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1.
Adv Mater ; 32(23): e1906478, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347620

RESUMO

Above-equilibrium "hot"-carrier generation in metals is a promising route to convert photons into electrical charge for efficient near-infrared optoelectronics. However, metals that offer both hot-carrier generation in the near-infrared and sufficient carrier lifetimes remain elusive. Alloys can offer emergent properties and new design strategies compared to pure metals. Here, it is shown that a noble-transition alloy, Aux Pd1- x , outperforms its constituent metals concerning generation and lifetime of hot carriers when excited in the near-infrared. At optical fiber wavelengths (e.g., 1550 nm), Au50 Pd50 provides a 20-fold increase in the number of ≈0.8 eV hot holes, compared to Au, and a threefold increase in the carrier lifetime, compared to Pd. The discovery that noble-transition alloys can excel at hot-carrier generation reveals a new material platform for near-infrared optoelectronic devices.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(20): 22778-22788, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338494

RESUMO

Devices driven by above-equilibrium "hot" electrons are appealing for photocatalytic technologies, such as in situ H2O2 synthesis, but currently suffer from low (<1%) overall quantum efficiencies. Gold nanostructures excited by visible light generate hot electrons that can inject into a neighboring semiconductor to drive electrochemical reactions. Here, we designed and studied a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure of Au nanoparticles on a ZnO/TiO2/Al film stack, deposited through room-temperature, lithography-free methods. Light absorption, electron injection efficiency, and photocatalytic yield in this device are superior in comparison to the same stack without Al. Our device absorbs >60% of light at the Au localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak near 530 nm-a 5-fold enhancement in Au absorption due to critical coupling to an Al film. Furthermore, we show through ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy that the Al-coupled samples exhibit a nearly 5-fold improvement in hot-electron injection efficiency as compared to a non-Al device, with the hot-electron lifetimes extending to >2 ps in devices photoexcited with fluence of 0.1 mJ cm-2. The use of an Al film also enhances the photocatalytic yield of H2O2 more than 3-fold in a visible-light-driven reactor. Altogether, we show that the critical coupling of Al films to Au nanoparticles is a low-cost, lithography-free method for improving visible-light capture, extending hot-carrier lifetimes, and ultimately increasing the rate of in situ H2O2 generation.

3.
Opt Express ; 27(4): 5097-5115, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876113

RESUMO

We report a strong correlation between the calculated broadband circular differential optical absorption (CDOA) and the geometric chirality of plasmonic meta-atoms with two-dimensional chirality. We investigate this correlation using three common gold meta-atom geometries: L-shapes, triangles, and nanorod dimers, over a broad range of geometric parameters. We show that this correlation holds for both contiguous plasmonic meta-atoms and non-contiguous structures which support plasmonic coupling effects. A potential application for this correlation is the rapid optimization of plasmonic nanostructure for maximum broadband CDOA.

4.
Nano Lett ; 19(1): 108-115, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516054

RESUMO

Exciton polaritons are hybrid light-matter quasiparticles that can serve as coherent light sources. Motivated by applications, room-temperature realization of polaritons requires narrow, excitonic transitions with large transition dipoles. Such transitions must then be strongly coupled to an electromagnetic mode confined in a small volume. While much work has explored polaritons in organic materials, semiconductor nanocrystals present an alternative excitonic system with enhanced photostability and spectral tunability. In particular, quasi-two-dimensional nanocrystals known as nanoplatelets (NPLs) exhibit intense, spectrally narrow excitonic transitions useful for polariton formation. Here, we place CdSe NPLs on silver hole arrays to demonstrate exciton-plasmon polaritons at room temperature. Angle-resolved reflection spectra reveal Rabi splittings up to 149 meV for the polariton states. We observe bright, polarized emission arising from the lowest polariton state. Furthermore, we assess the dependence of the Rabi splitting on the hole-array pitch and the number N of NPLs. While the pitch determines the in-plane momentum for which strong coupling is observed, it does not affect the size of the splitting. The Rabi splitting first increases with NPL film thickness before eventually saturating. Instead of the commonly used [Formula: see text] dependence, we develop an analytical expression that includes the transverse confinement of the plasmon modes to describe the measured Rabi splitting as a function of NPL film thickness.

