Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 83
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410250

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Transgender and gender-diverse youth experience significant health disparities across numerous domains of health, including sexual health. Among general populations, parent connectedness has been strongly associated with youth sexual health. METHODS: The relationships between parent connectedness and sexual health indicators were investigated among 2,168 transgender and gender-diverse youth who participated in the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide population-based survey of ninth- and 11th-grade students. Multivariate logistic regression models, stratified by sex assigned at birth, tested associations between parent connectedness-youth's perceptions of parent caring and parent-youth communication-and eight sexual health indicators: ever having had sex, having multiple sexual partners in the past year, pregnancy involvement, substance use at last sex, partner communication about STI prevention, partner communication about pregnancy prevention, condom use at last sex and pregnancy prevention methods at last sex. RESULTS: The level of parent connectedness was inversely associated with ever having had sex, regardless of sex assigned at birth (odds ratios, 0.6-0.8). Although level of connectedness was inversely associated with having multiple sexual partners in the past year and pregnancy involvement among transgender and gender-diverse youth assigned male at birth (0.6-0.7), these relationships were nonsignificant among transgender and gender-diverse youth assigned female at birth. Further differences in associations between parent connectedness and four sexual risk-reduction behaviors were found between youth assigned male at birth and those assigned female. CONCLUSIONS: As with other populations, parent connectedness promotes sexual health among transgender and gender-diverse youth and may provide a point of intervention.

2.
LGBT Health ; 7(8): 407-419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170062

RESUMO

Transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) youth experience significant health and well-being disparities compared to their cisgender peers. However, disparities experienced at a population level might be mitigated by individual-level factors such as strong family relationships. Discrete aspects of strong family relationships may impact the health and well-being of TGD youth differently. To date, no systematic review known to us has explored the state of the science regarding the association between family relationships and the health and well-being of TGD adolescents and young adults. As such, our review aimed to (1) compile and present the scientific literature addressing the connection between family relationships and the health and well-being of TGD youth in those families; (2) sort results utilizing the Family Strengths Model; and (3) assess the strength of the literature with evidence-based appraisal tools. Sixteen articles met eligibility criteria (10 quantitative and 6 qualitative). These articles discussed family relationship qualities influencing health and well-being outcomes, including mental health, homelessness, sexual health, and substance use. Three of six qualities of strong families-coping ability, appreciation and affection, and positive communication-were represented in the literature. The risk for bias and study strength appraisals suggest that the available literature is moderately strong overall. Certain characteristics of strong families (commitment, enjoyable time spent together, and spiritual well-being) were underrepresented in the literature. Future research should explore these gaps to ensure that health care and community service providers can deliver the most effective support and care for TGD youth and their families.

3.
J Adolesc Health ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Youth who trade sex for something of value experience enduring harm and risk of being trafficked. This study provides empirically-based prevalence estimates to guide policy and practice. METHODS: This secondary analysis of 2019 population-level surveillance data from high school students in Minnesota (N = 71,007) uses descriptive statistics and chi-square tests to analyze self-reports of trading sex by demographics, relevant experiences, and health indicators. RESULTS: The prevalence of trading sex among high school students in Minnesota was 1.4%. Cisgender boys and girls had similar rates; transgender students were much higher (5.9%). Rates varied significantly across race/ethnicity (e.g., Native youth, 3.1%), school location, and economic indicators. Students indicating other relevant experiences, such as having been treated for alcohol or drug use (15.1%), reported elevated rates of trading sex. CONCLUSIONS: Trading sex is a public health issue that affects high school students. The results show disparate rates of trading sex based on race/ethnicity and gender, with elevated rates among youth who engage in other risky behaviors and experienced other adverse experiences.

4.
J Sch Nurs ; : 1059840520947142, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757810

RESUMO

Adolescents in rural Uganda face unique opportunities and challenges to their health. The primary goal of this exploratory cross-sectional survey study was to describe the health behaviors of adolescents of age 13-19 living in four Ugandan fishing communities as a foundation for developing programs to reduce risky health behaviors and HIV/AIDS transmission. The majority of boys (59.6%) and one third of girls reported lifetime sexual intercourse; girls reported earlier sexual debut than boys, as well as higher rates of sexual assault, rape, and/or coerced intercourse. Sexually active youth were more likely to have viewed pornography, be tested for other sexually transmitted infections, and attend boarding schools. Alcohol use was prevalent among both sexes; however, the use of other substances was infrequently reported. Since the majority of adolescents in Uganda attend boarding school, there is an opportunity to expand the school nurse scope of care to include health promotion education and counseling.

