friends, adults in the community, and teachers; youth development opportunities; and feeling safe in the community and at school) and depression, suicidality, and substance use (alcohol, binge drinking, marijuana, nicotine) among 2,168 adolescents who identified as transgender, genderqueer, genderfluid, or questioning their gender. Logistic regressions assessed the role of each protective factor separately and simultaneously. RESULTS: Each protective factor was associated with lower odds of emotional distress and substance use. When protective factors were examined simultaneously, parent connectedness was protective for all measures. Feeling safe at school and connected to adults in one's community protected against depression and suicidality; teacher connectedness buffered risk of substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Given that transgender and gender diverse youth report lower levels of connectedness and safety, bolstering an explicitly transgender and gender diverse-friendly network of caring parents, safe and supportive schools, and connections to adults in the community may support efforts to eliminate disparities in depression, suicidality, and substance use.


Assuntos
Fatores de Proteção , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Adolesc ; 68: 146-151, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor family management and antisocial peer associations are related risk factors for negative outcomes such as adolescent substance misuse and conduct disorders. The relationship between family management and antisocial peer associations is complex. The purpose of this study was to test the reciprocal relationships between youth-reports of poor family management and antisocial peer associations over multiple time-points. METHODS: We used four data points (5th-11th grade) from the Australian arm of the longitudinal International Youth Development Study (IYDS) to test a random-intercepts cross-lagged path model (N = 922). RESULTS: The model fit the data well with path estimates showing that poor family management predicted greater antisocial peer associations at the next wave but not the reverse. A second model included a third autoregressive path to control for youth's own antisocial behavior; the direction of the relationships between poor family management and antisocial peer associations did not change. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that across adolescence poor family management predicts greater antisocial peer association, which provides evidence that family-focused interventions are an important prevention strategy even in adolescence.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 268: 65-67, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005190

