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2.
Diabetes Care ; 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the benefits of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in CKD trial (DAPA-CKD) varied by background glucose-lowering therapy (GLT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We randomized 4,304 adults (including 2,906 with type 2 diabetes) with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1.73 m2 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 200-5,000 mg/g to dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo once daily (NCT03036150). The primary end point was a composite of ≥50% eGFR decline, end-stage kidney disease, and kidney or cardiovascular cause of death. Secondary end points included a kidney composite end point (primary composite end point without cardiovascular death), a cardiovascular composite end point (hospitalized heart failure or cardiovascular death), and all-cause mortality. In this prespecified analysis, we investigated the effects of dapagliflozin on these and other outcomes according to baseline GLT class or number of GLTs. RESULTS: The effects of dapagliflozin on the primary composite outcome were consistent across GLT classes and according to the number of GLTs (all interaction P > 0.08). Similarly, we found consistent benefit of dapagliflozin compared with placebo on the secondary end points regardless of background GLT class or number of GLTs. The same applied to the rate of decline in the eGFR rate and safety end points. Dapagliflozin reduced the initiation of insulin therapy during follow-up compared with placebo (hazard ratio 0.72; 95% CI 0.54-0.96; P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced kidney and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD across baseline GLT class or classes in combination.

3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1192, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681691

RESUMO

The association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the development of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances has not been extensively studied. Arrhythmia was defined as atrial fibrillation and flutter (AF/AFl), ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF), and conduction abnormality as sinus node disease (SND), atrioventricular (AV) block or pacemaker implantation, and intraventricular conduction blocks (IVCB). Incidence rates and Cox regression were used to compare outcomes, and to assess optimal levels for cardiometabolic risk factors and risk associated with multifactorial risk factor control (i.e., HbA1c, LDL-C, systolic blood pressure (SBP), BMI and eGFR), between patients with versus without T2D. The analyses included data from 617,000 patients with T2D and 2,303,391 matched controls. Patients with diabetes and the general population demonstrated a gradual increase in rates for cardiac conduction abnormalities and virtually all age-groups for AF/AFI showed increased incidence during follow-up. For patients with versus without T2D, risks for cardiac arrhythmias were higher, including for AF/AFl (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.16-1.18), the composite of SND, AV-block or pacemaker implantation (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.37-1.43), IVCB (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.18-1.28) and VT/VF (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.13). For patients with T2D who had selected cardiometabolic risk factors within target ranges, compared with controls, risk of arrythmia and conduction abnormalities for T2D vs not were: AF/AFl (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.14), the composite of SND, AV-block or pacemaker implantation (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.94-1.18), IVCB (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.60-0.98), and for VT/VF (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17). Cox models showed a linear risk increase for SBP and BMI, while eGFR showed a U-shaped association. Individuals with T2D had a higher risk of arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities than controls, but excess risk associated with T2D was virtually not evident among patients with T2D with all risk factors within target range. BMI, SBP and eGFR displayed significant associations with outcomes among patients with T2D.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Flutter Atrial , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Marca-Passo Artificial , Taquicardia Ventricular , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Frequência Cardíaca , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Taquicardia Ventricular/complicações , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal
4.
JACC Heart Fail ; 11(1): 76-89, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimizing systolic blood pressure (SBP) in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction carries a Class I recommendation but with limited evidence. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have antihypertensive effects across cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: The authors examined the interplay between SBP and treatment effects of dapagliflozin on SBP and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: The authors analyzed 6,263 DELIVER (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the LIVEs of Patients With PReserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure) participants and related baseline and mean achieved SBP categories (<120, 120-129, 130-139, ≥140 mm Hg) to the primary outcome (cardiovascular death or worsening HF), secondary outcomes, and safety events. They analyzed whether the blood pressure-lowering effects of dapagliflozin accounted for its treatment effects by adjusting for the change in SBP from baseline to 1 month. RESULTS: The average age was 72 ± 10 years and 44% were women. SBP <120 mm Hg was associated with higher HF and mortality events, although amputation and stroke risk increased with higher SBP. Dapagliflozin reduced SBP by 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1-2.5) mm Hg compared with placebo at 1 month. The treatment effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score was consistent across SBP (interaction P = 0.15 and P = 0.98, respectively). Adverse events between arms were similar across SBP categories. The treatment effect was not accounted for by reducing blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: In DELIVER, risk by SBP was augmented in the lowest and highest categories and varied by endpoint examined. Dapagliflozin modestly decreased SBP compared with placebo. Dapagliflozin was similarly efficacious and safe across the range of baseline SBP. The beneficial effects of dapagliflozin were not accounted for the changes in SBP. (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the LIVEs of Patients With PReserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure [DELIVER]; NCT03619213).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Masculino , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PARADISE-MI examined the efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), pulmonary congestion or both. We sought to assess the trajectory of pulmonary congestion using lung ultrasound (LUS) and its association with cardiac structure and function in a prespecified substudy. METHODS: Patients without prior heart failure (HF) underwent 8-zone LUS and echocardiography at baseline (±2 days of randomization) and after 8 months. B-lines were quantified offline, blinded to treatment, clinical findings, timepoint and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 152 patients (median age 65, 32% women, mean LVEF 41%), B-lines were detectable in 87% at baseline (median B-line count: 4 [IQR 2-8]). Among 115 patients with LUS data at baseline and follow-up, B-lines decreased significantly from baseline (mean ± SD: -1.6 ± 7.3; p=0.018). The proportion of patients without pulmonary congestion at follow-up was significantly higher in those with fewer B-lines at baseline. Adjusted for baseline, B-lines at follow-up were on average 6 (95% CI: 3, 9) higher in patients who experienced an intercurrent HF event vs. those who did not (p=0.001). A greater number of B-lines at baseline was associated with larger left atrial size, higher E/e' and E/A ratios, greater degree of mitral regurgitation, worse right ventricular systolic function, and higher tricuspid regurgitation velocity (p trend <0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: In this AMI cohort, B-lines, indicating pulmonary congestion, were common at baseline and, on average, decreased significantly from baseline to follow-up. Worse pulmonary congestion was associated with prognostically important echocardiographic markers.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597719

