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1.
CMAJ Open ; 8(4): E676-E684, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability to rule out or in a major adverse cardiac event (MACE) in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome at emergency department (ED) presentation would be beneficial to patient care and the health care system. The clinical chemistry score (CCS) was evaluated in this context. METHODS: This diagnostic accuracy study evaluated 2 different ED cohorts with suspected acute coronary syndrome. For patients in cohort 1, who presented to the ED of 3 hospitals in Hamilton, Ontario, between May and August 2013, retrospective measurements were taken using the Ortho Clinical Diagnostics high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay; for patients in cohort 2, who presented to the ED of the same 3 hospitals in Hamilton between November 2012 and February 2013, an ED cardiac presentation blood test panel was performed with the Abbott Diagnostics hs-cTnI assay. The sensitivity and specificity of the CCS (cut-offs of ≥ 1 and 5) and hs-cTnI alone (published cut-offs) were compared for MACE (composite of death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, revascularization) at 30 days for both cohorts and at 90 days for cohort 2. RESULTS: The incidence of MACE at 30 days was higher in cohort 1 (n = 1058) (19.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 16.8%-22.2%) than in cohort 2 (n = 5974) (14.6%, 95% CI 13.6%-15.6%). In cohort 1, a CCS of 1 or above yielded a sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI 97.3%-99.9%). The sensitivity with an Ortho hs-cTnI cut-off of 1 ng/L or above was 91.2% (95% CI 86.5%-95.7%). The specificity of a CCS of 5 (97.8%, 95% CI 96.5%-98.7%) was higher than when the overall 99th-percentile cut-off for the Ortho hs-cTnI assay (> 11 ng/L; 90.1%, 95% CI 87.9%-92.0%) was used. A similar pattern was observed in cohort 2 at 30 days and persisted at 90 days with the Abbott hs-cTnI assay. INTERPRETATION: The CCS derived with 2 different hs-cTnI assays and ED populations yielded higher sensitivity and specificity estimates for MACE than hs-cTnI alone. An intervention study is needed to evaluate the impact of the CCS at both the patient and hospital levels. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01994577.