5.
Addict Behav ; 107: 106428, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311626

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Youth smokers have high rates of adverse childhood experiences, and particularly parental incarceration (PI). In Minnesota, 16% of youth have experienced PI, but 55% of daily smokers report PI. However, no research has examined how PI relates to a range of tobacco products, which is critical considering the current e-cigarette epidemic. There is also limited research on protective factors for tobacco use among youth with PI. METHODS: Data came from 2016 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 111,091); 85% of Minnesota schools participated. We assessed 30-day use of cigarettes, non-cigarette combustible products, smokeless products, e-cigarettes, and dual/poly use. Using descriptive statistics and logistic regressions, we compared use across current, previous, and no PI experience. We also tested how protective factors related to tobacco use. RESULTS: Youth with current PI experience used all products with higher frequency compared to youth with previous and no PI experience. Use prevalence among youth with current PI were 26.0% (95% CI = 24.1, 27.8) for e-cigarettes, 20.8% (95% CI = 19.1, 22.5) for dual/poly use, 17.8% (95% CI = 16.2, 19.5) for cigarettes, 17.4% (95% CI = 15.8, 19.0) for combustible non-cigarettes, and 9.9% (95% CI = 8.6, 11.2) for smokeless products. Nearly all protective factors were significantly and negatively related to use of all products, regardless of PI experience. CONCLUSIONS: Youth with PI experience are at high risk for using multiple tobacco products. These disparities were most pronounced for e-cigarettes, demonstrating the e-cigarette epidemic is disproportionately occurring among youth with current and previous PI experience. All examined protective factors buffer risks for this population of youth.

6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(6): 1195-1208, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297174

RESUMO

Extensive literature documents that adverse childhood experiences increase risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide behaviors among adolescents. However, few studies have examined patterns of co-occurring family based adversities, whether distinct patterns of adversity are differentially associated with NSSI and suicide behaviors, and if social support can offset the impact of adversity for these behaviors. This study used a statewide school-based sample that was 50.1% female, 71% non-Hispanic White, and evenly divided by grade (9th grade N = 39,682; 11th grade N = 33,966). Latent class analysis identified three mutually exclusive, homogeneous subgroups of co-occurring familial adversities; low or no family based adversity, parental dysfunction but low maltreatment, and parental dysfunction plus maltreatment. The relationships between membership in the identified subgroups and past year NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt were assessed separately for 9th graders (average age = 14) and 11th graders (average age = 17). Although membership in the parent dysfunction plus maltreatment class was associated with the highest odds of NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt, membership in either class of familial adversity elevated risk for these behaviors compared to membership in the low or no adversity class. Whether the protective effects of perceived peer and teacher social support moderated these associations and varied across age groups was also explored. The findings suggest that peer and teacher social support can promote positive outcomes even for youth living in stressful family conditions and that the protective effects of social support increase as the number of sources of support expands.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
7.
Health Soc Care Community ; 28(3): 1082-1089, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917883

RESUMO

Research has identified discrimination and a lack of knowledgeable providers as major barriers for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals seeking care, which contributes to greater stress and significant health disparities affecting this population. However, research involving TGD youth is limited. The aim of this study, therefore, was to describe TGD adolescents' experiences, concerns and needs in healthcare settings, including their feedback on themes previously identified by healthcare providers (i.e. discomfort with gender-related topics, reasons for not asking patients about gender and previous training regarding gender diversity). The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 TGD-identified adolescents aged 14-17, living in Minnesota, USA in 2017-2018. Inductive thematic analysis was used to summarise participant comments into themes and subthemes. Two main themes were directly relevant to concerns and needs of TGD youth in healthcare settings and their views on healthcare providers' concerns: (a) asking about gender and pronouns and (b) training for healthcare providers. Findings suggest the need for revisions to clinic materials, infrastructure and protocols. Adding training to all general medical and nursing education to increase knowledge, comfort and competence around gender identity would further improve care and ultimately reduce healthcare disparities affecting TGD youth.

