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6.
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control ; 67(11): 2312-2320, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746183

RESUMO

Shortness of breath is a major reason that patients present to the emergency department (ED) and point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been shown to aid in diagnosis, particularly through evaluation for artifacts known as B-lines. B-line identification and quantification can be a challenging skill for novice ultrasound users, and experienced users could benefit from a more objective measure of quantification. We sought to develop and test a deep learning (DL) algorithm to quantify the assessment of B-lines in lung ultrasound. We utilized ultrasound clips ( n = 400 ) from an existing database of ED patients to provide training and test sets to develop and test the DL algorithm based on deep convolutional neural networks. Interpretations of the images by algorithm were compared to expert human interpretations on binary and severity (a scale of 0-4) classifications. Our model yielded a sensitivity of 93% (95% confidence interval (CI) 81%-98%) and a specificity of 96% (95% CI 84%-99%) for the presence or absence of B-lines compared to expert read, with a kappa of 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.97). Model to expert agreement for severity classification yielded a weighted kappa of 0.65 (95% CI 0.56-074). Overall, the DL algorithm performed well and could be integrated into an ultrasound system in order to help diagnose and track B-line severity. The algorithm is better at distinguishing the presence from the absence of B-lines but can also be successfully used to distinguish between B-line severity. Such methods could decrease variability and provide a standardized method for improved diagnosis and outcome.

7.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(7): 826-837, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: P2 prolapse is a common cause of degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR); echocardiographic characteristics of non-P2 prolapse are less known. Because of the eccentric nature of degenerative MR jets, the evaluation of MR severity is challenging. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that (1) the percentage of severe MR determined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) would be lower compared with that determined by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with non-P2 prolapse and also in a subgroup with "horizontal MR" (a horizontal jet seen on TTE that hugs the leaflets without reaching the atrial wall, particularly found in non-P2 prolapse) and (2) the directions of MR jets between TTE and real-time (RT) three-dimensional (3D) TEE would be discordant. METHODS: One hundred eighteen patients with moderate to severe and severe degenerative MR defined by TEE were studied. The percentage of severe MR between TTE and TEE was compared in P2 and non-P2 prolapse groups and in horizontal and nonhorizontal MR groups. Additionally, differences in the directions of the MR jets between TTE and RT 3D TEE were assessed. RESULTS: Eighty-six percent of patients had severe MR according to TEE. TTE underestimated severe MR in the non-P2 group (severe MR on TTE, 57%; severe MR on TEE, 85%; P < .001) but not in the P2 group (severe MR on TTE, 79%; severe MR on TEE, 91%; P = .157). Most "horizontal" MR jets were found in the non-P2 group (85%), and this subgroup showed even more underestimation of severe MR on TTE (TTE, 22%; TEE, 89%; P < .001). There was discordance in MR jet direction between two-dimensional TTE and RT 3D TEE in 41% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Non-P2 and "horizontal" MR are significantly underestimated on TTE compared with TEE. There is substantial discordance in the direction of the MR jet between RT 3D TEE and TTE. Therefore, TEE should be considered when these subgroups of MR are observed on TTE.

8.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(7): 747-755, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372089

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with tricuspid annulus (TA) dilation in patients with severe functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR); however, the impact of AF is less clear in patients without severe TR. Our aim was to characterize TA remodelling in patients with AF in the absence of severe TR using 3D transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety patients underwent clinically indicated transthoracic and TOE: non-structural (NS)-AF (n = 30); AF with left heart disease (LHD) (n = 30), and controls in sinus rhythm (n = 30). Three-dimensional TOE datasets were analysed to measure TA dimensions using novel dedicated tricuspid valve software. The NS-AF group showed biatrial dilatation and normal right ventricular (RV) size with decreased longitudinal function compared to controls, whereas the LHD-AF group showed biatrial dilatation, RV enlargement, decreased biventricular function, and higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure compared with the other groups. Indexed TA area, minimum diameter, maximum diameter, and total perimeter were significantly larger in the NS-AF group than in controls (measurements in end-diastole: 6.4 ± 1.1 vs. 5.0 ± 0.6 cm2/m2, 1.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 cm/m2, 2.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.2 cm/m2, and 6.6 ± 0.9 vs. 5.9 ± 0.7 cm/m2, respectively, all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in any indexed TA parameter between AF groups. TA circularity index (ratio between minimum and maximal diameters) and TA fractional area change between end-diastole and end-systole were no different among the three groups. CONCLUSION: AF is associated with right atrial and tricuspid annular remodelling independent of the presence of LHD in patients with intrinsically normal tricuspid leaflets without severe TR.

