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1.
Psychiatr Genet ; 29(5): 131, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464993
2.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 793-803, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043756

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Loci Gênicos , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Biologia de Sistemas
3.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(4): 258-265, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859703

RESUMO

A rare microcephalin 1 gene (MCPH1) variant rs61749465A>G (p.Asp61Gly) with prior evidence for association with schizophrenia (p = 3.78 × 10-7 ) was tested for association in 2,300 bipolar disorder (BPD) participants, 1,930 SCZ participants and 1,820 normal comparison subjects. We report evidence for association of rs61749465A>G with BPD (p = 0.0009). rs61749465 is located in the N-terminal of the BRCT1 domain of MCPH1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted the Asp61Gly substitution to be damaging to MCPH1 function. A second MCPH1 BRCT1 domain variant (rs199422124C>G; p.Thr27Arg), reported to cause autosomal recessive microcephaly, was not detected in the participants tested here. We sought to characterize the functional effects of these variants on MCPH1 function. Cell count assays indicated that rs199422124 allele G had a greater impact on cell survival compared to the G allele of rs61749465. Gene expression analysis combined with gene network and pathway analysis indicated that rs61749465 allele G may impact protein translation and cell cycle control. The evidence for association between rs61749465A>G and psychosis in both BPD and SCZ warrants further replication. Likewise, the data from the functional analyses point to molecular mechanisms that may underlie the proposed MCPH1 mediated risk of psychosis and pathogenesis in autosomal recessive microcephaly require additional experimental validation.

4.
Gut ; 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Homozygous alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency increases the risk for developing cirrhosis, whereas the relevance of heterozygous carriage remains unclear. Hence, we evaluated the impact of the two most relevant AAT variants ('Pi*Z' and 'Pi*S'), present in up to 10% of Caucasians, on subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or alcohol misuse. DESIGN: We analysed multicentric case-control cohorts consisting of 1184 people with biopsy-proven NAFLD and of 2462 people with chronic alcohol misuse, both cohorts comprising cases with cirrhosis and controls without cirrhosis. Genotyping for the Pi*Z and Pi*S variants was performed. RESULTS: The Pi*Z variant presented in 13.8% of patients with cirrhotic NAFLD but only in 2.4% of counterparts without liver fibrosis (p<0.0001). Accordingly, the Pi*Z variant increased the risk of NAFLD subjects to develop cirrhosis (adjusted OR=7.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 24.8)). Likewise, the Pi*Z variant presented in 6.2% of alcohol misusers with cirrhosis but only in 2.2% of alcohol misusers without significant liver injury (p<0.0001). Correspondingly, alcohol misusers carrying the Pi*Z variant were prone to develop cirrhosis (adjusted OR=5.8 (95% CI 2.9 to 11.7)). In contrast, the Pi*S variant was not associated with NAFLD-related cirrhosis and only borderline with alcohol-related cirrhosis (adjusted OR=1.47 (95% CI 0.99 to 2.19)). CONCLUSION: The Pi*Z variant is the hitherto strongest single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk factor for cirrhosis in NAFLD and alcohol misuse, whereas the Pi*S variant confers only a weak risk in alcohol misusers. As 2%-4% of Caucasians are Pi*Z carriers, this finding should be considered in genetic counselling of affected individuals.

5.
Br J Psychiatry ; 213(3): 535-541, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence for shared genetic susceptibility between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Although genetic variants only convey subtle increases in risk individually, their combination into a polygenic risk score constitutes a strong disease predictor.AimsTo investigate whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk scores can distinguish people with broadly defined psychosis and their unaffected relatives from controls. METHOD: Using the latest Psychiatric Genomics Consortium data, we calculated schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk scores for 1168 people with psychosis, 552 unaffected relatives and 1472 controls. RESULTS: Patients with broadly defined psychosis had dramatic increases in schizophrenia and bipolar polygenic risk scores, as did their relatives, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the accuracy of predictive models was modest. CONCLUSIONS: Although polygenic risk scores are not ready for clinical use, it is hoped that as they are refined they could help towards risk reduction advice and early interventions for psychosis.Declaration of interestR.M.M. has received honoraria for lectures from Janssen, Lundbeck, Lilly, Otsuka and Sunovian.