2.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1032-1045, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in liability to cannabis use disorder has a strong genetic component (estimated twin and family heritability about 50-70%) and is associated with negative outcomes, including increased risk of psychopathology. The aim of the study was to conduct a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants associated with cannabis use disorder. METHODS: To conduct this GWAS meta-analysis of cannabis use disorder and identify associations with genetic loci, we used samples from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Substance Use Disorders working group, iPSYCH, and deCODE (20 916 case samples, 363 116 control samples in total), contrasting cannabis use disorder cases with controls. To examine the genetic overlap between cannabis use disorder and 22 traits of interest (chosen because of previously published phenotypic correlations [eg, psychiatric disorders] or hypothesised associations [eg, chronotype] with cannabis use disorder), we used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate genetic correlations. FINDINGS: We identified two genome-wide significant loci: a novel chromosome 7 locus (FOXP2, lead single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7783012; odds ratio [OR] 1·11, 95% CI 1·07-1·15, p=1·84 × 10-9) and the previously identified chromosome 8 locus (near CHRNA2 and EPHX2, lead SNP rs4732724; OR 0·89, 95% CI 0·86-0·93, p=6·46 × 10-9). Cannabis use disorder and cannabis use were genetically correlated (rg 0·50, p=1·50 × 10-21), but they showed significantly different genetic correlations with 12 of the 22 traits we tested, suggesting at least partially different genetic underpinnings of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. Cannabis use disorder was positively genetically correlated with other psychopathology, including ADHD, major depression, and schizophrenia. INTERPRETATION: These findings support the theory that cannabis use disorder has shared genetic liability with other psychopathology, and there is a distinction between genetic liability to cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine and the Centre for Integrative Sequencing; The European Commission, Horizon 2020; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Health Research Council of New Zealand; National Institute on Aging; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; UK Research and Innovation Medical Research Council (UKRI MRC); The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation; National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Australia; Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California; Families for Borderline Personality Disorder Research (Beth and Rob Elliott) 2018 NARSAD Young Investigator Grant; The National Child Health Research Foundation (Cure Kids); The Canterbury Medical Research Foundation; The New Zealand Lottery Grants Board; The University of Otago; The Carney Centre for Pharmacogenomics; The James Hume Bequest Fund; National Institutes of Health: Genes, Environment and Health Initiative; National Institutes of Health; National Cancer Institute; The William T Grant Foundation; Australian Research Council; The Virginia Tobacco Settlement Foundation; The VISN 1 and VISN 4 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Centers of the US Department of Veterans Affairs; The 5th Framework Programme (FP-5) GenomEUtwin Project; The Lundbeck Foundation; NIH-funded Shared Instrumentation Grant S10RR025141; Clinical Translational Sciences Award grants; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute of General Medical Sciences.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 319: 140-143, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We developed a biomarker algorithm encompassing the clinical chemistry score (CCS; which includes the combination of a random glucose concentration, an estimated glomerular filtration rate and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin; hs-cTn) with the Ortho Clinical Diagnostics hs-cTnI assay (CCS-serial) and compared it to the cutoffs derived from Ortho Clinical Diagnostics 0/1 h (h) algorithm for 7-day myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiovascular (CV)-death. METHODS: The study cohort was an emergency department (ED) population (n = 906) with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who had two Ortho hs-cTnI results approximately 3 h apart. Diagnostic parameters (sensitivity/specificity/negative predictive value; NPV/positive predictive value; PPV) were derived for the CCS-serial and the 0/1 h algorithm for 7-day MI/CV-death. A safety analysis was performed for patients in the rule-out arms of the algorithms for 30-day MI/death. RESULTS: The CCS-serial algorithm yielded 100% sensitivity/NPV (32% low-risk) and 95.7% specificity/65% PPV (11% high-risk). The 0/1 h algorithm-cutoffs yielded sensitivity/NPV/specificity/PPV of 97.8%/99.4%/91.3%/50%, which classified 38% of patients as low-risk and 16% of patients as high-risk. Four patients (1.2%) in the 0/1 h algorithm-cutoff rule-out arm had a 30-day MI/death outcome as compared to zero patients in the CCS-serial rule-out arm (p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: Both the CCS-serial and 0/1 h algorithm cutoffs yield high NPVs with a similar proportion of patients identified as low-risk. These data may be useful for sites who are unable to collect samples at 0/1 h in the emergency department.

4.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(7): 1258-1266, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421783

RESUMO

Emerging links between gut microbiota and diseases of aging point to possible shared immune, metabolic, and cellular damage mechanisms, operating long before diseases manifest. We conducted 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples collected from a subsample (n = 668) of Add Health Wave V, a nationally representative longitudinal study of adults aged 32-42. An overlapping subsample (n = 345) included whole-blood RNA-seq. We examined associations between fecal taxonomic abundances and dried blood spot-based markers of lipid and glucose homeostasis and C-reactive protein (measured in Wave IV), as well as gene expression markers of inflammation, cellular damage, immune cell composition, and transcriptomic age (measured in Wave V), using Bayesian hierarchical models adjusted for potential confounders. We additionally estimated a co-abundance network between inflammation-related genes and bacterial taxa using penalized Gaussian graphical models. Strong and consistent microbiota associations emerged for HbA1c, glucose, C-reactive protein, and principal components of genes upregulated in inflammation, DNA repair, and reactive oxygen species, with Streptococcus infantis, Pseudomonas spp., and Peptoniphilus as major players for each. This pattern was largely echoed (though attenuated) for immunological cell composition gene sets, and only Serratia varied meaningfully by transcriptomic age. Network co-abundance indicated relationships between Prevotella sp., Bacteroides sp., and Ruminococcus sp. and gut immune/metabolic regulatory activity, and Ruminococcus sp, Dialister, and Butyrivibrio crossotus with balance between Th1 and Th2 inflammation. In conclusion, many common associations between microbiota and major physiologic aging mechanisms are evident in early-mid adulthood and suggest avenues for early detection and prevention of accelerated aging.