RESUMO

AIM: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is predictive of both outcomes and response to treatment in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the cardiac myosin activator omecamtiv mecarbil according to baseline NT-proBNP level in the Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure trial (GALACTIC-HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: The primary outcome was the composite of a worsening heart failure event (urgent clinic visit, emergency department visit, or hospitalization) or cardiovascular death. We prespecified analysis of the effect of treatment according to baseline NT-proBNP (≤ median, > median), excluding individuals with atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL). Of the 8232 patients analysed, 8206 had an available baseline NT-proBNP measurement. Among the 5971 patients not in AF/AFL, the median (Q1-Q3) NT-proBNP level was 1675 (812-3579) pg/ml. Hazard ratios (HR) for the effect of omecamtiv mecarbil, compared with placebo, for the primary endpoint in patients without AF/AFL were: ≤ median 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-1.09), > median 0.81 (0.73-0.90) (p-interaction = 0.095); for the overall population (including patients with AF/AFL) the HRs were ≤ median 1.01 (0.90-1.15) and > median 0.88 (0.80-0.96) (p-interaction = 0.035). There was an interaction between treatment and NT-proBNP, examined as a continuous variable, with greater effect of omecamtiv mecarbil on the primary outcome in patients with a higher baseline NT-proBNP (p-interaction = 0.086). CONCLUSIONS: In GALACTIC-HF, the benefit of omecamtiv mecarbil appeared to be larger in patients with higher baseline NT-proBNP levels, especially in patients without AF/AFL. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02929329; EudraCT number, 2016-002299-28.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632831

RESUMO

AIMS: Few reports have examined the incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) or their relationship with mortality in patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the PARAGON-HF, TOPCAT, I-Preserve, and CHARM-Preserved trials were merged. VT/VF, reported as adverse events, were identified. Patients who experienced VT/VF were compared with patients who did not. The relationship between VT/VF and mortality was examined in time-updated Cox proportional hazard regression models. Variables associated with VT/VF were examined in Cox proportional hazard regression models. The rate of VT/VF in patients with HFmrEF compared with patients with HFpEF was examined in a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Of 13 609 patients, over a median follow-up of 1170 days (interquartile range: 966-1451), 146 (1.1%) experienced an investigator-reported VT/VF (incidence rate 0.3 per 100 person-years). Patients who experienced VT/VF were more likely to be male, have had a myocardial infarction, poorer renal function, more adverse left ventricular remodelling, and higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) than patients who did not. Occurrence of VT/VF was associated with NT-proBNP, history of atrial fibrillation/flutter, male sex, lower ejection fraction, and history of hypertension. VT/VF was associated with all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 3.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.80-5.57; P < 0.001] and cardiovascular death, driven by death from heart failure and not sudden death. Patients with HFmrEF had a higher rate of VT/VF than patients with HFpEF (adjusted HR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.77-2.71). CONCLUSION: VT/VF was uncommon in patients with HFmrEF and HFpEF. However, such events were strongly associated with mortality and appear to be a marker of disease severity rather than risk of sudden death. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov unique identifier: NCT01920711(PARAGON-HF); NCT00094302 (TOPCAT); NCT00095238 (I-Preserve); NCT00634712 (CHARM-Preserved).