7.
Br J Psychiatry ; 212(5): 287-294, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy number variants (CNVs) are established risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. To date the study of CNVs in psychiatric illness has focused on single disorder populations. The role of CNVs in individuals with intellectual disabilities and psychiatric comorbidities are less well characterised.AimsTo determine the type and frequency of CNVs in adults with intellectual disabilities and comorbid psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A chromosomal microarray analysis of 599 adults recruited from intellectual disabilities psychiatry services at three European sites. RESULTS: The yield of pathogenic CNVs was high - 13%. Focusing on established neurodevelopmental disorder risk loci we find a significantly higher frequency in individuals with intellectual disabilities and comorbid psychiatric disorder (10%) compared with healthy controls (1.2%, P<0.0001), schizophrenia (3.1%, P<0.0001) and intellectual disability/autism spectrum disorder (6.5%, P < 0.00084) populations. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest sample of adults with intellectual disabilities and comorbid psychiatric disorders to date, we find a high rate of pathogenic CNVs. This has clinical implications for the use of genetic investigations in intellectual disability psychiatry.Declaration of interestNone.

8.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(4): 397-405, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603867

RESUMO

Recurrent deletions and duplications at the 2q13 locus have been associated with developmental delay (DD) and dysmorphisms. We aimed to undertake detailed clinical characterization of individuals with 2q13 copy number variations (CNVs), with a focus on behavioral and psychiatric phenotypes. Participants were recruited via the Unique chromosomal disorder support group, U.K. National Health Service Regional Genetics Centres, and the DatabasE of genomiC varIation and Phenotype in Humans using Ensembl Resources (DECIPHER) database. A review of published 2q13 patient case reports was undertaken to enable combined phenotypic analysis. We present a new case series of 2q13 CNV carriers (21 deletion, 4 duplication) and the largest ever combined analysis with data from published studies, making a total of 54 deletion and 23 duplication carriers. DD/intellectual disabilities was identified in the majority of carriers (79% deletion, 70% duplication), although in the new cases 52% had an IQ in the borderline or normal range. Despite the median age of the new cases being only 9 years, 64% had a clinical psychiatric diagnosis. Combined analysis found attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be the most frequent diagnosis (48% deletion, 60% duplication), followed by autism spectrum disorders (33% deletion, 17% duplication). Aggressive (33%) and self-injurious behaviors (33%) were also identified in the new cases. CNVs at 2q13 are typically associated with DD with mildly impaired intelligence, and a high rate of childhood psychiatric diagnoses-particularly ADHD. We have further characterized the clinical phenotype related to imbalances of the 2q13 region and identified it as a region of interest for the neurobiological investigation of ADHD.

9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 113(10): 1475-1483, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Variants in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3; rs738409), transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2; rs58542926), and membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7; rs641738) are risk factors for the development of alcohol-related cirrhosis. Within this population, PNPLA3 rs738409 is also an established risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to explore possible risk associations of TM6SF2 rs58542926 and MBOAT7 rs641738 with HCC. METHODS: Risk variants in PNPLA3, TM6SF2, and MBOAT7 were genotyped in 751 cases with alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC and in 1165 controls with alcohol-related cirrhosis without HCC. Association with the risk of developing HCC was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The development of HCC was independently associated with PNPLA3 rs738409 (ORadjusted 1.84 [95% CI 1.55-2.18], p = 1.85 × 10-12) and TM6SF2 rs58542926 (ORadjusted 1.66 [1.30-2.13], p = 5.13 × 10-05), using an additive model, and controlling the sex, age, body mass index, and type 2 diabetes mellitus; the risk associated with carriage of MBOAT7 rs641738 (ORadjusted 1.04 [0.88-1.24], p = 0.61) was not significant. The population-attributable fractions were 43.5% for PNPLA3 rs738409, 11.5% for TM6SF2 rs58542926, and 49.9% for the carriage of both the variants combined. CONCLUSIONS: Carriage of TM6SF2 rs58542926 is an additional risk factor for the development of HCC in people with alcohol-related cirrhosis. Carriage of both PNPLA3 rs738409 and TM6SF2 rs58542926 accounts for half of the attributable risk for HCC in this population. Genotyping will allow for more precise HCC risk-stratification of patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis, and genotype-guided screening algorithms would optimize patient care.