5.
Clin Biochem ; 80: 48-51, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As more companies obtain regulatory approval for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays there is an urgent need for independent analytical and clinical evaluations. To this end, we have evaluated Ortho Clinical Diagnostics' hs-cTnI assay and compared it to their contemporary cTnI-ES assay in emergency department (ED) patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: The study cohort consisted of ED patients (n = 906) with symptoms suggestive of ACS who had Ortho hs-cTnI and cTnI-ES results at presentation and 3 h (with calculated delta (0-3 h) defined as the absolute concentration difference between paired results). The primary composite outcome was 7-day myocardial infarction (MI) or cardiovascular death, with secondary analyses performed for 7-day MI and index-MI. Analytical imprecision testing (i.e., coefficient of variation; CV), receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses with area under the curve (AUC), and diagnostic parameters (sensitivity/specificity/predictive values) were calculated. RESULTS: The hs-cTnI assay had superior precision compared to the cTnI-ES assay below 5 ng/L in EDTA plasma (hs-cTnI CV ≤ 15% versus cTnI-ES CV ≥ 85%). The AUCs were higher for hs-cTnI as compared to cTnI-ES at 0 h (0.88 vs. 0.85), 3 h (0.94 vs. 0.92), and the delta (0-3 h) value (0.91 vs. 0.85) for the primary composite outcome (p < 0.05). At 3 h, the sensitivity/specificity for index-MI was ≥97%/≥82%, for 7-day MI was ≥89%/≥84%, and for the primary composite outcome was ≥90%/≥85% using the manufacturer's sex-specific 99th-percentile cutoffs. CONCLUSION: The Ortho hs-cTnI assay has superior analytical and clinical performance over their contemporary cTnI-ES assay in evaluating ED patients with symptoms suggestive of ACS.

6.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(10): 880-888, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is common and of prognostic importance. Little is known about MINS in orthopaedic surgery. The diagnostic criterion for MINS was a level of ≥0.03 ng/mL on a non-high-sensitivity troponin T (TnT) assay due to myocardial ischemia. METHODS: We undertook an international, prospective study of 15,103 patients ≥45 years of age who had inpatient noncardiac surgery; 3,092 underwent orthopaedic surgery. Non-high-sensitivity TnT assays were performed on postoperative days 0, 1, 2, and 3. Among orthopaedic patients, we determined (1) the prognostic relevance of the MINS diagnostic criteria, (2) the 30-day mortality rate for those with and without MINS, and (3) the probable proportion of MINS cases that would go undetected without troponin monitoring because of a lack of an ischemic symptom. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty-seven orthopaedic patients (11.9%) had MINS. MINS was associated independently with 30-day mortality including among those who had had orthopaedic surgery. Orthopaedic patients without and with MINS had a 30-day mortality rate of 1.0% and 9.8%, respectively (odds ratio [OR], 11.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.72 to 18.92). The 30-day mortality rate was increased for patients with MINS who had an ischemic feature (i.e., symptoms, or evidence of ischemia on electrocardiography or imaging) (OR, 18.25; 95% CI, 10.06 to 33.10) and for those who did not have an ischemic feature (OR, 7.35; 95% CI, 3.37 to 16.01). The proportion of orthopaedic patients with MINS who were asymptomatic and in whom the myocardial injury would have probably gone undetected without TnT monitoring was 81.3% (95% CI, 76.3% to 85.4%). CONCLUSIONS: One in 8 orthopaedic patients in our study had MINS, and MINS was associated with a higher mortality rate regardless of symptoms. Troponin levels should be measured after surgery in at-risk patients because most MINS cases (>80%) are asymptomatic and would go undetected without routine measurements. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 433-439, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a major risk factor for renal function decline and failure. The availability of multiplex panels of biochemical markers provides the opportunity to identify novel biomarkers that can better predict changes in renal function than routinely available clinical markers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The concentration of 239 biochemical markers was measured in stored serum from participants in the biomarker substudy of Outcome Reduction With Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial. Repeated-measures mixed-effects models were used to compute the annual change in eGFR (measured as mL/min/1.73 m2/year) for the 7,482 participants with a recorded baseline and follow-up eGFR. Linear regression models using forward selection were used to identify the independent biomarker determinants of the annual change in eGFR after accounting for baseline HbA1c, baseline eGFR, and routinely measured clinical risk factors. The incidence of the composite renal outcome (i.e., renal replacement therapy, renal death, renal failure, albuminuria progression, doubling of serum creatinine) and death within each fourth of change in eGFR predicted from these models was also estimated. RESULTS: During 6.2 years of median follow-up, the median annual change in eGFR was -0.18 mL/min/1.73 m2/year. Fifteen biomarkers independently predicted eGFR decline after accounting for cardiovascular risk factors, as did 12 of these plus 1 additional biomarker after accounting for renal risk factors. Every 0.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 predicted annual fall in eGFR predicted a 13% (95% CI 12, 14%) higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Adding up to 16 biomarkers to routinely measured clinical risk factors improves the prediction of annual change in eGFR in people with dysglycemia.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Albuminúria/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 172(2): 96-104, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869834