9.
Future Cardiol ; 16(4): 289-296, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286858

RESUMO

Background: The association of weight change and short-term readmission in patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) has not been well studied. Methods: We collected clinical and weight data from patients admitted with decompensated HF to a single center (2012-2013). We performed logistic regression to determine the association between weight change and two outcomes: a total of 30-day HF-specific readmission and 30-day all-cause readmission. Results: Admission and discharge weights were documented in 479/658 patients (73%). Weight loss >2 kg was not associated with 30-day all-cause or HF-specific readmission when compared with more modest inpatient weight change (-2 kg to +2 kg; all-cause readmission odds ratio: 0.86; CI: 0.56-1.37; HF-specific readmission odds ratio: 1.15; CI: 0.61-2.16). Conclusion: Among HF inpatients, in-hospital weight loss was not associated with 30-day all-cause or HF-specific readmission.

10.
Echocardiography ; 36(11): 2070-2077, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Endocardial involvement documented by echocardiography is a major criterion of the modified Duke criteria (MDC) for infective endocarditis (IE). Though transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is sensitive in the diagnosis of IE, it can be inappropriately used. METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients who underwent TEE due to bacteremia, fever, and/or endocarditis in a single, tertiary academic medical center in 2013. Data collected from electronic medical charts were as follows: demographics, history, physical examination, blood cultures, and transthoracic (TTE) and TEE findings. Cases were categorized based on appropriate use criteria (AUC) and MDC. An infectious disease (ID) specialist reviewed cases with rarely appropriate TEE use. RESULTS: In the 194 patients included, 147 (75.8%) were rated as appropriate, 36 (18.6%) rarely appropriate, and 11 (5.6%) uncertain. Of the 36 with rarely appropriate TEEs, using MDC 31 (86%) were rejected and 5 (14%) were possible for IE. Retrospective chart review by an ID specialist determined that 10 of these patients warranted TEE due to compelling issues, including immunosuppression or complicated infection. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective cohort, almost one fifth of cases were rated as rarely appropriate. However, a review of these cases showed that TEE was often pursued when the clinical situation involved immunosuppression or complex infectious process. There remains room for improvement to our screening process for TEE and a need to implement a nuanced educational plan to better precisely identify appropriate cases for TEE usage.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Echocardiography ; 36(7): 1413-1417, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260135

RESUMO

The accurate identification of thrombus in the left atrial appendage with transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) before cardioversion is essential. Most of these patients have some grade of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC). Severe SEC is often called "sludge," and its prognosis and treatment are still controversial. Current guidelines suggest the use of ultrasound enhancing agents (UEAs) when significant SEC is present. However, little is known about the utility of the UEAs in the differentiation between sludge and less severe SEC.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Fluorcarbonetos/administração & dosagem , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Flutter Atrial/complicações , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 6: 2324709618802870, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283806

RESUMO

A 24-year-old man with history of unspecified arrhythmia presented with palpitations and chest pain. Initial electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed irregular tachycardia with varying QRS width: 150 to 200 beats per minute for narrow complexes and 300 beats per minute for wide complexes. Following cardioversion, ECG revealed sinus tachycardia with a preexcitation pattern of positive delta waves in the anterolateral leads and negative delta waves in inferior leads. The patient remained in sinus rhythm and underwent successful ablation of a right posteroseptal accessory pathway. Subsequent ECG showed upright T waves in the leads I, aVL, and V2-6, large inverted T waves in leads III and aVF, and no delta waves. This case serves as an important reminder that atrial fibrillation (AF) in the presence of an accessory pathway may present with confounding ECG features, potentially leading to incorrect diagnoses and treatments that may be life threatening. Despite 10% to 30% prevalence of AF in the presence of an accessory pathway and the relative awareness of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome among general internal medicine providers, the clinical recognition of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome may be hindered in the presence of preexcited AF.