11.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 31(2): 273-284, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of genetic causes of intellectual disabilities (ID) are identifiable by clinical genetic testing, offering the prospect of bespoke patient management. However, little is known about the practices of psychiatrists and their views on genetic testing. METHOD: We undertook an online survey of 215 psychiatrists, who were contacted via the Royal College of Psychiatrist's Child and Adolescent and Intellectual Disability Psychiatry mailing lists. RESULTS: In comparison with child and adolescent psychiatrists, intellectual disability psychiatrists ordered more genetic tests, referred more patients to genetic services, and were overall more confident in the genetic testing process. Respondents tended to agree that genetic diagnoses can help patient management; however, management changes were infrequently found in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: Differences are apparent in the existing views and practices of child and adolescent and intellectual disability psychiatrists. Developing training and collaboration with colleagues working in genetic services could help to reduce discrepancies and improve clinical practice.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Testes Genéticos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adolescente , Criança , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Psiquiatria , Reino Unido
12.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(1): 21-34, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28851104

RESUMO

This large multi-center study investigates the relationships between genetic risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and multi-modal endophenotypes for psychosis. The sample included 4,242 individuals; 1,087 patients with psychosis, 822 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients, and 2,333 controls. Endophenotypes included the P300 event-related potential (N = 515), lateral ventricular volume (N = 798), and the cognitive measures block design (N = 3,089), digit span (N = 1,437), and the Ray Auditory Verbal Learning Task (N = 2,406). Data were collected across 11 sites in Europe and Australia; all genotyping and genetic analyses were done at the same laboratory in the United Kingdom. We calculated polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder separately, and used linear regression to test whether polygenic scores influenced the endophenotypes. Results showed that higher polygenic scores for schizophrenia were associated with poorer performance on the block design task and explained 0.2% (p = 0.009) of the variance. Associations in the same direction were found for bipolar disorder scores, but this was not statistically significant at the 1% level (p = 0.02). The schizophrenia score explained 0.4% of variance in lateral ventricular volumes, the largest across all phenotypes examined, although this was not significant (p = 0.063). None of the remaining associations reached significance after correction for multiple testing (with alpha at 1%). These results indicate that common genetic variants associated with schizophrenia predict performance in spatial visualization, providing additional evidence that this measure is an endophenotype for the disorder with shared genetic risk variants. The use of endophenotypes such as this will help to characterize the effects of common genetic variation in psychosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Austrália , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Endofenótipos/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Potencial Evocado P300 , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
13.
Ann Hum Genet ; 82(2): 88-92, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29148569

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe, highly heritable psychiatric disorder. Elucidation of the genetic architecture of the disorder will facilitate greater understanding of the altered underlying neurobiological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify likely aetiological variants in subjects affected with SCZ. Exome sequence data from a SCZ cas-control sample from Sweden was analysed for likely aetiological variants using a weighted burden test. Suggestive evidence implicated the UNC-51-like kinase (ULK1) gene, and it was observed that four rare variants that were more common in the Swedish SCZ cases were also more common in UK10K SCZ cases, as compared to obesity cases. These three missense variants and one intronic variant were genotyped in the University College London cohort of 1304 SCZ cases and 1348 ethnically matched controls. All four variants were more common in the SCZ cases than controls and combining them produced a result significant at P = 0.02. The results presented here demonstrate the importance of following up exome sequencing studies using additional datasets. The roles of ULK1 in autophagy and mTOR signalling strengthen the case that these pathways may be important in the pathophysiology of SCZ. The findings reported here await independent replication.

15.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 174(7): 724-731, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28719003

RESUMO

Risk of schizophrenia is conferred by alleles occurring across the full spectrum of frequencies from common SNPs of weak effect through to ultra rare alleles, some of which may be moderately to highly penetrant. Previous studies have suggested that some of the risk of schizophrenia is attributable to uncommon alleles represented on Illumina exome arrays. Here, we present the largest study of exomic variation in schizophrenia to date, using samples from the United Kingdom and Sweden (10,011 schizophrenia cases and 13,791 controls). Single variants, genes, and gene sets were analyzed for association with schizophrenia. No single variant or gene reached genome-wide significance. Among candidate gene sets, we found significant enrichment for rare alleles (minor allele frequency [MAF] < 0.001) in genes intolerant of loss-of-function (LoF) variation and in genes whose messenger RNAs bind to fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). We further delineate the genetic architecture of schizophrenia by excluding a role for uncommon exomic variants (0.01 ≤ MAF ≥ 0.001) that confer a relatively large effect (odds ratio [OR] > 4). We also show risk alleles within this frequency range exist, but confer smaller effects and should be identified by larger studies.