RESUMO

Background: Preliminary data suggest that preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may improve risk prediction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Objective: To determine whether preoperative NT-proBNP has additional predictive value beyond a clinical risk score for the composite of vascular death and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) within 30 days after surgery. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 16 hospitals in 9 countries. Patients: 10 402 patients aged 45 years or older having inpatient noncardiac surgery. Measurements: All patients had NT-proBNP levels measured before surgery and troponin T levels measured daily for up to 3 days after surgery. Results: In multivariable analyses, compared with preoperative NT-proBNP values less than 100 pg/mL (the reference group), those of 100 to less than 200 pg/mL, 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL, and 1500 pg/mL or greater were associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.90 to 2.70), 3.63 (CI, 3.13 to 4.21), and 5.82 (CI, 4.81 to 7.05) and corresponding incidences of the primary outcome of 12.3% (226 of 1843), 20.8% (542 of 2608), and 37.5% (223 of 595), respectively. Adding NT-proBNP thresholds to clinical stratification (that is, the Revised Cardiac Risk Index [RCRI]) resulted in a net absolute reclassification improvement of 258 per 1000 patients. Preoperative NT-proBNP values were also statistically significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality (less than 100 pg/mL [incidence, 0.3%], 100 to less than 200 pg/mL [incidence, 0.7%], 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL [incidence, 1.4%], and 1500 pg/mL or greater [incidence, 4.0%]). Limitation: External validation of the identified NT-proBNP thresholds in other cohorts would reinforce our findings. Conclusion: Preoperative NT-proBNP is strongly associated with vascular death and MINS within 30 days after noncardiac surgery and improves cardiac risk prediction in addition to the RCRI. Primary Funding Source: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Troponina T/sangue
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1917626, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851345

RESUMO

Importance: Concussion on university campuses is a significant health problem. Characterizing the incidence of concussion on college campuses may inform education and resource allocation policy at student health care centers. Objectives: To establish a measure of concussion incidence among collegiate undergraduate students and to describe characteristics associated with concussion incidence, including sex, cause, and month. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included data from 3 academic years from August 2015 to April 2018 at a large, public university in the United States. Participants included any undergraduate student or varsity athlete who was diagnosed with at least 1 concussion during the academic year. Exposures: Sport- and non-sport-related activities of undergraduate students. Main Outcomes and Measures: Concussion diagnosis. Results: Among 954 undergraduate students from the general undergraduate population with at least 1 concussion, including 502 men and 452 women, 1020 concussions were diagnosed in 3 academic years. During 2 academic years, a total of 80 concussions occurred among the varsity athlete population, including 26 men and 54 women. Overall, concussion incidence among both the general undergraduate population and varsity athletes was 132.4 (95% CI, 123.2-142.0) concussions per 10 000 students. Men sustained concussions at a rate of 126.1 (95% CI, 114.1-139.0) concussions per 10 000 students and women sustained concussions at a rate of 140.0 (95% CI, 126.2-155.3) concussions per 10 000 students for the 2016 to 2017 and 2017 to 2018 academic years. Concussion incidence peaked in August at the start of the academic year and the rate of non-sport-related concussions (81.0 [95% CI, 73.9-88.7] concussions per 10 000 students for academic years 2016-2017 and 2017-2018) was higher than the rate of sport-related concussions (51.5 [95% CI, 49.5-57.7] concussions per 10 000 students for academic years 2016-2017 and 2017-2018). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found concussions to be common among this US collegiate population. While concussion is often associated with sport, the incidence of non-sport-related concussion was higher than that of sport-related concussion throughout the academic year. Additional research is warranted to determine if this incidence measure among undergraduate students is generalizable to other university populations.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/etiologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 7(9): 2325967119868658, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598525