5.
Sci Adv ; 3(9): e1700688, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28948219

RESUMO

Colloidal quantum dots are robust, efficient, and tunable emitters now used in lighting, displays, and lasers. Consequently, when the spaser-a laser-like source of high-intensity, narrow-band surface plasmons-was first proposed, quantum dots were specified as the ideal plasmonic gain medium for overcoming the significant intrinsic losses of plasmons. Many subsequent spasers, however, have required a single material to simultaneously provide gain and define the plasmonic cavity, a design unable to accommodate quantum dots and other colloidal nanomaterials. In addition, these and other designs have been ill suited for integration with other elements in a larger plasmonic circuit, limiting their use. We develop a more open architecture that decouples the gain medium from the cavity, leading to a versatile class of quantum dot-based spasers that allow controlled generation, extraction, and manipulation of plasmons. We first create aberration-corrected plasmonic cavities with high quality factors at desired locations on an ultrasmooth silver substrate. We then incorporate quantum dots into these cavities via electrohydrodynamic printing or drop-casting. Photoexcitation under ambient conditions generates monochromatic plasmons (0.65-nm linewidth at 630 nm, Q ~ 1000) above threshold. This signal is extracted, directed through an integrated amplifier, and focused at a nearby nanoscale tip, generating intense electromagnetic fields. More generally, our device platform can be straightforwardly deployed at different wavelengths, size scales, and geometries on large-area plasmonic chips for fundamental studies and applications.

6.
Nano Lett ; 17(3): 1319-1325, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28120610

RESUMO

We report on a template-stripping method for the direct surface patterning of colloidal quantum-dot thin films to produce highly luminescent structures with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Through the careful design of high quality bull's-eye gratings we can produce strong directional beaming (10° divergence) with up to 6-fold out-coupling enhancement of spontaneous emission in the surface-normal direction. A transition to narrow single-mode lasing is observed in these same structures at thresholds as low as 120 µJ/cm2. In addition, we demonstrate that these structures can be fabricated on flexible substrates. Finally, making use of the size-tunable character of colloidal quantum dots, we demonstrate spectrally selective out-coupling of light from mixed quantum-dot films. Our results provide a straightforward route toward significantly improved optical properties of colloidal quantum-dot assemblies.

8.
Nano Lett ; 15(9): 6267-75, 2015 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26284499

RESUMO

Plasmonic structures can provide deep-subwavelength electromagnetic fields that are useful for enhancing light-matter interactions. However, because these localized modes are also dissipative, structures that offer the best compromise between field confinement and loss have been sought. Metallic wedge waveguides were initially identified as an ideal candidate but have been largely abandoned because to date their experimental performance has been limited. We combine state-of-the-art metallic wedges with integrated reflectors and precisely placed colloidal quantum dots (down to the single-emitter level) and demonstrate quantum-plasmonic waveguides and resonators with performance approaching theoretical limits. By exploiting a nearly 10-fold improvement in wedge-plasmon propagation (19 µm at a vacuum wavelength, λvac, of 630 nm), efficient reflectors (93%), and effective coupling (estimated to be >70%) to highly emissive (~90%) quantum dots, we obtain Ag plasmonic resonators at visible wavelengths with quality factors approaching 200 (3.3 nm line widths). As our structures offer modal volumes down to ~0.004λvac(3) in an exposed single-mode waveguide-resonator geometry, they provide advantages over both traditional photonic microcavities and localized-plasmonic resonators for enhancing light-matter interactions. Our results confirm the promise of wedges for creating plasmonic devices and for studying coherent quantum-plasmonic effects such as long-distance plasmon-mediated entanglement and strong plasmon-matter coupling.