Assuntos
Exoma , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Prognóstico
16.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0177009, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594837

RESUMO

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver via the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Polymorphisms in the genes encoding these enzymes, which are common in East Asian populations, can alter enzyme kinetics and hence the risk of alcohol dependence and its sequelae. One of the most important genetic variants, in this regards, is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs671 in ALDH2, the gene encoding the primary acetaldehyde metabolizing enzyme ALDH2. However, the protective allele of rs671 is absent in most Europeans although ALDH1B1, which shares significant sequence homology with ALDH2, contains several, potentially functional, missense SNPs that do occur in European populations. The aims of this study were: (i) to use bioinformatic techniques to characterize the possible effects of selected variants in ALDH1B1 on protein structure and function; and, (ii) to genotype three missense and one stop-gain, protein-altering, non-synonymous SNPs in 1478 alcohol dependent cases and 1254 controls of matched British and Irish ancestry. No significant allelic associations were observed between the three missense SNPs and alcohol dependence risk. The minor allele frequency of rs142427338 (Gln378Ter) was higher in alcohol dependent cases than in controls (allelic P = 0.19, OR = 2.98, [0.62-14.37]) but as this SNP is very rare the study was likely underpowered to detect an association with alcohol dependence risk. This potential association will needs to be further evaluated in other large, independent European populations.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/enzimologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Biologia Computacional , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Aldeído Desidrogenase/química , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Irlanda , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Reino Unido
17.
Psychiatr Genet ; 27(3): 110-115, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346242

RESUMO

Associations between the γ-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABAA) and alcohol dependence risk have been reported, although the receptor subunit driving the association is unclear. Recent work in mice has highlighted a possible role for variants in the Gabr ß1 subunit (Gabrß1) in alcohol dependence risk, although this gene does not contain any common nonsynonymous variants in humans. However, the GABAA receptor is a heteropentamer so multiple potential variants within the gene complex could generate the alcohol dependence phenotype. The association between GABRß1 variants and alcohol dependence risk was explored in a British and Irish population of alcohol-dependent cases (n=450) and ancestrally-matched controls screened to exclude current or historical alcohol misuse (n=555). Twelve common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a rare nonsynonymous variant, rs41311286, were directly genotyped; imputation was then performed across the whole gene. No allelic association was observed between alcohol dependence risk and any of the directly genotyped or imputed SNPs. However, post-hoc testing for genotypic association identified five common intronic SNPs that showed modest evidence for association after correction for multiple testing; two, rs76112682 and rs141719901, were in complete linkage disequilibrium [Pcorrected=0.02, odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=5.9 (1.7-2.06)]. These findings provide limited support for an association between GABRß1 and the risk for developing alcohol dependence; further testing in expanded cohorts may be warranted.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Fator de Transcrição de Proteínas de Ligação GA/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição de Proteínas de Ligação GA/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Psychiatr Genet ; 27(3): 81-88, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28178086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar affective disorder (BPD) is a severe mood disorder with a prevalence of ∼1.5% in the population. The pathogenesis of BPD is poorly understood; however, a strong heritable component has been identified. Previous genome-wide association studies have indicated a region on 6q25, coding for the SYNE1 gene, which increases disease susceptibility. SYNE1 encodes the synaptic nuclear envelope protein-1, nesprin-1. A brain-specific splice variant of SYNE1, CPG2 encoding candidate plasticity gene 2, has been identified. The intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism with the strongest genome-wide significant association in BPD, rs9371601, is present in both SYNE1 and CPG2. METHODS: We screened 937 BPD samples for genetic variation in SYNE1 exons 14-33, which covers the CPG2 region, using high-resolution melt analysis. In addition, we screened two regions of increased transcriptional activity, one of them proposed to be the CPG2 promoter region. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We identified six nonsynonymous and six synonymous variants. We genotyped three rare nonsynonymous variants, rs374866393, rs148346599 and rs200629713, in a total of 1099 BPD samples and 1056 controls. Burden analysis of these rare variants did not show a significant association with BPD. However, nine patients are compound heterozygotes for variants in SYNE1/CPG2, suggesting that rare coding variants may contribute significantly towards the complex genetic architecture underlying BPD. Imputation analysis in our own whole-genome sequencing sample of 99 BPD individuals identified an additional eight risk variants in the CPG2 region of SYNE1.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Éxons , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Isoformas de Proteínas
19.
J Hepatol ; 67(1): 120-127, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28161471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Carriage of rs738409:G in PNPLA3 is associated with an increased risk of developing alcohol-related cirrhosis and has a significant negative effect on survival. Short-term mortality in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis is high; drinking behaviour is a major determinant of outcome in survivors. The aim of this study was to determine whether carriage of rs738409:G has an additional detrimental effect on survival in this patient group. METHODS: Genotyping was undertaken in 898 cases with severe alcoholic hepatitis, recruited through the UK Steroids or Pentoxifylline for Alcoholic Hepatitis (STOPAH) trial, and 1188 White British/Irish alcohol dependent controls with no liver injury, recruited via University College London. Subsequent drinking behaviour was classified, in cases surviving ≥90days, as abstinent or drinking. The relationship between rs738409 genotype, drinking behaviour and survival was explored. RESULTS: The frequency of rs738409:G was significantly higher in cases than controls (29.5% vs. 18.9%; p=2.15×10-15; odds ratio 1.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.08]). Case-mortality at days 28, 90 and 450 was 16%, 25% and 41% respectively. There was no association between rs738409:G and 28-day mortality. Mortality in the 90 to 450-day period was higher in survivors who subsequently resumed drinking (hazard ratio [HR] 2.77, 95% CI 1.79-4.29; p<0.0001) and in individuals homozygous for rs738409:G (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.81, p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Homozygosity for rs738409:G in PNPLA3 confers significant additional risk of medium-term mortality in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. Rs738409 genotype may be taken into account when considering treatment options for these patients. LAY SUMMARY: Individuals misusing alcohol who carry a particular variant of the gene PNPLA3 are more at risk of developing severe alcoholic hepatitis, a condition with a poor chance of survival. The longer-term outcome in people with this condition who survive the initial illness is strongly influenced by their ability to remain abstinent from alcohol. However, carriers of this gene variant are less likely to survive even if they are able to stop drinking completely. Knowing if someone carries this gene variant could influence the way in which they are managed. Clinical trial numbers: EudraCT reference number: 2009-013897-42; ISRCTN reference number: ISRCTN88782125. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBERS: EudraCT reference number: 2009-013897-42; ISRCTN reference number: ISRCTN88782125.


Assuntos
Hepatite Alcoólica/genética , Lipase/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepatite Alcoólica/mortalidade , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
20.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(9): 634-641, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are frequently co-occurring and highly heritable mental health conditions. We hypothesized that BPD cases with an early age of onset (≤21 years old) would be particularly likely to show genetic covariation with ADHD. METHODS: Genome-wide association study data were available for 4609 individuals with ADHD, 9650 individuals with BPD (5167 thereof with early-onset BPD), and 21,363 typically developing controls. We conducted a cross-disorder genome-wide association study meta-analysis to identify whether the observed comorbidity between ADHD and BPD could be due to shared genetic risks. RESULTS: We found a significant single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlation between ADHD and BPD in the full and age-restricted samples (rGfull = .64, p = 3.13 × 10-14; rGrestricted = .71, p = 4.09 × 10-16). The meta-analysis between the full BPD sample identified two genome-wide significant (prs7089973 = 2.47 × 10-8; prs11756438 = 4.36 × 10-8) regions located on chromosomes 6 (CEP85L) and 10 (TAF9BP2). Restricting the analyses to BPD cases with an early onset yielded one genome-wide significant association (prs58502974 = 2.11 × 10-8) on chromosome 5 in the ADCY2 gene. Additional nominally significant regions identified contained known expression quantitative trait loci with putative functional consequences for NT5DC1, NT5DC2, and CACNB3 expression, whereas functional predictions implicated ABLIM1 as an allele-specific expressed gene in neuronal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlation between ADHD and BPD is substantial, significant, and consistent with the existence of genetic overlap between ADHD and BPD, with potential differential genetic mechanisms involved in early and later BPD onset.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Comorbidade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Humanos
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