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies have associated sport-related concussion with depression and impaired cognitive ability later in life in former professional football players. However, population studies with two 1950s-era cohorts did not find an association between high school football participation and impaired cognition or depressive symptoms in late adulthood. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study assessed whether actual/intended participation in contact sports during adolescence had an adverse effect on participants' cognition or depressive symptoms in early adulthood. We hypothesized that there would not be an association. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: This study used a subsample (n = 10,951) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a nationally (United States) representative prospective cohort study following participants through 4 waves of data collection from 1994 through 2008. Participants were categorized as actual/intended participation in no sports, noncontact sports only, and contact sports. We constructed 6 multivariate and logistic regression models predicting word recall, number recall, modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, depression diagnosis, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts at wave IV as a function of sport participation during wave I. Sport participation was treated as a factor with the referent category noncontact sports. This analysis was repeated on a males-only sample (n = 5008). In the males-only analysis, participants were classified as actual/intended participation in no sports, noncontact sports, contact sports other than American football, and American football. The referent category remained noncontact sports. Results: Intention to participate in contact sports was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes in the full-sample analysis. Intention to participate in football was significantly associated with a reduced odds of depression diagnosis in adulthood (odds ratio, 0.70; P = .02) when compared with noncontact sports participation in the males-only sample. Football was not significantly associated with impaired cognitive ability, increased depressive symptoms, or increased suicide ideation. Conclusion: Actual/intended participation in contact sports during adolescence did not adversely affect Add Health participants' cognition or depressive symptoms in young adulthood.

11.
J Hum Genet ; 64(6): 597-598, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940889

RESUMO

In the original paper, we used the variable "URBRUR08," from the 2008 survey wave as a measure of childhood urbanicity. Upon further investigation we realized that this variable actually measured Beale urban-rural code during the respondent's adulthood.  Thus, we reran our analysis of the pseudo-heritability of childhood urbanicity using the variable. The original results hold such that even with the first 20 principal components held constant, childhood urban-rural status appears to be ~20% "heritable" in GREML models-a figure that is actually higher than the original estimate reported in the paper (14% controlling for 25 PCs, 15% controlling for 10 PCs, and 29% controlling for two PCs). Meanwhile, the heritabilities of the other phenotypes-height, BMI and education-still do not change when they are residualized on childhood urbanicity. In other words, the original results of the paper do not change.

12.
BMJ ; 364: l772, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the joint association of sodium and potassium urinary excretion (as surrogate measures of intake) with cardiovascular events and mortality, in the context of current World Health Organization recommendations for daily intake (<2.0 g sodium, >3.5 g potassium) in adults. DESIGN: International prospective cohort study. SETTING: 18 high, middle, and low income countries, sampled from urban and rural communities. PARTICIPANTS: 103 570 people who provided morning fasting urine samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of estimated 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (surrogates for intake) with all cause mortality and major cardiovascular events, using multivariable Cox regression. A six category variable for joint sodium and potassium was generated: sodium excretion (low (<3 g/day), moderate (3-5 g/day), and high (>5 g/day) sodium intakes) by potassium excretion (greater/equal or less than median 2.1 g/day). RESULTS: Mean estimated sodium and potassium urinary excretion were 4.93 g/day and 2.12 g/day, respectively. After a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 7884 (6.1%) participants had died or experienced a major cardiovascular event. Increasing urinary sodium excretion was positively associated with increasing potassium excretion (unadjusted r=0.34), and only 0.002% had a concomitant urinary excretion of <2.0 g/day of sodium and >3.5 g/day of potassium. A J-shaped association was observed of sodium excretion and inverse association of potassium excretion with death and cardiovascular events. For joint sodium and potassium excretion categories, the lowest risk of death and cardiovascular events occurred in the group with moderate sodium excretion (3-5 g/day) and higher potassium excretion (21.9% of cohort). Compared with this reference group, the combinations of low potassium with low sodium excretion (hazard ratio 1.23, 1.11 to 1.37; 7.4% of cohort) and low potassium with high sodium excretion (1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; 13.8% of cohort) were associated with the highest risk, followed by low sodium excretion (1.19, 1.02 to 1.38; 3.3% of cohort) and high sodium excretion (1.10, 1.02 to 1.18; 29.6% of cohort) among those with potassium excretion greater than the median. Higher potassium excretion attenuated the increased cardiovascular risk associated with high sodium excretion (P for interaction=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the simultaneous target of low sodium intake (<2 g/day) with high potassium intake (>3.5 g/day) is extremely uncommon. Combined moderate sodium intake (3-5 g/day) with high potassium intake is associated with the lowest risk of mortality and cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/urina , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Potássio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
13.
Br. med. j. Clin. res. ed ; 00: 01-14, Mar. 2019. tabela, gráfico, ilustração
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1025000