9.
Ann Intern Med ; 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36469914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute hospitalizations are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and often lead to decreases in health-related quality of life and increased care costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of dapagliflozin on first hospitalizations and all (first and subsequent) hospitalizations and to explore effects on cause-specific hospitalizations. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03036150). SETTING: 386 ambulatory practice sites in 21 countries from 2 February 2017 through 12 June 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 25 to 75 mL/min/1.73 m2 and a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of 200 to 5000 mg/g, with and without type 2 diabetes. INTERVENTION: Dapagliflozin, 10 mg once daily, or matching placebo (1:1 ratio). MEASUREMENTS: The effects of dapagliflozin on first hospitalizations for any cause, all hospitalizations, and cause-specific (first and recurrent) hospitalizations were determined. The reported system organ class was used to evaluate reasons for admission. Hospitalizations were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models (first hospitalization), the Lin-Wei-Yang-Ying method (all hospitalizations or death), and negative binomial models (cause-specific hospitalizations). RESULTS: The study included 4304 patients (mean age, 61.8 years; 33.1% women). During a median follow-up of 2.4 years, 2072 hospitalizations were reported among 1224 (28.4%) participants. Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin reduced risk for a first hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.75 to 0.94]) and all hospitalizations or death (rate ratio, 0.79 [CI, 0.70 to 0.89]). There was no evidence that the effects of dapagliflozin on first and all hospitalizations varied by baseline presence of type 2 diabetes (P for interaction = 0.60 for each). Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin reduced the rate of admissions due to cardiac disorders, renal and urinary disorders, metabolism and nutrition disorders, and neoplasms. LIMITATIONS: This was a post hoc analysis and should be viewed as hypothesis-generating. Hospitalizations and causes were reported by site investigators and were not centrally adjudicated. CONCLUSION: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk for hospitalization for any cause in patients with CKD with and without type 2 diabetes. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: AstraZeneca.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460014

RESUMO

Few people now reach old age without taking multiple drugs, often attending various clinics, and undergoing secondary or tertiary investigations. Most chronic conditions are, to differing extents, caused or exacerbated by excess adiposity, but weight management is rarely discussed or attempted for patients. Furthermore, progressive symptoms usually attributed to ageing (eg, musculoskeletal pains, fatigue, and breathlessness), and which create considerable health-care demands, can also be attributed to the accumulation of body fat over time. For many symptoms and diseases that are more frequently reported in people with excess adiposity (such as depression), there exist potentially multidirectional, causal relationships that generate a cycle of clinical and social deterioration. There is insufficient research on the effects of effective weight management on these clinically demanding, age and weight-mediated symptoms. Based on current evidence, we suggest that policy makers need to be more proactive in obesity prevention and effective weight management should receive research funding to match the search for novel therapeutics for secondary chronic diseases.

11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2022 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564955