15.
Ultrasound ; 26(2): 81-92, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013608

RESUMO

Objective: To determine if a novel computer-generated metric, effective acceleration time, improves accuracy for detecting tardus parvus waveforms on spectral Doppler ultrasound. Methods: Patients with echocardiography-confirmed aortic valve stenosis (n = 132; 60 mild, 44 moderate, 28 severe) and matched controls (n = 48) who underwent carotid Doppler ultrasound were identified through an imaging database search at a single medical center. A custom-built spectral analysis computer program generated effective acceleration time values for spectral Doppler waveforms in the carotid arteries and a receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the optimal median effective acceleration time cutoff value to detect tardus parvus waveforms. Two radiologists, blinded to subject disease status, reviewed and rated all carotid sonograms for presence of tardus parvus waveforms. Inter-rater variability was measured, and the accuracy of aortic valve stenosis detection with and without use of the effective acceleration time cutoff was calculated. Results: Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed an optimal effective acceleration time cutoff of ≥ 48 ms with a corresponding area under the curve of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.70-0.84). Use of the effAT cutoff demonstrated an accuracy of 74%. Accuracy of visual waveform interpretation by raters ranged from 43% to 61%. Inter-rater agreement in detection of tardus parvus waveforms was 76% (136/180 cases, K = 0.44, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Detection of tardus parvus waveforms through visual interpretation of spectral Doppler waveform morphology is limited by low accuracy and moderate inter-rater variability. Use of a computer-generated median effective acceleration time cutoff value markedly improves diagnostic accuracy and avoids observer variability.

16.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 28(2): 102-109, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826668

RESUMO

Recognizing and understanding the risk factors for mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) provide clinicians and patients important information to determine prognosis and guide treatment. Most risk stratification models use demographic and clinical information that exists prior to hospitalization plus clinical presentation characteristics to estimate a patient's risk of mortality. In this review, we summarize the most important risk factors and discuss current models to predict mortality.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Am Heart J ; 194: 16-24, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major bleeding is a frequent complication for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To develop a contemporary model for inhospital major bleeding that can both support clinical decision-making and serve as a foundation for assessing hospital quality. METHODS: An inhospital major bleeding model was developed using the Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry-Get With the Guidelines (ACTION Registry-GWTG) database. Patients hospitalized with AMI between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 across 657 hospitals were used to create a derivation cohort (n=144,800) and a validation cohort (n=96,684). Multivariable hierarchal logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors of major bleeding. A simplified risk score was created to enable prospective risk stratification for clinical care. RESULTS: The rate of major bleeding in the overall population was 7.53%. There were 8 significant, independent factors associated with major bleeding: presentation after cardiac arrest (OR 2.99 [2.77-3.22]); presentation in cardiogenic shock (OR 2.22 [2.05-2.40]); STEMI (OR 1.72 [1.65-1.80]); presentation in heart failure (OR 1.55 [1.47-1.63]); baseline hemoglobin less than 12 g/dL (1.55 [1.48-1.63]); heart rate (per 10 beat per minute increase) (OR 1.13 [1.12-1.14]); weight (per 10 kilogram decrease) (OR 1.12 [1.11-1.14]); creatinine clearance (per 5-mL decrease) (OR 1.07 [1.07-1.08]). The model discriminated well in the derivation (C-statistic = 0.74) and validation (C-statistic = 0.74) cohorts. In the validation cohort, a risk score for major bleeding corresponded well with observed bleeding: very low risk (2.2%), low risk (5.1%), moderate risk (10.1%), high risk (16.3%), and very high risk (25.2%). CONCLUSION: The new ACTION Registry-GWTG inhospital major bleeding risk model and risk score offer a robust, parsimonious, and contemporary risk-adjustment method to support clinical decision-making and enable hospital quality assessment. Strategies to mitigate risk should be developed and tested as a means to lower costs and improve outcomes in an era of alternative payment models.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 167(8): 555-564, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973634

