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1.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(10): 800-810, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004114

RESUMO

Sacubitril/valsartan, an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization and improve symptoms among patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction compared to enalapril, the gold standard angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. In the 5 years since the publication of the results of PARADIGM-HF, further insight has been gained into integrating a neprilysin inhibitor into a comprehensive multidrug regimen, including a renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS) blocker. This paper reviews the current understanding of the effects of sacubitril/valsartan and highlights expected developments over the next 5 years, including potential new indications for use. Additionally, a practical, evidence-based approach is provided to the clinical integration of sacubitril/valsartan among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

2.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study compared ways of describing treatment effects. The objective was to better explain to clinicians and patients what they might expect from a given treatment, not only in terms of relative and absolute risk reduction, but also in projections of long-term survival. BACKGROUND: The restricted mean survival time (RMST) can be used to estimate of long-term survival, providing a complementary approach to more conventional metrics (e.g., absolute and relative risk), which may suggest greater benefits of therapy in high-risk patients compared with low-risk patients. METHODS: Relative and absolute risk, as well as the RMST, were calculated in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) trials. RESULTS: As examples, in the RALES trial (more severe HFrEF), the treatment effect metrics for spironolactone versus placebo on heart failure hospitalization and/or cardiovascular death were a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5 to 0.77), number needed to treat = 9 (7 to 14), and age extension of event-free survival +1.1 years (-0.1 to + 2.3 years). The corresponding metrics for EMPHASIS-HF (eplerenone vs. placebo in less severe HFrEF) were 0.64 (0.54 to 0.75), 14 (1 to 22), and +2.9 (1.2 to 4.5). In patients in PARADIGM-HF aged younger than 65 years, the metrics for sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.68 to 0.88), 23 (15 to 44), and +1.7 (0.6 to 2.8) years; for those aged 65 years or older, the metrics were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73 to 0.94), 29 (17 to 83), and +0.9 (0.2 to 1.6) years, which provided evidence of a greater potential life extension in younger patients. Similar observations were found for lower risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: RMST event-free (and overall) survival estimates provided a complementary means of evaluating the effect of therapy in relation to age and risk. They also provided a clinically useful metric that should be routinely reported and used to explain the potential long-term benefits of a given treatment, especially to younger and less symptomatic patients.

3.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040613

RESUMO

Background: Many patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have chronic kidney disease (CKD) which complicates pharmacological management and is associated with worse outcomes. We assessed the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF, according to baseline kidney function, in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). We also examined the effect of dapagliflozin on kidney function after randomization. Many patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have chronic kidney disease (CKD) which complicates pharmacological management and is associated with worse outcomes. We assessed the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF, according to baseline kidney function, in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). We also examined the effect of dapagliflozin on kidney function after randomization. Methods: HFrEF patients with or without type 2 diabetes and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 ml/min/1.73m2 were enrolled in DAPA-HF. We calculated the incidence of the primary outcome (CV death or worsening HF) according to eGFR category at baseline (<60 and ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2) as well as using eGFR at baseline as a continuous measure. Secondary cardiovascular outcomes and a pre-specified composite renal outcome (≥ 50% sustained decline eGFR, end stage renal disease (ESRD) or renal death) were also examined, along with decline in eGFR over time. Results: Of 4742 with a baseline eGFR, 1926 (41%) had eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary and secondary outcomes did not differ by eGFR category or examining eGFR as a continuous measurement. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) for the primary endpoint in patients with CKD was 0.71 (0.59, 0.86) vs. 0.77 (0.64, 0.93) in those with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 (interaction p=0.54). The composite renal outcome was not reduced by dapagliflozin (HR=0.71, 95% CI 0.44, 1.16; p=0.17) but the rate of decline in eGFR between day 14 and 720 was less with dapagliflozin, -1.09 (-1.41, -0.78) vs. placebo -2.87 (-3.19, -2.55) ml/min/1.73m2 per year (p<0.001). This was observed in those with and without type 2 diabetes (p for interaction=0.92) Conclusions: Baseline kidney function did not modify the benefits of dapagliflozin on morbidity and mortality in HFrEF and dapagliflozin slowed the rate of decline in eGFR, including in patients without diabetes. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03036124.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e017462, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964800