9.
ACS Photonics ; 2(3): 326-333, 2015 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25950012

RESUMO

High-quality materials are critical for advances in plasmonics, especially as researchers now investigate quantum effects at the limit of single surface plasmons or exploit ultraviolet- or CMOS-compatible metals such as aluminum or copper. Unfortunately, due to inexperience with deposition methods, many plasmonics researchers deposit metals under the wrong conditions, severely limiting performance unnecessarily. This is then compounded as others follow their published procedures. In this perspective, we describe simple rules collected from the surface-science literature that allow high-quality plasmonic films of aluminum, copper, gold, and silver to be easily deposited with commonly available equipment (a thermal evaporator). Recipes are also provided so that films with optimal optical properties can be routinely obtained.

10.
Nano Lett ; 14(5): 2934-40, 2014 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24746023

RESUMO

Silicon wafers are commonly etched in potassium hydroxide solutions to form highly symmetric surface structures. These arise when slow-etching {111} atomic planes are exposed on standard low-index surfaces. However, the ability of nonstandard high-index wafers to provide more complex structures by tilting the {111} planes has not been fully appreciated. We demonstrate the power of this approach by creating chiral surface structures and nanoparticles of a specific handedness from gold. When the nanoparticles are dispersed in liquids, gold colloids exhibiting record molar circular dichroism (>5 × 10(9) M(-1) cm(-1)) at red wavelengths are obtained. The nanoparticles also present chiral pockets for binding.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 5(19): 9701-8, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24001174

RESUMO

The template-stripping method can yield smooth patterned films without surface contamination. However, the process is typically limited to coinage metals such as silver and gold because other materials cannot be readily stripped from silicon templates due to strong adhesion. Herein, we report a more general template-stripping method that is applicable to a larger variety of materials, including refractory metals, semiconductors, and oxides. To address the adhesion issue, we introduce a thin gold layer between the template and the deposited materials. After peeling off the combined film from the template, the gold layer can be selectively removed via wet etching to reveal a smooth patterned structure of the desired material. Further, we demonstrate template-stripped multilayer structures that have potential applications for photovoltaics and solar absorbers. An entire patterned device, which can include a transparent conductor, semiconductor absorber, and back contact, can be fabricated. Since our approach can also produce many copies of the patterned structure with high fidelity by reusing the template, a low-cost and high-throughput process in micro- and nanofabrication is provided that is useful for electronics, plasmonics, and nanophotonics.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia , Semicondutores , Eletrônica , Ouro/química , Óxidos/química , Silício/química , Prata/química , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Rep Prog Phys ; 75(3): 036501, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22790420

RESUMO

Metallic nanostructures now play an important role in many applications. In particular, for the emerging fields of plasmonics and nanophotonics, the ability to engineer metals on nanometric scales allows the development of new devices and the study of exciting physics. This review focuses on top-down nanofabrication techniques for engineering metallic nanostructures, along with computational and experimental characterization techniques. A variety of current and emerging applications are also covered.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Engenharia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Fenômenos Ópticos , Pontos Quânticos , Análise Espectral Raman , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
13.
Langmuir ; 27(7): 3672-7, 2011 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21361384

RESUMO

Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is an inexpensive and reproducible method for depositing ZnO nanowire arrays over large areas. The aqueous Zn(NO(3))(2)-hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) chemistry is one of the most common CBD chemistries for ZnO nanowire synthesis, but some details of the reaction mechanism are still not well-understood. Here, we report the use of in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to study HMTA adsorption from aqueous solutions onto ZnO nanoparticle films and show that HMTA does not adsorb on ZnO. This result refutes earlier claims that the anisotropic morphology arises from HMTA adsorbing onto and capping the ZnO {10 1 0} faces. We conclude that the role of HMTA in the CBD of ZnO nanowires is only to control the saturation index of ZnO. Furthermore, we demonstrate the first deposition of ZnO nanowire arrays at 90 °C and near-neutral pH conditions without HMTA. Nanowires were grown using the pH buffer 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) and continuous titratation with KOH to maintain the same pH conditions where growth with HMTA occurs. This semi-batch synthetic method opens many new opportunities to tailor the ZnO morphology and properties by independently controlling temperature and pH.

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