RESUMO

Background: Publicly reported hospital risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are calculated for Medicare beneficiaries. Outcomes for older patients with AMI may not reflect general outcomes. Objective: To examine the relationship between hospital 30-day RSMRs for older patients (aged ≥65 years) and those for younger patients (aged 18 to 64 years) and all patients (aged ≥18 years) with AMI. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: 986 hospitals in the ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network) Registry-Get With the Guidelines. Participants: Adults hospitalized for AMI from 1 October 2010 to 30 September 2014. Measurements: Hospital 30-day RSMRs were calculated for older, younger, and all patients using an electronic health record measure of AMI mortality endorsed by the National Quality Forum. Hospitals were ranked by their 30-day RSMRs for these 3 age groups, and agreement in rankings was plotted. The correlation in hospital AMI achievement scores for each age group was also calculated using the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) Program method computed with the electronic health record measure. Results: 267 763 and 276 031 AMI hospitalizations among older and younger patients, respectively, were identified. Median hospital 30-day RSMRs were 9.4%, 3.0%, and 6.2% for older, younger, and all patients, respectively. Most top- and bottom-performing hospitals for older patients were neither top nor bottom performers for younger patients. In contrast, most top and bottom performers for older patients were also top and bottom performers for all patients. Similarly, HVBP achievement scores for older patients correlated weakly with those for younger patients (R = 0.30) and strongly with those for all patients (R = 0.92). Limitation: Minority of U.S. hospitals. Conclusion: Hospital mortality rankings for older patients with AMI inconsistently reflect rankings for younger patients. Incorporation of younger patients into assessment of hospital outcomes would permit further examination of the presence and effect of age-related quality differences. Primary Funding Source: American College of Cardiology.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais/normas , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
JAMA Intern Med ; 177(12): 1818-1825, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059269

RESUMO

Importance: Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is an increasingly affordable and portable technology that is an important part of 21st-century medicine. When appropriately used, POCUS has the potential to expedite diagnosis and improve procedural success and safety. POCUS is now being adopted in medical education as early as the first year of medical school. While potentially powerful and versatile, POCUS is a user-dependent technology that has not been formalized or standardized yet within internal medicine residency training programs. Physicians and residency directors are trying to determine whether to incorporate POCUS, and if so, how. In this systematic review, basic concepts and applications of POCUS are examined, as are issues surrounding training and implementation. Observations: A key use of POCUS is to detect fluid, and this is a cornerstone of POCUS teaching. Even in inexperienced hands, POCUS has shown to be more sensitive and specific than physical examination for conditions such as ascites, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion. Detecting fluid requires a basic understanding of ultrasonography operation, sonographic anatomy, and probe orientation. Once fluid is localized, ultrasonographic guidance can increase success and decrease complications of common procedures such as thoracentesis or paracentesis. Conclusions and Relevance: POCUS can augment physical examination and procedural efficacy but requires appropriate education and program setup. As POCUS continues to spread, internal medicine physicians need to clarify how they intend to use this technology. Equipment is now increasingly accessible, but programs need to determine how to allocate time and resources to training, clinical use, and quality assurance. Programs that develop robust implementation processes that establish proper scope of practice and include quality assurance that use image archival and feedback can ensure POCUS will positively impact patient care across hospital systems.


Assuntos
Ascite/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pericárdico/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Humanos , Medicina Interna/educação
20.
Stroke ; 48(11): 3101-3107, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services publicly reports a hospital-level stroke mortality measure that lacks stroke severity risk adjustment. Our objective was to describe novel measures of stroke mortality suitable for public reporting that incorporate stroke severity into risk adjustment. METHODS: We linked data from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Get With The Guidelines-Stroke registry with Medicare fee-for-service claims data to develop the measures. We used logistic regression for variable selection in risk model development. We developed 3 risk-standardized mortality models for patients with acute ischemic stroke, all of which include the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score: one that includes other risk variables derived only from claims data (claims model); one that includes other risk variables derived from claims and clinical variables that could be obtained from electronic health record data (hybrid model); and one that includes other risk variables that could be derived only from electronic health record data (electronic health record model). RESULTS: The cohort used to develop and validate the risk models consisted of 188 975 hospital admissions at 1511 hospitals. The claims, hybrid, and electronic health record risk models included 20, 21, and 9 risk-adjustment variables, respectively; the C statistics were 0.81, 0.82, and 0.79, respectively (as compared with the current publicly reported model C statistic of 0.75); the risk-standardized mortality rates ranged from 10.7% to 19.0%, 10.7% to 19.1%, and 10.8% to 20.3%, respectively; the median risk-standardized mortality rate was 14.5% for all measures; and the odds of mortality for a high-mortality hospital (+1 SD) were 1.51, 1.52, and 1.52 times those for a low-mortality hospital (-1 SD), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We developed 3 quality measures that demonstrate better discrimination than the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' existing stroke mortality measure, adjust for stroke severity, and could be implemented in a variety of settings.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Modelos Biológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/parasitologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
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