RESUMO

Background NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) improves the discriminatory ability of risk-prediction models in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but is not yet used in clinical practice. We assessed the discriminatory strength of NT-proBNP by itself for death and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with T2DM. Methods and Results Cox proportional hazards were used to create a base model formed by 20 variables. The discriminatory ability of the base model was compared with that of NT-proBNP alone and with NT-proBNP added, using C-statistics. We studied 5509 patients (with complete data) of 8561 patients with T2DM and cardiovascular and/or chronic kidney disease who were enrolled in the ALTITUDE (Aliskiren in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiorenal Endpoints) trial. During a median 2.6-year follow-up period, 469 patients died and 768 had a cardiovascular composite outcome (cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure hospitalization). NT-proBNP alone was as discriminatory as the base model for predicting death (C-statistic, 0.745 versus 0.744, P=0.95) and the cardiovascular composite outcome (C-statistic, 0.723 versus 0.731, P=0.37). When NT-proBNP was added, it increased the predictive ability of the base model for death (C-statistic, 0.779 versus 0.744, P<0.001) and for cardiovascular composite outcome (C-statistic, 0.763 versus 0.731, P<0.001). Conclusions In high-risk patients with T2DM, NT-proBNP by itself demonstrated discriminatory ability similar to a multivariable model in predicting both death and cardiovascular events and should be considered for risk stratification. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00549757.

5.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(10): 844-855, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sacubitril/valsartan therapy on sudden cardiac death (SCD) according to the use of and eligibility for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), stratified by heart failure cause. BACKGROUND: SCD still accounts for a significant proportion of overall mortality in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: Patients enrolled in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with an ACE-Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) trial (n = 8,399) were evaluated to assess patterns of ICD implantation and eligibility according to clinical guidelines. The impact of ICD (adjusted for propensity of ICD implantation) and sacubitril/valsartan therapy on SCD was evaluated by using cause-specific Cox models and competing risk analysis. RESULTS: At baseline, of the 7,145 patients (85%) eligible for ICD implantation, only 1,243 (15%) had an ICD. Use of ICD varied by region with the highest rates in North America (56%) and lowest in Asia-Pacific (1.7%). In a propensity score-adjusted analysis, use of an ICD was associated with a 56% lower risk of SCD in ICD-eligible patients, in both patients with ischemic (p < 0.001) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (p = 0.02). Sacubitril/valsartan reduced SCD risk in patients with an ICD (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25 to 0.99) and in those who were eligible for but did not receive an ICD (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.98). This effect was particularly evident in nonischemic cardiomyopathy (p < 0.05), although interaction with the cause of HF was not significant (p = 0.11 in subjects using an ICD and p = 0.25 in eligible nonusers). CONCLUSIONS: Use of an ICD was associated with lower rates of SCD, regardless of HF cause but was underused in most regions of the world in the PARADIGM-HF study. Sacubitril/valsartan reduced SCD risk regardless of use of an ICD or eligibility, particularly in ICD users and nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 383(15): 1436-1446, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease have a high risk of adverse kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. The effect of dapagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease, with or without type 2 diabetes, is not known. METHODS: We randomly assigned 4304 participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 to 75 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine measured in grams) of 200 to 5000 to receive dapagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of a sustained decline in the estimated GFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: The independent data monitoring committee recommended stopping the trial because of efficacy. Over a median of 2.4 years, a primary outcome event occurred in 197 of 2152 participants (9.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 312 of 2152 participants (14.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.72; P<0.001; number needed to treat to prevent one primary outcome event, 19 [95% CI, 15 to 27]). The hazard ratio for the composite of a sustained decline in the estimated GFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or death from renal causes was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.68; P<0.001), and the hazard ratio for the composite of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.92; P = 0.009). Death occurred in 101 participants (4.7%) in the dapagliflozin group and 146 participants (6.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.88; P = 0.004). The effects of dapagliflozin were similar in participants with type 2 diabetes and in those without type 2 diabetes. The known safety profile of dapagliflozin was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with chronic kidney disease, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes, the risk of a composite of a sustained decline in the estimated GFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes was significantly lower with dapagliflozin than with placebo. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-CKD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036150.).