RESUMO

AIMS: Several patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) do not receive renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors at the recommended dose or at all, frequently due to actual or feared hyperkalaemia. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (SZC) is an orally administered non-absorbed intestinal potassium binder proven to lower serum potassium concentrations. METHODS AND RESULTS: PRIORITIZE-HF was an international, multicentre, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the benefits and risks of using SZC to intensify RAAS inhibitor therapy. Patients with symptomatic HFrEF were eligible and randomly assigned to receive SZC 5 g or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Doses of study medication and RAAS inhibitors were titrated during the treatment period. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients at 12 weeks in the following categories: (i) any RAAS inhibitor at less than target dose, and no MRA; (ii) any RAAS inhibitor at target dose and no MRA; (ii) MRA at less than target dose; and (iv) MRA at target dose. Due to challenges in participant management related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the study was prematurely terminated with 182 randomized patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of patients by RAAS inhibitor treatment categories at 3 months (P = 0.43). The proportion of patients at target MRA dose was numerically higher in the SZC group (56.4%) compared with the placebo group (47.0%). Overall, SZC was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: PRIORITIZE-HF was terminated prematurely due to COVID-19 and did not demonstrate a statistically significant increase in the intensity of RAAS inhibitor therapies with the potassium-reducing agent SZC compared with placebo.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2022 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) experience a high burden of symptoms, physical limitations, and poor quality of life; improving health status is a key goal of management. OBJECTIVES: In a prespecified analysis of the DELIVER (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure) trial, we examine effects of dapagliflozin on health status using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). METHODS: The DELIVER trial randomized patients with symptomatic HFmrEF/HFpEF to dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo. KCCQ was evaluated at randomization, 1, 4, and 8 months; KCCQ Total Symptom Score (TSS) was a key secondary endpoint. Patients were stratified by KCCQ-TSS tertiles; Cox models examined effects of dapagliflozin on clinical outcomes. We evaluated the effects of dapagliflozin on KCCQ-TSS, Physical Limitations (PLS), Clinical Summary (CSS), and Overall Summary (OSS) domains. Responder analyses compared proportions of dapagliflozin vs placebo-treated patients with clinically meaningful changes in KCCQ. RESULTS: A total of 5,795 patients had baseline KCCQ (median KCCQ-TSS 72.9). The effects of dapagliflozin on reducing cardiovascular death/worsening HF appeared more pronounced in patients with greater baseline symptom burden (lowest-to-highest KCCQ-TSS tertile: HR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.58-0.84]; 0.81 [95% CI: 0.65-1.01]; 1.07 [95% CI: 0.83-1.37]; Pinteraction = 0.026). Dapagliflozin improved KCCQ-TSS, -PLS, -CSS, and -OSS at 8 months (2.4, 1.9, 2.3, and 2.1 points higher vs placebo; P < 0.001 for all). Dapagliflozin-treated patients experienced improvements in KCCQ-TSS regardless of EF (Pinteraction = 0.85). Fewer dapagliflozin-treated patients had deterioration, and more had improvements in all KCCQ domains at 8 months. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical benefits of dapagliflozin in HFmrEF/HFpEF appear especially pronounced in those with greater baseline symptom impairment. Dapagliflozin improved all KCCQ domains and the proportion of patients experiencing clinically meaningful changes in health status. (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the LIVEs of Patients With PReserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure [DELIVER]; NCT03619213).

15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2022 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477809

RESUMO