8.
J Interpers Violence ; 35(3-4): 662-681, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294639

RESUMO

Retrospective studies using adult self-report data have demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase risk of violence perpetration and victimization. However, research examining the associations between adolescent reports of ACE and school violence involvement is sparse. The present study examines the relationship between adolescent reported ACE and multiple types of on-campus violence (bringing a weapon to campus, being threatened with a weapon, bullying, fighting, vandalism) for boys and girls as well as the risk of membership in victim, perpetrator, and victim-perpetrator groups. The analytic sample was comprised of ninth graders who participated in the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (n ~ 37,000). Multinomial logistic regression models calculated the risk of membership for victim only, perpetrator only, and victim-perpetrator subgroups, relative to no violence involvement, for students with ACE as compared with those with no ACE. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association between cumulative ACE and school-based violence, adjusting for age, ethnicity, family structure, poverty status, internalizing symptoms, and school district size. Nearly 30% of students were exposed to at least one ACE. Students with ACE represent 19% of no violence, 38% of victim only, 40% of perpetrator only, and 63% of victim-perpetrator groups. There was a strong, graded relationship between ACE and the probability of school-based victimization: physical bullying for boys but not girls, being threatened with a weapon, and theft or property destruction (ps < .001) and perpetration: bullying and bringing a weapon to campus (ps < .001), with boys especially vulnerable to the negative effects of cumulative ACE. We recommend that schools systematically screen for ACE, particularly among younger adolescents involved in victimization and perpetration, and develop the infrastructure to increase access to trauma-informed intervention services. Future research priorities and implications are discussed.

9.
Glob Health Promot ; 27(3): 159-170, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749404

RESUMO

Adolescent and emerging adult risk behavior is a concern globally. Discussing health promotive and risk behaviors with adolescents and young adults can be challenging regardless of the country of data collection and dominant culture. In the United States, event history calendars have been used in both research and clinical settings to identify healthy and risky behaviors among adolescents and emerging adults, and contextual factors that may influence their behavior. After an unsuccessful attempt to employ a particular event history calendar on family life, negative and positive events, sexual behavior and substance use in data collection in rural fishing villages in Western Uganda, the current study aimed to modify the United States validated event history calendar for use with adolescents in Uganda, as a first step to cultural adaptation. Focus groups with 24 college students provided information about ways to modify the event history calendar for Ugandan youth. This paper discusses the modifications of the event history calendar for Ugandan young people.

10.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 25(2): 359-371, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We tested a model that incorporated potential developmental assets through which connections to parents and friends reduce the likelihood of engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents. METHOD: Data came from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey, a population-based survey of 8th, 9th, and 11th grade students (N = 119,452). Chi-square test, t-test, and correlations evaluated bivariate relationships between all variables. Indirect effects of three developmental assets (social competency, positive identity, and empowerment) were modeled simultaneously on associations between connections to parents and friends, and past-year NSSI. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses demonstrated protective effects of parent and friend connections on NSSI and that all developmental assets were negatively associated with NSSI. After accounting for demographic variables and associations between developmental assets in a multiple mediator path model, connections to parents showed a stronger, negative direct relationship with NSSI than did connections to friends. Developmental assets, especially positive identity and empowerment, accounted for a greater proportion of the effect of connections to friends on NSSI than the effect of connections to parents. Finally, social competency was no longer significantly related to NSSI in the multiple mediator path model. CONCLUSION: Clinical efforts to prevent NSSI should focus on enhancing adolescents' sense of positive identity and empowerment, as well as connections to parents and prosocial friends.

11.
J LGBT Youth ; 16(3): 235-254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156739

RESUMO

This study examines the intersection of sexual and gender identities among adolescents, including the prevalence of these groups and rates of emotional distress and bullying victimization. Data come from a large population-based sample; two measures of sexual orientation and gender identity create eight identity groups. Youth who report identifying both as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer/questioning (LGBQ) and as transgender/gender diverse (TGD) had significantly higher levels of two measures of emotional distress and four measures of bullying victimization than those who report only identifying as LGBQ non-TGD or straight TGD. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

12.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 33(4): 379-385, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827755

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nurses and physicians receive minimal training about providing competent care to transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) patients, and training specific to TGD youth is particularly lacking. This qualitative study examined health care providers' experiences and attitudes about working with TGD youth to identify specific training needs. METHOD: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 nurses and physicians who work with adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to characterize participants' responses. RESULTS: Five themes summarized participants' responses to interview questions: Training Regarding Gender Diversity, Discomfort With Gender-Related Topics, Reasons for Not Asking About Gender, Talking About Gender With Patients, and Need for Resources. DISCUSSION: Findings highlight multiple opportunities to improve provider education and care experiences of TGD youth. Specific training is needed to help providers manage discomfort with gender-related topics and simultaneously develop their knowledge of and skills for discussing gender issues.