8.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985088

RESUMO

AIMS: The safety and efficacy of the novel selective cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil, in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is tested in the Global Approach to Lowering Adverse Cardiac outcomes Through Improving Contractility in Heart Failure (GALACTIC-HF) trial. Here we describe the baseline characteristics of participants in GALACTIC-HF and how these compare with other contemporary trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults with established HFrEF, New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA) ≥ II, EF ≤35%, elevated natriuretic peptides and either current hospitalization for HF or history of hospitalization/ emergency department visit for HF within a year were randomized to either placebo or omecamtiv mecarbil (pharmacokinetic-guided dosing: 25, 37.5 or 50 mg bid). 8256 patients [male (79%), non-white (22%), mean age 65 years] were enrolled with a mean EF 27%, ischemic etiology in 54%, NYHA II 53% and III/IV 47%, and median NT-proBNP 1971 pg/mL. HF therapies at baseline were among the most effectively employed in contemporary HF trials. GALACTIC-HF randomized patients representative of recent HF registries and trials with substantial numbers of patients also having characteristics understudied in previous trials including more from North America (n = 1386), enrolled as inpatients (n = 2084), systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg (n = 1127), estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 528), and treated with sacubitril-valsartan at baseline (n = 1594). CONCLUSIONS: GALACTIC-HF enrolled a well-treated, high-risk population from both inpatient and outpatient settings, which will provide a definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this novel therapy, as well as informing its potential future implementation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Circulation ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883108

RESUMO

Background: In the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF), dapagliflozin, added to guideline-recommended therapies, reduced the risk of mortality and HF hospitalization. We examined the frequency and significance of episodes of outpatient heart failure-worsening, requiring augmentation of oral therapy, and the effects of dapagliflozin on these additional events. Methods: Patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II-IV, with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, and elevation of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were eligible. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure (HF hospitalization or urgent HF visit requiring intravenous [IV] therapy) or cardiovascular (CV) death, whichever occurred first. An additional prespecified exploratory outcome was the primary outcome plus worsening HF symptoms/signs leading to initiation of new, or augmentation of existing, oral treatment. Results: Overall, 36% more patients experienced the expanded, compared with the primary, composite outcome. In the placebo group, 684/2371 (28.8%) patients, and 527/2373 (22.2%) participants in the dapagliflozin group, experienced the expanded outcome (HR 0.73, 0.65-0.82; P<0.0001); each component of the composite was reduced significantly by dapagliflozin. Over the median follow-up of 18.2 months, the number of patients needed to treat (NNT) with dapagliflozin to prevent one experiencing an episode of fatal or non-fatal worsening was 16. Among the 4744 randomized patients, the first episode of worsening was outpatient augmentation of treatment in 407 participants (8.6%), an urgent HF visit with IV therapy in 20 (0.4%), HF hospitalization in 489 (10.3%) and CV death in 295 (6.2%) patients. The adjusted risk of death from any cause (compared with no event) following an outpatient worsening was HR 2.67 (95%CI 2.03-3.52), after an urgent HF visit 3.00 (1.39-6.48) and after a HF hospitalization 6.21 (5.07-7.62). Conclusions: In DAPA-HF, outpatient episodes of HF worsening were common, of prognostic importance and reduced by dapagliflozin. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03036124.

10.
Circulation ; 142(12): 1205-1218, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955939

RESUMO

With worsening epidemiological trends for both the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF) worldwide, it is critical to implement optimal prevention and treatment strategies for patients with these comorbidities, either alone or concomitantly. Several guidelines and consensus statements have recommended glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors as add-ons to lifestyle interventions with or without metformin in those at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk. However, these recommendations are either silent about HF or fail to differentiate between the prevention of HF in those at risk versus the treatment of individuals with manifest HF. Furthermore, these documents do not differentiate among those with different HF phenotypes. This distinction, even though important, may not be critical for sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors in view of the consistent data for benefit for both atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease- and HF-related outcomes that have emerged from the regulatory-mandated cardiovascular outcome trials for all sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors and the recent DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction)demonstrating the benefit of dapagliflozin on HF-related outcomes in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction with or without T2DM. However, the distinction may be crucial for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and other antihyperglycemic agents. Indeed, in several of the new statements, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are suggested treatment not only for patients with T2DM and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but also in those with manifest HF, despite a lack of evidence for the latter recommendation. Although glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists may be appropriate to use in patients at risk for HF, mechanistic insights and observations from randomized trials suggest no clear benefit on HF-related outcomes and even uncertainty regarding the safety in those with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Conversely, theoretical rationales suggest that these agents may benefit patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction. Considering that millions of patients with T2DM have HF, these concerns have public health implications that necessitate the thoughtful use of these therapies. Achieving this aim will require dedicated trials with these drugs in both patients who have HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved ejection fraction with T2DM to assess their efficacy, safety, and risk-benefit profile.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809261