RESUMO

PARTICIPANTS: 103 570 people who provided morning fasting urine samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of estimated 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (surrogates for intake) with all cause mortality and major cardiovascular events, using multivariable Cox regression. A six category variable for joint sodium and potassium was generated: sodium excretion (low (<3 g/day), moderate (3-5 g/day), and high (>5 g/day) sodium intakes) by potassium excretion (greater/equal or less than median 2.1 g/day). RESULTS: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the joint association of sodium and potassium urinary excretion (as surrogate measures of intake) with cardiovascular events and mortality, in the context of current World Health Organization recommendations for daily intake (<2.0 g sodium, >3.5 g potassium) in adults. DESIGN: International prospective cohort study. SETTING: 18 high, middle, and low income countries, sampled from urban and rural communities. ARTICIPANTS: 103 570 people who provided morning fasting urine samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of estimated 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (surrogates for intake) with all cause mortality and major cardiovascular events, using multivariable Cox regression. A six category variable for joint sodium and potassium was generated: sodium excretion (low (<3 g/day), moderate (3-5 g/day), and high (>5 g/day) sodium intakes) by potassium excretion (greater/equal or less than median 2.1 g/day). RESULTS: Mean estimated sodium and potassium urinary excretion were 4.93 g/day and 2.12 g/day, respectively. After a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 7884 (6.1%) participants had died or experienced a major cardiovascular event. Increasing urinary sodium excretion was positively associated with increasing potassium excretion (unadjusted r=0.34), and only 0.002% had a concomitant urinary excretion of <2.0 g/day of sodium and >3.5 g/day of potassium. A J-shaped association was observed of sodium excretion and inverse association of potassium excretion with death and cardiovascular events. For joint sodium and potassium excretion categories, the lowest risk of death and cardiovascular events occurred in the group with moderate sodium excretion (3-5 g/day) and higher potassium excretion (21.9% of cohort). Compared with this reference group, the combinations of low potassium with low sodium excretion (hazard ratio 1.23, 1.11 to 1.37; 7.4% of cohort) and low potassium with high sodium excretion (1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; 13.8% of cohort) were associated with the highest risk, followed by low sodium excretion (1.19, 1.02 to 1.38; 3.3% of cohort) and high sodium excretion (1.10, 1.02 to 1.18; 29.6% of cohort) among those with potassium excretion greater than the median. Higher potassium excretion attenuated the increased cardiovascular risk associated with high sodium excretion (P for interaction=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the simultaneous target of low sodium intake (<2 g/day) with high potassium intake (>3.5 g/day) is extremely uncommon. Combined moderate sodium intake (3-5 g/day) with high potassium intake is associated with the lowest risk of mortality and cardiovascular events. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Mortalidade , Dieta/efeitos adversos
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 963-969, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723318