13.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 33(4): 394-403, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined longitudinal associations between stressful life events and depressive symptoms, assessed during two time points of adolescence, and sexual risk behavior, assessed during young adulthood. METHODS: Structural equation modeling was conducted with three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. RESULTS: Analyses revealed bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and depressive symptoms during the two time points of adolescence. Adolescent depressive symptoms indirectly affected young adult sexual risk behavior through adolescent stressful life events. Adolescent stressful life events during late adolescence were directly associated with young adult sexual risk behavior. DISCUSSION: Findings highlight the need to screen for both depression and stressful life events during adolescence, to identify at-risk adolescents and deliver tailored interventions to prevent sexual risk behavior during young adulthood.

14.
Arch Suicide Res ; 23(2): 203-221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461934

RESUMO

This study sought to identify factors distinguishing transgender/gender non-conforming (GNC) adolescents across three groups: no self-harm, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) only, and NSSI and suicide attempt (NSSI + SA). Data were from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey. The final analytic sample included 1,635 transgender/GNC students in grades 9 and 11. Logistic regression analyses determined factors that best distinguished transgender/GNC students who reported self-harm (NSSI only or NSSI + SA) from those who reported no self-harm, and transgender/GNC adolescents who reported NSSI + SA from those who reported NSSI only. Final models were developed over 3 stages of analysis that tested associations of variables within risk factor, protective factor, and health-risk behavior domains to self-harm. Over half (51.6%) of transgender/GNC adolescents reported past-year self-harm behavior. Factors that consistently distinguished transgender/GNC youth who reported self-harm from those who reported no self-harm included reports of a mental health problem, depression, running away from home, and substance use (alcohol or marijuana use). Factors that distinguished the NSSI + SA group from the NSSI only group were reports of a mental health problem, physical or sexual abuse, relationship violence, bullying victimization, less parent connectedness, lower grades, lower levels of perceived school safety, and running away from home. Clinicians and school personnel need to be prepared to address risk factors and enhance protective factors that may reduce the likelihood this population of vulnerable youth will engage in NSSI and/or attempt suicide.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Meio Social , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J Gambl Stud ; 35(1): 79-92, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343416

RESUMO

Most gambling research utilizes general youth samples and focuses on binary gender categories; few studies examine and compare gambling behaviors between transgender and gender diverse (TGD) youth and their cisgender peers. The current study used population-based data from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey to compare the prevalence of gambling behaviors and problem gambling among TGD versus cisgender adolescents, in addition to examining differences by birth-assigned sex. The analytic sample consisted of 80,929 students (including, n = 2168 [2.7%] TGD) in 9th and 11th grades. Chi-square tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used for all comparisons. TGD youth reported greater involvement in most gambling behaviors and problem gambling compared to cisgender youth. In comparisons by birth-assigned sex, TGD youth assigned male at birth were particularly at risk for gambling involvement and problem gambling. TGD youth assigned female at birth also reported higher rates of problem gambling than both cisgender youth assigned male and female at birth. Results suggest that examining rates of gambling behavior and problem gambling as well as identifying disparities in vulnerable youth populations is crucial in order to develop culturally responsive and gender inclusive prevention, intervention, and outreach programs.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Addict Behav ; 89: 240-247, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between psychosocial risk factors (e.g., perceptions of health risk, peer and parent influences, and school climate) and adolescent tobacco use. However, whether internal assets (IAs), factors that promote healthy youth development, can mitigate the adverse effects of psychosocial risks on tobacco use has not been well researched. METHOD: Using a population-based sample of middle and high school students (N = 112,364), multilevel logistic and negative binomial regression models estimated the direct effects of cumulative psychosocial risks and IAs on student tobacco use (e.g., combustible, non-combustible, alternative delivery systems) and assessed whether IAs moderated the relationship between psychosocial risks and tobacco use. RESULTS: Results indicate that every additional psychosocial risk factor was associated with an estimated 100% (AOR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.88-2.22) to 57% (AOR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.52-1.62) increase in the odds of using tobacco and a 60% increase in the estimated number of products used. IAs were inversely associated with tobacco use and attenuated the association between cumulative psychosocial risks and use. Among students experiencing all five psychosocial risks, boys had an estimated 20% reduction, and girls an estimated 50% reduction, in the probability of tobacco use at the highest mean scores of IAs. CONCLUSION: Universal, school-based prevention programs will benefit from identifying and targeting a set of shared risk and protective factors for tobacco use. Bolstering resilience by facilitating students' IAs represents a promising direction for youth focused prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Estudantes/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores de Risco , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
17.
J Rural Health ; 35(2): 270-281, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the root causes of the substantial disparities in risk and protective factors among transgender and gender diverse (TGD) adolescents is essential to the development and expansion of resources and supports for this vulnerable population. This study examines differences in emotional distress, bullying victimization, and protective factors among TGD high school students in city, suburban, town, and rural locations. METHODS: Data come from a statewide school-based survey conducted in Minnesota in 2016 (n = 2,168 TGD youth). Analysis of covariance models were used to predict the prevalence of multiple indicators of emotional distress, bullying victimization, and protective factors across the 4 location categories, with multiple adjustments. FINDINGS: Significant linear trends were observed for 2 emotional distress outcomes and 2 bullying victimization outcomes, with urban TGD students having the lowest rates and rural having the highest prevalences. Additional significant differences in emotional distress were noted, with unexpectedly high rates of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among suburban students. CONCLUSIONS: Helping TGD adolescents in all types of locations identify resources and supportive professionals is critical to supporting this population.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Angústia Psicológica , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mapeamento Geográfico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
J Adolesc Health ; 64(4): 516-522, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578117