RESUMO

AIMS: The associations between potassium level and outcomes, the effect of sacubitril-valsartan on potassium level, and whether potassium level modified the effect of sacubitril-valsartan in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction were studied in PARADIGM-HF. Several outcomes, including cardiovascular death, sudden death, pump failure death, non-cardiovascular death and heart failure hospitalization, were examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 8399 patients were randomized to either enalapril or sacubitril-valsartan. Potassium level at randomization and follow-up was examined as a continuous and categorical variable (≤3.5, 3.6-4.0, 4.1-4.9, 5.0-5.4 and ≥5.5 mmol/L) in various statistical models. Hyperkalaemia was defined as K+ ≥5.5 mmol/L and hypokalaemia as K+ ≤3.5 mmol/L. Compared with potassium 4.1-4.9 mmol/L, both hypokalaemia [hazard ratio (HR) 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-3.14] and hyperkalaemia (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10-1.83) were associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular death. However, potassium abnormalities were similarly associated with sudden death and pump failure death, as well as non-cardiovascular death and heart failure hospitalization. Sacubitril-valsartan had no effect on potassium overall. The benefit of sacubitril-valsartan over enalapril was consistent across the range of baseline potassium levels. CONCLUSIONS: Although both higher and lower potassium levels were independent predictors of cardiovascular death, potassium abnormalities may mainly be markers rather than mediators of risk for death.

12.
Circulation ; 142(13): 1236-1245, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with heart failure, chronic kidney disease is common and associated with a higher risk of renal events than in patients without chronic kidney disease. We assessed the renal effects of angiotensin/neprilysin inhibition in patients who have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction enrolled in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB Global Outcomes in HF With Preserved Ejection Fraction). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, event-driven trial, we assigned 4822 patients who had heart failure with preserved ejection fraction to receive sacubitril/valsartan (n=2419) or valsartan (n=2403). Herein, we present the results of the prespecified renal composite outcome (time to first occurrence of either: ≥50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), end-stage renal disease, or death from renal causes), the individual components of this composite, and the influence of therapy on eGFR slope. RESULTS: At randomization, eGFR was 63±19 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2. At study closure, the composite renal outcome occurred in 33 patients (1.4%) assigned to sacubitril/valsartan and 64 patients (2.7%) assigned to valsartan (hazard ratio, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.33-0.77]; P=0.001). The treatment effect on the composite renal end point did not differ according to the baseline eGFR (<60 versus ≥60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 (P-interaction=0.92). The decline in eGFR was less for sacubitril/valsartan than for valsartan (-2.0 [95% CI, -2.2 to -1.9] versus -2.7 [95% CI, -2.8 to -2.5] mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 per year). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, sacubitril/valsartan reduced the risk of renal events, and slowed decline in eGFR, in comparison with valsartan. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01920711.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840930