Importance: Heart failure (HF) treatment recommendations are centered on New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, such that most apparently asymptomatic patients are not eligible for disease-modifying therapies. Objectives: To assess within-patient variation in NYHA classification over time, the association between NYHA class and an objective measure of HF severity (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] level), and their association with long-term prognosis in the PARADIGM-HF trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: All patients in PARADIGM-HF were in NYHA class II or higher at baseline and were treated with sacubitril-valsartan during a 6- to 10-week run-in period before randomization. Patients classified as NYHA class I, II, and III in PARADIGM-HF were compared at randomization. Exposures: NYHA class at randomization after 6 to 10 weeks of the run-in period. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was cardiovascular death or first HF hospitalization. Logistic regression models, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), kernel density estimation overlaps, and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Results: The analysis included 8326 patients with known NYHA classification at randomization. Of 389 patients in NYHA class I, 228 (58%) changed functional class during the first year after randomization. Level of NT-proBNP was a poor discriminator of NYHA classification: for NYHA class I vs II, the AUC was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.48-0.54). For NT-proBNP level, estimated kernel density overlap was 93% between NYHA class I vs II, 79% between NYHA I vs III, and 83% between NYHA II vs III. Patients classified as NYHA III displayed a distinctively higher rate of cardiovascular events (NYHA III vs I, hazard ratio [HR], 1.84; 95% CI, 1.44-2.37; NYHA III vs II, HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.35-1.64). Patients in NYHA class I and II revealed lower event rates (NYHA II vs I, HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.97-1.58). Stratification by NT-proBNP level (<1600 pg/mL or ≥1600 pg/mL) identified subgroups with distinctive risk, such that NYHA class I patients with high NT-proBNP levels (n = 175) had a numerically higher event rate than patients with low NT-proBNP levels from any NYHA class (vs I, HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 2.03-5.87; vs II, HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.58-2.86; vs III, HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.00-1.88). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, patients in NYHA class I and II overlapped substantially in objective measures and long-term prognosis. Physician-defined "asymptomatic" functional class concealed patients who were at substantial risk for adverse outcomes. NYHA classification might be limited to differentiate mild forms of HF. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01035255.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prespecified on-treatment analysis of ASCEND-ND (NCT02876835) raised concerns about a higher relative risk of cancer-related adverse events (AEs) with daprodustat vs darbepoetin in patients with anaemia of CKD. This concern was not observed in dialysis patients in ASCEND-D (NCT02879305). METHODS: ASCEND-ND randomized 3 872 patients to daprodustat or darbepoetin. ASCEND-D randomized 2 964 patients to daprodustat or conventional ESAs. In both studies ESA comparators used different dosing intervals (3/week, 1/week, every 2 or every 4 weeks). The prespecified on-treatment approach examined relative risks for cancer AEs up to the last dose date (LDD) +1 day. In these analyses, owing to different dosing intervals between arms, Cox models were used to estimate the daprodustat effect by various follow-up periods (censoring at LDD, LDD + dosing intervals, or end of study). RESULTS: In ASCEND-ND, the safety of daprodustat vs. darbepoetin on cancer-related AEs depended on the duration of follow-up after LDD: hazard ratio (HR) 1.04 (95%CI 0.77, 1.40) at end of study; HR 1.12 (95%CI 0.81, 1.56) for LDD + dosing interval; HR 1.50 (95%CI 1.04, 2.15) for LDD + 1 day. In ASCEND-D, no excess risk of cancer-related AEs was observed with any model examined. CONCLUSIONS: Prespecified on-treatment analyses for cancer-related AEs appeared to result in biased risk estimates in ASCEND-ND by preferentially under-counting events from patients assigned to darbepoetin. Analyses accounting for longer darbepoetin dosing intervals, or extending follow-up, resulted in attenuation of effect estimates towards neutrality, similar to ASCEND-D, where ESA comparator dosing intervals are closer to daprodustat.