RESUMO

Some of the most widely studied variants in psychiatric genetics include variable number tandem repeat variants (VNTRs) in SLC6A3, DRD4, SLC6A4, and MAOA. While initial findings suggested large effects, their importance with respect to psychiatric phenotypes is the subject of much debate with broadly conflicting results. Despite broad interest, these loci remain absent from the largest available samples, such as the UK Biobank, limiting researchers' ability to test these contentious hypotheses rigorously in large samples. Here, using two independent reference datasets, we report out-of-sample imputation accuracy estimates of >0.96 for all four VNTR variants and one modifying SNP, depending on the reference and target dataset. We describe the imputation procedures of these candidate variants in 486,551 UK Biobank individuals, and have made the imputed variant data available to UK Biobank researchers. This resource, provided to the scientific community, will allow the most rigorous tests to-date of the roles of these variants in behavioral and psychiatric phenotypes.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Repetições Minissatélites , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Reino Unido
15.
Circulation ; 139(12): 1472-1482, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels predict the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in populations of European ancestry; however, few data are available for other ethnic groups. Furthermore, differences in isoform size distribution and the associated Lp(a) concentrations have not fully been characterized between ethnic groups. METHODS: We studied 6086 cases of first MI and 6857 controls from the INTERHEART study that were stratified by ethnicity and adjusted for age and sex. A total of 775 Africans, 4443 Chinese, 1352 Arabs, 1856 Europeans, 1469 Latin Americans, 1829 South Asians, and 1221 Southeast Asians were included in the study. Lp(a) concentration was measured in each participant using an assay that was insensitive to isoform size, with isoform size being assessed by Western blot in a subset of 4219 participants. RESULTS: Variations in Lp(a) concentrations and isoform size distributions were observed between populations, with Africans having the highest Lp(a) concentration (median=27.2 mg/dL) and smallest isoform size (median=24 kringle IV repeats). Chinese samples had the lowest concentration (median=7.8 mg/dL) and largest isoform sizes (median=28). Overall, high Lp(a) concentrations (>50 mg/dL) were associated with an increased risk of MI (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.32-1.67; P<0.001). The association was independent of established MI risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, smoking, high blood pressure, and apolipoprotein B and A ratio. An inverse association was observed between isoform size and Lp(a) concentration, which was consistent across ethnic groups. Larger isoforms tended to be associated with a lower risk of MI, but this relationship was not present after adjustment for concentration. Consistent with variations in Lp(a) concentration across populations, the population-attributable risk of high Lp(a) for MI varied from 0% in Africans to 9.5% in South Asians. CONCLUSIONS: Lp(a) concentration and isoform size varied markedly between ethnic groups. Higher Lp(a) concentrations were associated with an increased risk of MI and carried an especially high population burden in South Asians and Latin Americans. Isoform size was inversely associated with Lp(a) concentration, but did not significantly contribute to risk.


Assuntos
Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteínas A/análise , Apolipoproteínas B/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etnologia , Razão de Chances , Isoformas de Proteínas/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Fumar
16.
Clin Chem ; 65(3): 427-436, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that occur early in the disease process and are specific to loss of kidney function rather than other underlying causes of disease may allow earlier, more accurate identification of patients who will develop CKD. We therefore sought to identify diagnostic blood markers of early CKD that are caused by loss of kidney function by using an innovative "reverse Mendelian randomization" (MR) approach. METHODS: We applied this technique to genetic and biomarker data from 4147 participants in the Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial, all with known type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, or impaired glucose tolerance. Two-sample MR was conducted using variants associated with creatinine-based eGFR (eGFRcrea) from the CKDGen Consortium (n = 133814) to estimate the effect of genetically decreased eGFRcrea on 238 serum biomarkers. RESULTS: With reverse MR, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was identified as a protein that is increased owing to decreased eGFRcrea (ß = 1.86 SD per SD decrease eGFRcrea; 95% CI, 0.95-2.76; P = 8.0 × 10-5). Reverse MR findings were consistent with epidemiological associations for incident CKD in ORIGIN (OR = 1.28 per SD increase in TFF3; 95% CI, 1.18-1.38; P = 4.58 × 10-10). Addition of TFF3 significantly improved discrimination for incident CKD relative to eGFRcrea alone (net reclassification improvement = 0.211; P = 9.56 × 10-12) and in models including additional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest TFF3 is a valuable diagnostic marker for early CKD in dysglycemic populations and acts as a proof of concept for the application of this novel MR technique to identify diagnostic biomarkers for other chronic diseases. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00069784.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Fator Trefoil-3/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudo de Prova de Conceito
17.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(2): 429-433, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203580