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of serum uric acid (SUA) on outcomes in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and whether sacubitril-valsartan reduces SUA and use of SUA-related therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 4795 participants from the Prospective Comparison of ARNI [angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor] with ARB [angiotensin-receptor blockers] Global Outcomes in HF with Preserved Ejection Fraction (PARAGON-HF) trial. We related baseline hyperuricaemia (using age and gender adjusted assay definitions) to the primary outcome [cardiovascular (CV) death and total HF hospitalizations]. We assessed the associations between changes in SUA and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary Score (KCCQ-OSS) and other cardiac biomarkers from baseline to 4 months. We simultaneously adjusted for baseline and time-updated SUA to determine whether lowering SUA was associated with clinical benefit. The mean (± standard deviation) age of patients was 73 ± 8 years and 52% were women. After multivariable adjustment, hyperuricaemia was associated with increased risk for the primary outcome [rate ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-1.90]. The treatment effect of sacubitril-valsartan for the primary endpoint was not significantly modified by hyperuricaemia (P-value for interaction = 0.14). Sacubitril-valsartan reduced SUA by 0.38 mg/dL (95% CI 0.31-0.45) compared with valsartan at 4 months, with greater effect in those with elevated SUA vs. normal SUA (-0.51 mg/dL vs. -0.32 mg/dL) (P-value for interaction = 0.031). Sacubitril-valsartan reduced the odds of initiating SUA-related treatments by 32% during follow-up (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, change in SUA was inversely associated with change in KCCQ-OSS and directly associated with high-sensitivity troponin T (P < 0.05). Time-updated SUA was a stronger predictor of adverse outcomes than baseline SUA. CONCLUSIONS: Serum uric acid independently predicted adverse outcomes in HFpEF. Sacubitril-valsartan reduced SUA and the initiation of related therapy compared with valsartan. Reductions in SUA were associated with improved outcomes.

14.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(10): 1700-1711, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease (DAPA-CKD; NCT03036150) trial was designed to assess the effect of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin on kidney and cardiovascular events in participants with CKD with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis reports the baseline characteristics of those recruited, comparing them with those enrolled in other trials. METHODS: In DAPA-CKD, 4304 participants with a urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥200 mg/g and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 25 and 75 mL/min/1.73 m2 were randomized to dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or placebo. Mean eGFR was 43.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 and median UACR was 949 mg/g (108 mg/mmol). RESULTS: Overall, 2906 participants (68%) had a diagnosis of T2D and of these, 396 had CKD ascribed to a cause other than diabetes. The most common causes of CKD after diabetes (n = 2510) were ischaemic/hypertensive nephropathy (n = 687) and chronic glomerulonephritis (n = 695), of which immunoglobulin A nephropathy (n = 270) was the most common. A total of 4174 participants (97%) were receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, 1882 (43.7%) diuretics, 229 (5.3%) mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and 122 (2.8%) glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists. In contrast to the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE), the DAPA-CKD trial enrolled participants with CKD due to diabetes and to causes other than diabetes. The mean eGFR of participants in the DAPA-CKD trial was 13.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 lower than in CREDENCE, similar to that in the Finerenone in Reducing Kidney Failure and Disease Progression in DKD (FIDELIO-DKD) trial and the Study Of diabetic Nephropathy with AtRasentan (SONAR). CONCLUSIONS: Participants with a wide range of underlying kidney diseases receiving renin-angiotensin system blocking therapy have been enrolled in the DAPA-CKD trial. The trial will examine the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in participants with CKD Stages 2-4 and increased albuminuria, with and without T2D.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(5): 503-514, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis may contribute to the pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Given the biochemical targets of sacubitril/valsartan, this study hypothesized that circulating biomarkers reflecting the mechanisms that determine extracellular matrix homeostasis are altered by sacubitril/valsartan compared with valsartan alone. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effects of sacubitril/valsartan on biomarkers of extracellular matrix homeostasis and the association between biomarkers and the primary endpoint (total heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular death). METHODS: N-terminal propeptide of collagen I and III, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1, carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I, and soluble ST2 were measured at baseline (n = 1,135) and 16 (n = 1,113) and 48 weeks (n = 1,016) after randomization. The effects of sacubitril/valsartan on these biomarkers were compared with those of valsartan alone. Baseline biomarker values and changes from baseline to 16 weeks were related to primary endpoint. RESULTS: At baseline, all 5 biomarkers were higher than published referent control values. Sixteen weeks after randomization, sacubitril/valsartan decreased tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 by 8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6% to 10%; p < 0.001), soluble ST2 by 4% (95% CI: 1% to 7%; p = 0.002), and N-terminal propeptide of collagen III by 3% (95% CI: 0% to 6%; p = 0.04) and increased carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I by 4% (95% CI: 1% to 8%; p = 0.02) compared with valsartan alone, consistently in men and women and patients with left ventricular ejection fraction above or below the median of 57%. Higher levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and soluble ST2 at baseline and increases in these markers at 16 weeks were associated with higher primary endpoint event rates. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers reflecting extracellular matrix homeostasis are elevated in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, favorably altered by sacubitril/valsartan, and have important prognostic value. (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB Global Outcomes in HF With Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF]; NCT01920711).