17.
Nat Med ; 28(12): 2504-2511, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522606

RESUMO

With modern treatments for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (EF), indicative of impaired cardiac systolic function, patients may exhibit an increase in EF. Limited data are available regarding the clinical management of this growing population, categorized as heart failure with improved EF (HFimpEF), which has a high event rate and has been excluded from virtually all prior heart failure outcomes trials. In a prespecified analysis of the DELIVER trial ( NCT03619213 ), of a total of 6,263 participants with symptomatic heart failure and a left ventricular EF >40%, 1,151 (18%) had HFimpEF, defined as patients whose EF improved from ≤40% to >40%. Participants were randomized to 10 mg dapagliflozin or placebo daily and the primary outcome of the trial was a composite of cardiovascular death or worsening heart failure (heart failure hospitalization or an urgent heart failure visit). Participants with HFimpEF had similar event rates to those with an EF consistently >40%. In participants with HFimpEF, dapagliflozin reduced the primary composite outcome (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.56-0.97), first worsening heart failure events (HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.61-1.14), cardiovascular death (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.96) and total worsening heart failure events (rate ratio = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.50-0.94) to a similar extent as for individuals with an EF consistently >40%. These data suggest that patients with HFimpEF who are symptomatic may benefit from the addition of a sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor to previously instituted guideline-directed medical therapy to further reduce morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico
18.
JACC Heart Fail ; 10(11): 842-850, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are underused in patients with kidney dysfunction, and their efficacy among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to analyze the efficacy and safety of steroidal MRAs across the spectrum of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) in randomized controlled trials. The study included patients with heart failure (HF) or myocardial infarction and advanced CKD who participated in the RALES (Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study), EMPHASIS-HF (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure), TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) in the Americas, and EPHESUS (Eplerenone Post-AMI Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study) trials. METHODS: This study used individual patient data meta-analysis using Cox models stratified by trial with treatment-by-eGFR interaction terms. eGFR was recalculated by using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine formula. RESULTS: A total of 12,700 patients were included, of whom 331 (2.6%) had an eGFR ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (mean eGFR: 26.8 ± 3.2 mL/min/1.73 m2). Patients with advanced CKD had higher annualized event rates for all studied outcomes: placebo event rate for the composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization was ∼3-fold higher in patients with eGFR ≤30 compared with those with eGFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m2: 41.6 vs 14.6 events per 100 person-years. MRAs (vs placebo) reduced the composite of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, but the effect was attenuated as eGFR decreased: the corresponding HRs by eGFR categories were: HR for >90 mL/min/1.73 m2: 0.62 (95% CI: 0.49-0.78); HR for 61-90 mL/min/1.73 m2: 0.69 (95% CI: 0.61-0.77); HR for 46-60 mL/min/1.73 m2: 0.84 (95% CI: 0.74-0.95); HR for 31-45 mL/min/1.73 m2: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68-0.91); and HR for ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2: 0.96 (95% CI: 0.70-1.32) (treatment-by-eGFR interaction P for trend = 0.033). Investigator-reported hyperkalemia and worsening renal function were more frequent (2- to 3-fold) among MRA users, and hyperkalemia was more frequent as eGFR decreased (treatment-by-eGFR interaction P for trend = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Steroidal MRAs reduced HF hospitalizations and mortality across a wide range of eGFR. However, declining benefit and worsening safety may limit their use in patients with lower eGFR, particularly those with levels ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hiperpotassemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Eplerenona/uso terapêutico , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Rim/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(12): 869-881, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are risk factors for heart failure and adverse heart failure outcomes. The Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients with Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure (DELIVER) trial showed that dapagliflozin was associated with a reduction in the primary outcome of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure with mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of oral dapagliflozin in these patients by their baseline glycaemia categories. METHODS: DELIVER was an international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial done in 350 health-care centres and hospitals across 20 countries. Patients aged 40 years or older with New York Heart Association class II-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction of more than 40%, elevated natriuretic peptides (N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide ≥300 pg/mL or ≥600 pg/mL for patients in atrial fibrillation or flutter), and evidence of structural heart disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to 10 mg dapagliflozin or placebo, administered orally, and followed up for a median of 2·3 years (IQR 1·7-2·8). The primary outcome, a composite of time from randomisation to first worsening heart failure events (defined as an unplanned hospitalisation or urgent heart failure visit requiring intravenous therapy) or cardiovascular death, in participants with type 2 diabetes (history of or identified by HbA1c ≥6·5% [48 mmol/mol] at baseline) or prediabetes (HbA1c 5·7 to <6·5% [39 mmol/mol to <48 mmol/mol] at baseline) was compared with those with normoglycaemia (HbA1c <5·7% [39 mmol/mol]). Efficacy of dapagliflozin versus placebo was assessed according to glycaemic status and based on HbA1c as a continuous measure. The full-analysis set comprised all patients who were randomly assigned to study treatment, with patients analysed according to their randomised treatment assignment, irrespective of the treatment received (ie, intention to treat). The safety analysis set comprised patients who were randomly assigned to study treatment and who took at least one dose of investigational product, with patients analysed according to the treatment actually received. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03619213. FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2018, and Jan 18, 2021, 6263 patients were randomly assigned to oral dapagliflozin (n=3131) or placebo (n=3132). Of these patients, 1175 had normoglycaemia, 1934 had prediabetes, and 3150 had type 2 diabetes and were included in the glycaemia subgroup analysis (3515 [56·2%] of 6263 patients were men and 4435 [70·9%] were White). The incidence rate of the primary outcome was 6·9 per 100 patient-years in the normoglycaemia subgroup (reference), increasing to 7·6 per 100 patient-years in the prediabetes subgroup (hazard ratio 1·09 [95% CI 0·90-1·31]) and 10·1 per 100 patient-years in the type 2 diabetes subgroup (1·46 [1·24-1·73]; p<0·0001 for trend). Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of the primary outcome versus placebo in each subgroup (hazard ratio 0·77 [95% CI 0·57-1·04], log-rank p=0·088, for patients with normoglycaemia, 0·87 [0·69-1·08], log-rank p=0·21, for patients with prediabetes, and 0·81 [0·69-0·95], log-rank p=0·0077, for patients with type 2 diabetes; pinteraction=0·82) and across the continuous HbA1c range (pinteraction=0·85). Volume-related or renal serious adverse events or adverse events leading to discontinuation of the study drug, hypoglycaemia, and amputations were not differentially affected by treatment in any of the glycaemia categories. INTERPRETATION: In patients with heart failure with mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction, oral dapagliflozin improved heart failure outcomes to a similar extent in three glycaemia subgroups: normoglycaemia, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, the heart failure benefits of dapagliflozin seem to be consistent across a continuous glycaemic range. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Estado Pré-Diabético , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Volume Sistólico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Glicemia
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