RESUMO

We examined associations between social connections and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among transgender/gender non-conforming (TGNC) youth. Data came from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 2168). Logistic regression analyses determined connectedness factors associated with any past-year NSSI and repetitive NSSI, as well as moderating effects of significant connectedness factors on different risk factors. Almost 55% of TGNC students engaged in NSSI, and 40% of self-injurers reported repetitive self-injury. Parent connectedness, connections to non-parental adults, and school safety emerged as robust protective factors. Strategies to prevent/reduce NSSI should focus on fostering connections with prosocial adults, and ensuring schools represent safe places.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
LGBT Health ; 5(5): 312-319, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As measures of birth-assigned sex, gender identity, and perceived gender presentation are increasingly included in large-scale research studies, data analysis approaches incorporating such measures are needed. Large samples capable of demonstrating variation within the transgender and gender diverse (TGD) community can inform intervention efforts to improve health equity. A population-based sample of TGD youth was used to examine associations between perceived gender presentation, bullying victimization, and emotional distress using two data analysis approaches. METHODS: This secondary data analysis of the Minnesota Student Survey included 2168 9th and 11th graders who identified as "transgender, genderqueer, genderfluid, or unsure about their gender identity." Youth reported their biological sex, how others perceived their gender presentation, experiences of four forms of bullying victimization, and four measures of emotional distress. Logistic regression and multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare and contrast two analysis approaches. RESULTS: Logistic regressions indicated that TGD youth perceived as more gender incongruent had higher odds of bullying victimization and emotional distress relative to those perceived as very congruent with their biological sex. Multifactor ANOVAs demonstrated more variable patterns and allowed for comparisons of each perceived presentation group with all other groups, reflecting nuances that exist within TGD youth. CONCLUSION: Researchers should adopt data analysis strategies that allow for comparisons of all perceived gender presentation categories rather than assigning a reference group. Those working with TGD youth should be particularly attuned to youth perceived as gender incongruent as they may be more likely to experience bullying victimization and emotional distress.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(11): 1859-1868, 2018 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents and peers both influence the development of adolescent substance misuse, and the Social Interaction Learning (SIL) model provides a theoretical explanation of the paths through which this occurs. OBJECTIVE: The SIL model has primarily been tested with conduct outcomes and in US samples. This study adds to the literature by testing the SIL model with four substance use outcomes in a sample of Australian youth. METHOD: We used structural equation modeling to test the fit of the SIL model to a longitudinal sample (n = 907) of students recruited in grade 5 in Victoria, Australia participating in the International Youth Development Study, who were resurveyed in grades 6 and 10. RESULTS: The model fit was good (χ2(95) = 248.52, p < .001; RMSEA = .04 [90% CI: .036 - .049]; CFI = .94; SRMR = .04). Path estimates from parenting to antisocial behavior and from antisocial behavior to antisocial peers were significant. In turn, having antisocial peers was significantly related to alcohol use, binge drinking, tobacco use, and marijuana use. From parenting, only the direct path to marijuana use was significant, but indirect effects were significant. CONCLUSIONS: The SIL model illustrates that parenting plays an early role in the formation of adolescent peer relations that influence substance misuse and identifies etiological pathways that can guide the targets of prevention. The SIL pathways appear robust to the Australian social and policy context.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Poder Familiar , Grupo Associado , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Vitória
18.
Pediatrics ; 141(3)2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) adolescents have difficulty accessing and receiving health care compared with cisgender youth, yet research is limited by a reliance on small and nonrepresentative samples. This study's purpose was to examine mental and physical health characteristics and care utilization between youth who are TGNC and cisgender and across perceived gender expressions within the TGNC sample. METHODS: Data came from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey, which consisted of 80 929 students in ninth and 11th grade (n = 2168 TGNC, 2.7%). Students self-reported gender identity, perceived gender expression, 4 health status measures, and 3 care utilization measures. Chi-squares and multiple analysis of covariance tests (controlling for demographic covariates) were used to compare groups. RESULTS: We found that students who are TGNC reported significantly poorer health, lower rates of preventive health checkups, and more nurse office visits than cisgender youth. For example, 62.1% of youth who are TGNC reported their general health as poor, fair, or good versus very good or excellent, compared with 33.1% of cisgender youth (χ2 = 763.7, P < .001). Among the TGNC sample, those whose gender presentation was perceived as very congruent with their birth-assigned sex were less likely to report poorer health and long-term mental health problems compared with those with other gender presentations. CONCLUSIONS: Health care utilization differs between TGNC versus cisgender youth and across gender presentations within TGNC youth. With our results, we suggest that health care providers should screen for health risks and identify barriers to care for TGNC youth while promoting and bolstering wellness within this community.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota
19.
Curr Sex Health Rep ; 10(4): 246-254, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057341

RESUMO

Purpose of review: This paper examines recent research on bullying victimization among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth to identify critical issues and advocate for future research priorities. Recent findings: Recent studies have begun to document the importance of bullying in general, and bias-based bullying (rooted in stigma) in particular, on the health and wellbeing of this vulnerable subgroup of adolescents, as well as drivers of disparities. Current research demonstrates the role of multiple identities for and important differences among LGBTQ youth and has begun to identify protective factors for youth who are the targets of bullying. Summary: Researchers, clinicians, and those working with and on behalf of LGBTQ youth must measure and acknowledge the multiple reasons for which LGBTQ youth are the targets of bullying. Intervention and prevention efforts should focus on improving the supportiveness of the climates within which LGBTQ youth live.

20.
J Sch Health ; 87(11): 832-841, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer harassment can have serious implications for students' success and well-being, and prevention programs need to consider the school context. This study aimed to: (1) identify groups of similar schools based on their risk and protective factors and demographic characteristics and (2) examine associations between school profiles and students' bullying involvement. METHODS: Data came from 505 schools and 122,106 students who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey. School-level risk and protective factors and demographic characteristics were included in a latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify profiles of schools. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess associations between school profiles and peer harassment. RESULTS: Six qualitatively different school profiles were identified. Unadjusted models showed that schools with higher levels of risk had greater odds of peer harassment. However, after controlling for student-level risk and protection, regardless of school-level risk, students in metro-area schools with a more diverse student body reported lower odds of bullying involvement. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of the social environment into peer harassment. In addition to addressing student-level risk and protection, larger community factors and norms also need to be taken into account for developing, selecting, and implementing the most effective approaches to bullying prevention.


Assuntos
Bullying/prevenção & controle , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
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