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(5): 580-589, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731936

RESUMO

Concerns about the external validity of traditional randomized clinical trials (RCTs), together with the widespread availability of real-world data and advanced data analytic tools, have led to claims that common sense and clinical observation, rather than RCTs, should be the preferred method to generate evidence to support clinical decision-making. However, over the past 4 decades, results from well-done RCTs have repeatedly contradicted practices supported by common sense and clinical observation. Common sense and clinical observation fail for several reasons: incomplete understanding of pathophysiology, biases and unmeasured confounding in observational research, and failure to understand risks and benefits of treatments within complex systems. Concerns about traditional RCT models are legitimate, but randomization remains a critical tool to understand the causal relationship between treatments and outcomes. Instead, development and promulgation of tools to apply randomization to real-world data are needed to build the best evidence base in cardiovascular medicine.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820334

RESUMO

AIMS: Concern about hypotension often leads to withholding of beneficial therapy in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, which lowers systolic blood pressure (SBP),according to baseline SBP in Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Key inclusion criteria were: New York Heart Association Class II-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level, and SBP ≥95 mmHg. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. The efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin were examined using SBP as both a categorical and continuous variable. A total of 1205 patients had a baseline SBP <110 mmHg; 981 ≥ 110 < 120; 1149 ≥ 120 < 130; and 1409 ≥ 130 mmHg. The placebo-corrected reduction in SBP from baseline to 2 weeks with dapagliflozin was -2.54 (-3.33 to -1.76) mmHg (P < 0.001), with a smaller between-treatment difference in patients in the lowest compared to highest SBP category. Patients in the lowest SBP category had a much higher rate (per 100 person-years) of the primary outcome [20.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 17.6-24.2] than those in the highest SBP category (13.8, 11.7-16.4). The benefit and safety of dapagliflozin was consistent across the range of SBP; hazard ratio (95% CI) in each SBP group, lowest to highest: 0.76 (0.60-0.97), 0.76 (0.57-1.02), 0.81 (0.61-1.08), and 0.67 (0.51-0.87), P interaction = 0.78. Study drug discontinuation did not differ between dapagliflozin and placebo across the SBP categories examined. CONCLUSION: Dapagliflozin had a small effect on SBP in patients with HFrEF and was superior to placebo in improving outcomes, and well tolerated, across the range of SBP included in DAPA-HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03036124.

19.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840318

RESUMO

AIMS : We sought to describe the clinical presentation, management, and 6-month outcomes in women with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) globally. METHODS AND RESULTS : In 2011, >100 national and affiliated member cardiac societies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) were contacted to contribute to a global registry on PPCM, under the auspices of the ESC EURObservational Research Programme. These societies were tasked with identifying centres who could participate in this registry. In low-income countries, e.g. Mozambique or Burkina Faso, where there are no national societies due to a shortage of cardiologists, we identified potential participants through abstracts and publications and encouraged participation into the study. Seven hundred and thirty-nine women were enrolled in 49 countries in Europe (33%), Africa (29%), Asia-Pacific (15%), and the Middle East (22%). Mean age was 31 ± 6 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 31 ± 10%, and 10% had a previous pregnancy complicated by PPCM. Symptom-onset occurred most often within 1 month of delivery (44%). At diagnosis, 67% of patients had severe (NYHA III/IV) symptoms and 67% had a LVEF ≤35%. Fifteen percent received bromocriptine with significant regional variation (Europe 15%, Africa 26%, Asia-Pacific 8%, the Middle East 4%, P < 0.001). Follow-up was available for 598 (81%) women. Six-month mortality was 6% overall, lowest in Europe (4%), and highest in the Middle East (10%). Most deaths were due to heart failure (42%) or sudden (30%). Re-admission for any reason occurred in 10% (with just over half of these for heart failure) and thromboembolic events in 7%. Myocardial recovery (LVEF > 50%) occurred only in 46%, most commonly in Asia-Pacific (62%), and least commonly in the Middle East (25%). Neonatal death occurred in 5% with marked regional variation (Europe 2%, the Middle East 9%). CONCLUSION : Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a global disease, but clinical presentation and outcomes vary by region. Just under half of women experience myocardial recovery. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a disease with substantial maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.

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