RESUMO

We compared cardiovascular and other outcomes in patients with dysglycaemia with or without anti-glutamic acid dehydrogenase (GAD) antibodies participating in the Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial. Of the 12 537 participants, 8162 had anti-GAD measured at baseline and 267 were anti-GAD positive. The effects of insulin glargine versus standard care and of n-3 fatty acids supplements versus placebo were compared by testing the interaction of the treatment effects and anti-GAD status. The effect of glargine on development of new diabetes was assessed in participants without previous diabetes at baseline. The overall incidence of outcomes did not differ between anti-GAD positive and anti-GAD negative subjects. The incidence of the composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke did not differ between anti-GAD positive participants randomized to insulin glargine or to standard care, with a hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.80 (0.44-1.44) or in anti-GAD negative participants with a HR of 1.07 (0.96-1.20) (P for interaction = 0.20).


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glutamato Descarboxilase/imunologia , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Padrão de Cuidado , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Padrão de Cuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(12): 1656-1669, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482948

RESUMO

Liability to alcohol dependence (AD) is heritable, but little is known about its complex polygenic architecture or its genetic relationship with other disorders. To discover loci associated with AD and characterize the relationship between AD and other psychiatric and behavioral outcomes, we carried out the largest genome-wide association study to date of DSM-IV-diagnosed AD. Genome-wide data on 14,904 individuals with AD and 37,944 controls from 28 case-control and family-based studies were meta-analyzed, stratified by genetic ancestry (European, n = 46,568; African, n = 6,280). Independent, genome-wide significant effects of different ADH1B variants were identified in European (rs1229984; P = 9.8 × 10-13) and African ancestries (rs2066702; P = 2.2 × 10-9). Significant genetic correlations were observed with 17 phenotypes, including schizophrenia, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, depression, and use of cigarettes and cannabis. The genetic underpinnings of AD only partially overlap with those for alcohol consumption, underscoring the genetic distinction between pathological and nonpathological drinking behaviors.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo
20.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 125(5): 1646-1659, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236049

RESUMO

Habitual aerobic exercise enhances physiological function and reduces risk of morbidity and mortality throughout life, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. The circulating proteome reflects the intricate network of physiological processes maintaining homeostasis and may provide insight into the molecular transducers of the health benefits of physical activity. In this exploratory study, we assessed the plasma proteome (SOMAscan proteomic assay; 1,129 proteins) of healthy sedentary or aerobic exercise-trained young women and young and older men ( n = 47). Using weighted correlation network analysis to identify clusters of highly co-expressed proteins, we characterized 10 distinct plasma proteomic modules (patterns). In healthy young (24 ± 1 yr) men and women, 4 modules were associated with aerobic exercise status and 1 with participant sex. In healthy young and older (64 ± 2 yr) men, 5 modules differed with age, but 2 of these were partially preserved at young adult levels in older men who exercised; among all men, 4 modules were associated with exercise status, including 3 of the 4 identified in young adults. Exercise-linked proteomic patterns were related to pathways involved in wound healing, regulation of apoptosis, glucose-insulin and cellular stress signaling, and inflammation/immune responses. Importantly, several of the exercise-related modules were associated with physiological and clinical indicators of healthspan, including diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, maximal aerobic capacity, and vascular endothelial function. Overall, these findings provide initial insight into circulating proteomic patterns modulated by habitual aerobic exercise in healthy young and older adults, the biological processes involved, and their relation to indicators of healthspan. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to assess the relation between plasma proteomic patterns and aerobic exercise status in healthy adults. Weighted correlation network analysis identified 10 distinct proteomic modules, including 5 patterns specific for exercise status. Additionally, 5 modules differed with aging in men, two of which were preserved in older exercising men. Exercise-associated modules included proteins related to inflammation, stress pathways, and immune function and correlated with clinical and physiological indicators of healthspan.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/sangue , Proteoma , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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