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited longitudinal research has examined the adult health and behavioral outcomes associated with early adolescent sexual behavior. This paper examined whether adolescent sexual behavior predicted young adult health and social outcomes within longitudinal cohorts in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Adolescents were recruited in 2002 to be state-representative of school students in Victoria, Australia, and resurveyed in 2003 and 2004. The sample responded to a web-based survey as young adults in 2010/2011. Multivariate negative binomial regression models examined the predictive effect of sex by age 15 on young adult outcomes (average age 21) of sexual risk taking, substance use, antisocial behavior, and psychological distress (N = 2,147). RESULTS: After adjustment for other factors, sex at age 15 or younger (early sex) predicted higher rates of young adult sexual risk taking such as pregnancy, lifetime partners, and sex without using a condom. Early sex also predicted higher rates of young adult substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and/or illicit substance use) and antisocial behavior, but rates of adult psychological distress were not affected. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that early adolescent sex had unique predictive effects on a range of adverse young adulthood outcomes. Public health policies should synthesize longitudinal data on the risks of early sexual behavior, while advocating evidence-based adolescent sexual health promotion interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estudantes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitória , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 55(6): 787-794, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Important mental and physical health disparities exist for transgender and gender diverse youth compared with cisgender youth (i.e., those whose birth-assigned sex and gender identity align), yet little is known about factors that protect transgender and gender diverse youth from health problems. The objective of this paper is to identify modifiable protective factors in the lives of transgender and gender diverse adolescents, with the goal of informing efforts to eliminate disparities in depression, suicidality, and substance use in this population. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey examined associations between eight protective factors (connectedness to parents, adult relatives, friends, adults in the community, and teachers; youth development opportunities; and feeling safe in the community and at school) and depression, suicidality, and substance use (alcohol, binge drinking, marijuana, nicotine) among 2,168 adolescents who identified as transgender, genderqueer, genderfluid, or questioning their gender. Logistic regressions assessed the role of each protective factor separately and simultaneously. RESULTS: Each protective factor was associated with lower odds of emotional distress and substance use. When protective factors were examined simultaneously, parent connectedness was protective for all measures. Feeling safe at school and connected to adults in one's community protected against depression and suicidality; teacher connectedness buffered risk of substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Given that transgender and gender diverse youth report lower levels of connectedness and safety, bolstering an explicitly transgender and gender diverse-friendly network of caring parents, safe and supportive schools, and connections to adults in the community may support efforts to eliminate disparities in depression, suicidality, and substance use.


Assuntos
Fatores de Proteção , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Adolesc ; 68: 146-151, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor family management and antisocial peer associations are related risk factors for negative outcomes such as adolescent substance misuse and conduct disorders. The relationship between family management and antisocial peer associations is complex. The purpose of this study was to test the reciprocal relationships between youth-reports of poor family management and antisocial peer associations over multiple time-points. METHODS: We used four data points (5th-11th grade) from the Australian arm of the longitudinal International Youth Development Study (IYDS) to test a random-intercepts cross-lagged path model (N = 922). RESULTS: The model fit the data well with path estimates showing that poor family management predicted greater antisocial peer associations at the next wave but not the reverse. A second model included a third autoregressive path to control for youth's own antisocial behavior; the direction of the relationships between poor family management and antisocial peer associations did not change. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that across adolescence poor family management predicts greater antisocial peer association, which provides evidence that family-focused interventions are an important prevention strategy even in adolescence.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA