Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 90
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Adv ; 5(8): eaaw3538, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453325

RESUMO

Genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) is a fundamental component in understanding complex trait variation. However, it remains challenging to identify genetic variants with GEI effects in humans largely because of the small effect sizes and the difficulty of monitoring environmental fluctuations. Here, we demonstrate that GEI can be inferred from genetic variants associated with phenotypic variability in a large sample without the need of measuring environmental factors. We performed a genome-wide variance quantitative trait locus (vQTL) analysis of ~5.6 million variants on 348,501 unrelated individuals of European ancestry for 13 quantitative traits in the UK Biobank and identified 75 significant vQTLs with P < 2.0 × 10-9 for 9 traits, especially for those related to obesity. Direct GEI analysis with five environmental factors showed that the vQTLs were strongly enriched with GEI effects. Our results indicate pervasive GEI effects for obesity-related traits and demonstrate the detection of GEI without environmental data.

2.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 54, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation changes with age. Chronological age predictors built from DNA methylation are termed 'epigenetic clocks'. The deviation of predicted age from the actual age ('age acceleration residual', AAR) has been reported to be associated with death. However, it is currently unclear how a better prediction of chronological age affects such association. METHODS: In this study, we build multiple predictors based on training DNA methylation samples selected from 13,661 samples (13,402 from blood and 259 from saliva). We use the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921) and 1936 (LBC1936) to examine whether the association between AAR (from these predictors) and death is affected by (1) improving prediction accuracy of an age predictor as its training sample size increases (from 335 to 12,710) and (2) additionally correcting for confounders (i.e., cellular compositions). In addition, we investigated the performance of our predictor in non-blood tissues. RESULTS: We found that in principle, a near-perfect age predictor could be developed when the training sample size is sufficiently large. The association between AAR and mortality attenuates as prediction accuracy increases. AAR from our best predictor (based on Elastic Net, https://github.com/qzhang314/DNAm-based-age-predictor ) exhibits no association with mortality in both LBC1921 (hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.27) and LBC1936 (hazard ratio = 1.00, 95% CI 0.79-1.28). Predictors based on small sample size are prone to confounding by cellular compositions relative to those from large sample size. We observed comparable performance of our predictor in non-blood tissues with a multi-tissue-based predictor. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the epigenetic clock can be improved by increasing the training sample size and that its association with mortality attenuates with increased prediction of chronological age.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3009, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285442

RESUMO

Quantitative genetics theory predicts that X-chromosome dosage compensation (DC) will have a detectable effect on the amount of genetic and therefore phenotypic trait variances at associated loci in males and females. Here, we systematically examine the role of DC in humans in 20 complex traits in a sample of more than 450,000 individuals from the UK Biobank and 1600 gene expression traits from a sample of 2000 individuals as well as across-tissue gene expression from the GTEx resource. We find approximately twice as much X-linked genetic variation across the UK Biobank traits in males (mean h2SNP = 0.63%) compared to females (mean h2SNP = 0.30%), confirming the predicted DC effect. Our DC estimates for complex traits and gene expression are consistent with a small proportion of genes escaping X-inactivation in a trait- and tissue-dependent manner. Finally, we highlight examples of biologically relevant X-linked heterogeneity between the sexes that bias DC estimates if unaccounted for.


Assuntos
Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3160, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320639

RESUMO

Although plasma proteins may serve as markers of neurological disease risk, the molecular mechanisms responsible for inter-individual variation in plasma protein levels are poorly understood. Therefore, we conduct genome- and epigenome-wide association studies on the levels of 92 neurological proteins to identify genetic and epigenetic loci associated with their plasma concentrations (n = 750 healthy older adults). We identify 41 independent genome-wide significant (P < 5.4 × 10-10) loci for 33 proteins and 26 epigenome-wide significant (P < 3.9 × 10-10) sites associated with the levels of 9 proteins. Using this information, we identify biological pathways in which putative neurological biomarkers are implicated (neurological, immunological and extracellular matrix metabolic pathways). We also observe causal relationships (by Mendelian randomisation analysis) between changes in gene expression (DRAXIN, MDGA1 and KYNU), or DNA methylation profiles (MATN3, MDGA1 and NEP), and altered plasma protein levels. Together, this may help inform causal relationships between biomarkers and neurological diseases.

6.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 107, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138268

RESUMO

The rapid increase of omic data has greatly facilitated the investigation of associations between omic profiles such as DNA methylation (DNAm) and complex traits in large cohorts. Here, we propose a mixed-linear-model-based method called MOMENT that tests for association between a DNAm probe and trait with all other distal probes fitted in multiple random-effect components to account for unobserved confounders. We demonstrate by simulations that MOMENT shows a lower false positive rate and more robustness than existing methods. MOMENT has been implemented in a versatile software package called OSCA together with a number of other implementations for omic-data-based analyses.


Assuntos
Técnicas Genéticas , Metabolômica/métodos , Software , Idoso , Simulação por Computador , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Fenótipo
7.
Genetics ; 212(3): 577-586, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040117

RESUMO

Genetic variants disrupting DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides (CpG-SNP) provide a set of known causal variants to serve as models to test fine-mapping methodology. We use 1716 CpG-SNPs to test three fine-mapping approaches (Bayesian imputation-based association mapping, Bayesian sparse linear mixed model, and the J-test), assessing the impact of imputation errors and the choice of reference panel by using both whole-genome sequence (WGS), and genotype array data on the same individuals (n = 1166). The choice of imputation reference panel had a strong effect on imputation accuracy, with the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 (1000G) reference panel (n = 2504 from 26 populations) giving a mean nonreference discordance rate between imputed and sequenced genotypes of 3.2% compared to 1.6% when using the Haplotype Reference Consortium (HRC) reference panel (n = 32,470 Europeans). These imputation errors had an impact on whether the CpG-SNP was included in the 95% credible set, with a difference of ∼23% and ∼7% between the WGS and the 1000G and HRC imputed datasets, respectively. All of the fine-mapping methods failed to reach the expected 95% coverage of the CpG-SNP. This is attributed to secondary cis genetic effects that are unable to be statistically separated from the CpG-SNP, and through a masking mechanism where the effect of the methylation disrupting allele at the CpG-SNP is hidden by the effect of a nearby SNP that has strong linkage disequilibrium with the CpG-SNP. The reduced accuracy in fine-mapping a known causal variant in a low-level biological trait with imputed genetic data has implications for the study of higher-order complex traits and disease.

8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(17): 2976-2986, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044242

RESUMO

Despite extensive sex differences in human complex traits and disease, the male and female genomes differ only in the sex chromosomes. This implies that most sex-differentiated traits are the result of differences in the expression of genes that are common to both sexes. While sex differences in gene expression have been observed in a range of different tissues, the biological mechanisms for tissue-specific sex differences (TSSDs) in gene expression are not well understood. A total of 30 640 autosomal and 1021 X-linked transcripts were tested for heterogeneity in sex difference effect sizes in n = 617 individuals across 40 tissue types in Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx). This identified 65 autosomal and 66 X-linked TSSD transcripts (corresponding to unique genes) at a stringent significance threshold. Results for X-linked TSSD transcripts showed mainly concordant direction of sex differences across tissues and replicate previous findings. Autosomal TSSD transcripts had mainly discordant direction of sex differences across tissues. The top cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) across tissues for autosomal TSSD transcripts are located a similar distance away from the nearest androgen and estrogen binding motifs and the nearest enhancer, as compared to cis-eQTLs for transcripts with stable sex differences in gene expression across tissue types. Enhancer regions that overlap top cis-eQTLs for TSSD transcripts, however, were found to be more dispersed across tissues. These observations suggest that androgen and estrogen regulatory elements in a cis region may play a common role in sex differences in gene expression, but TSSD in gene expression may additionally be due to causal variants located in tissue-specific enhancer regions.

9.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(9): 1795-1802, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between obesity and adverse health is well established, but little is known about the contribution of DNA methylation to obesity-related health outcomes. This study tests associations between an epigenetic score for body mass index (BMI) and health-related, cognitive, psychosocial and lifestyle outcomes in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. This study also tests whether these associations are independent of phenotypic BMI. METHOD: Analyses were conducted using data from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 892). Weights for the epigenetic BMI score were derived using penalised regression on methylation data from unrelated Generation Scotland participants (n = 2562). Associations were tested for replication in an independent sample: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (n = 433). RESULTS: A higher epigenetic BMI score was associated with higher BMI (R2 = 0.1), greater body weight (R2 = 0.06), greater time taken to walk 6 m, poorer lung function and poorer general physical health (all R2 = 0.02), greater levels of triglycerides (R2 = 0.09), greater %total HbA1c (R2 = 0.06), lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL; R2 = 0.08), higher HDL ratio (HDL/total cholesterol; R2 = 0.03), lower health-related quality of life, physical inactivity, and greater social deprivation (all R2 = 0.02). The epigenetic BMI score (per SD) was also associated with type 2 diabetes (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.67, 2.84), cardiovascular disease (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.24, 1.71) and high blood pressure (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.13, 1.49; all p < 0.00026 after Bonferroni correction). Associations were replicated for BMI (R2 = 0.06), body weight (R2 = 0.04), health-related quality of life (R2 = 0.02), HbA1c (R2 = 0.07) and triglycerides (R2 = 0.07; all p < 0.0045 after Bonferroni correction). CONCLUSIONS: We observed and replicated associations between an epigenetic score for BMI and variables related to poor physical health and metabolic syndrome. Regression models with both epigenetic and phenotypic BMI scores as predictors accounted for a greater proportion of variance in all outcome variables than either predictor alone, demonstrating independent and additive effects of epigenetic and phenotypic BMI scores.

10.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 49, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major challenges in understanding the functional consequences of genetic risk factors for human disease are which tissues and cell types are affected and the limited availability of suitable tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate tissue-specific genotype-epigenetic characteristics in DNA samples from both endometrium and blood collected from women at different stages of the menstrual cycle and relate results to genetic risk factors for reproductive traits and diseases. RESULTS: We analysed DNA methylation (DNAm) data from endometrium and blood samples from 66 European women. Methylation profiles were compared between stages of the menstrual cycle, and changes in methylation overlaid with changes in transcription and genotypes. We observed large changes in methylation (27,262 DNAm probes) across the menstrual cycle in endometrium that were not observed in blood. Individual genotype data was tested for association with methylation at 443,016 and 443,101 DNAm probes in endometrium and blood respectively to identify methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). A total of 4546 sentinel cis-mQTLs (P < 1.13 × 10-10) and 434 sentinel trans-mQTLs (P < 2.29 × 10-12) were detected in endometrium and 6615 sentinel cis-mQTLs (P < 1.13 × 10-10) and 590 sentinel trans-mQTLs (P < 2.29 × 10-12) were detected in blood. Following secondary analyses, conducted to test for overlap between mQTLs in the two tissues, we found that 62% of endometrial cis-mQTLs were also observed in blood and the genetic effects between tissues were highly correlated. A number of mQTL SNPs were associated with reproductive traits and diseases, including one mQTL located in a known risk region for endometriosis (near GREB1). CONCLUSIONS: We report novel findings characterising genetic regulation of methylation in endometrium and the association of endometrial mQTLs with endometriosis risk and other reproductive traits and diseases. The high correlation of genetic effects between tissues highlights the potential to exploit the power of large mQTL datasets in endometrial research and identify target genes for functional studies. However, tissue-specific methylation profiles and genetic effects also highlight the importance of also using disease-relevant tissues when investigating molecular mechanisms of disease risk.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17605, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514905

RESUMO

DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of transcription. Genetic control of DNA methylation is a potential candidate for explaining the many identified SNP associations with disease that are not found in coding regions. We replicated 52,916 cis and 2,025 trans DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) using methylation from whole blood measured on Illumina HumanMethylation450 arrays in the Brisbane Systems Genetics Study (n = 614 from 177 families) and the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 (combined n = 1366). The trans mQTL SNPs were found to be over-represented in 1 Mbp subtelomeric regions, and on chromosomes 16 and 19. There was a significant increase in trans mQTL DNA methylation sites in upstream and 5' UTR regions. The genetic heritability of a number of complex traits and diseases was partitioned into components due to mQTL and the remainder of the genome. Significant enrichment was observed for height (p = 2.1 × 10-10), ulcerative colitis (p = 2 × 10-5), Crohn's disease (p = 6 × 10-8) and coronary artery disease (p = 5.5 × 10-6) when compared to a random sample of SNPs with matched minor allele frequency, although this enrichment is explained by the genomic location of the mQTL SNPs.

12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 159, 2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic age acceleration (an older methylation age compared to chronological age) correlates strongly with various age-related morbidities and mortality. Chronic systemic inflammation is thought to be a hallmark of ageing, but the relationship between an increased epigenetic age and this likely key phenotype of ageing has not yet been extensively investigated. METHODS: We modelled the trajectories of the inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP; measured using both a high- and low-sensitivity assay) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) over the eighth decade in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Using linear mixed models, we investigated the association between CRP and immune cell profiles imputed from the methylation data and examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between the inflammatory biomarkers and two measures of epigenetic age acceleration, derived from the Horvath and Hannum epigenetic clocks. RESULTS: We found that low-sensitivity CRP declined, high-sensitivity CRP did not change, and IL-6 increased over time within the cohort. CRP levels inversely associated with CD8+T cells and CD4+T cells and positively associated with senescent CD8+T cells, plasmablasts and granulocytes. Cross-sectionally, the Hannum, but not the Horvath, measure of age acceleration was positively associated with each of the inflammatory biomarkers, including a restricted measure of CRP (≤ 10 mg/L) likely reflecting levels relevant to chronic inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: We found a divergent relationship between inflammation and immune system parameters in older age. We additionally report the Hannum measure of epigenetic age acceleration associated with an elevated inflammatory profile cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Marcadores Genéticos , Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Granulócitos/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Plasmócitos/imunologia
13.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 75, 2018 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation levels change along with age, but few studies have examined the variation in the rate of such changes between individuals. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal analysis to quantify the variation in the rate of change of DNA methylation between individuals using whole blood DNA methylation array profiles collected at 2-4 time points (N = 2894) in 954 individuals (67-90 years). RESULTS: After stringent quality control, we identified 1507 DNA methylation CpG sites (rsCpGs) with statistically significant variation in the rate of change (random slope) of DNA methylation among individuals in a mixed linear model analysis. Genes in the vicinity of these rsCpGs were found to be enriched in Homeobox transcription factors and the Wnt signalling pathway, both of which are related to ageing processes. Furthermore, we investigated the SNP effect on the random slope. We found that 4 out of 1507 rsCpGs had one significant (P < 5 × 10-8/1507) SNP effect and 343 rsCpGs had at least one SNP effect (436 SNP-probe pairs) reaching genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8). Ninety-five percent of the significant (P < 5 × 10-8) SNPs are on different chromosomes from their corresponding probes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified CpG sites that have variability in the rate of change of DNA methylation between individuals, and our results suggest a genetic basis of this variation. Genes around these CpG sites have been reported to be involved in the ageing process.

14.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 136, 2018 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiling has allowed for the development of molecular predictors for a multitude of traits and diseases. Such predictors may be more accurate than the self-reported phenotypes and could have clinical applications. RESULTS: Here, penalized regression models are used to develop DNAm predictors for ten modifiable health and lifestyle factors in a cohort of 5087 individuals. Using an independent test cohort comprising 895 individuals, the proportion of phenotypic variance explained in each trait is examined for DNAm-based and genetic predictors. Receiver operator characteristic curves are generated to investigate the predictive performance of DNAm-based predictors, using dichotomized phenotypes. The relationship between DNAm scores and all-cause mortality (n = 212 events) is assessed via Cox proportional hazards models. DNAm predictors for smoking, alcohol, education, and waist-to-hip ratio are shown to predict mortality in multivariate models. The predictors show moderate discrimination of obesity, alcohol consumption, and HDL cholesterol. There is excellent discrimination of current smoking status, poorer discrimination of college-educated individuals and those with high total cholesterol, LDL with remnant cholesterol, and total:HDL cholesterol ratios. CONCLUSIONS: DNAm predictors correlate with lifestyle factors that are associated with health and mortality. They may supplement DNAm-based predictors of age to identify the lifestyle profiles of individuals and predict disease risk.

15.
Epigenetics ; 13(9): 975-987, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264654

RESUMO

Age-related changes in DNA methylation were observed in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal evidence is still limited. Here, we aimed to characterize longitudinal age-related methylation patterns using 1011 blood samples collected from 385 Swedish twins (age at entry: mean 69 and standard deviation 9.7, 73 monozygotic and 96 dizygotic pairs) up to five times (mean 2.6) over 20 years (mean 8.7). We identified 1316 age-associated methylation sites (P<1.3×10-7) using a longitudinal epigenome-wide association study design. We measured how estimated cellular compositions changed with age and how much they confounded the age effect. We validated the results in two independent longitudinal cohorts, where 118 CpGs were replicated in Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS, 390 samples) (P<3.9×10-5), 594 in Lothian Birth Cohort (LBC, 3018 samples) (P<5.1×10-5) and 63 in both. Functional annotation of age-associated CpGs showed enrichment in CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and other transcription factor binding sites. We further investigated genetic influences on methylation and found no interaction between age and genetic effects in the 1316 age-associated CpGs. Moreover, in the same CpGs, methylation differences within twin pairs increased with 6.4% over 10 years, where monozygotic twins had smaller intra-pair differences than dizygotic twins. In conclusion, we show that age-related methylation changes persist in a longitudinal perspective, and are fairly stable across cohorts. The changes are under genetic influence, although this effect is independent of age. Moreover, methylation variability increase over time, especially in age-associated CpGs, indicating the increase of environmental contributions on DNA methylation with age.

16.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(9): 949-959, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998287

RESUMO

Importance: Depressive disorders arise from a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Epigenetic disruption provides a plausible mechanism through which gene-environment interactions lead to depression. Large-scale, epigenome-wide studies on depression are missing, hampering the identification of potentially modifiable biomarkers. Objective: To identify epigenetic mechanisms underlying depression in middle-aged and elderly persons, using DNA methylation in blood. Design, Setting, and Participants: To date, the first cross-ethnic meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) within the framework of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium was conducted. The discovery EWAS included 7948 individuals of European origin from 9 population-based cohorts. Participants who were assessed for both depressive symptoms and whole-blood DNA methylation were included in the study. Results of EWAS were pooled using sample-size weighted meta-analysis. Replication of the top epigenetic sites was performed in 3308 individuals of African American and European origin from 2 population-based cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Whole-blood DNA methylation levels were assayed with Illumina-Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip and depressive symptoms were assessed by questionnaire. Results: The discovery cohorts consisted of 7948 individuals (4104 [51.6%] women) with a mean (SD) age of 65.4 (5.8) years. The replication cohort consisted of 3308 individuals (2456 [74.2%] women) with a mean (SD) age of 60.3 (6.4) years. The EWAS identified methylation of 3 CpG sites to be significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms: cg04987734 (P = 1.57 × 10-08; n = 11 256; CDC42BPB gene), cg12325605 (P = 5.24 × 10-09; n = 11 256; ARHGEF3 gene), and an intergenic CpG site cg14023999 (P = 5.99 × 10-08; n = 11 256; chromosome = 15q26.1). The predicted expression of the CDC42BPB gene in the brain (basal ganglia) (effect, 0.14; P = 2.7 × 10-03) and of ARHGEF3 in fibroblasts (effect, -0.48; P = 9.8 × 10-04) was associated with major depression. Conclusions and Relevance: This study identifies 3 methylated sites associated with depressive symptoms. All 3 findings point toward axon guidance as the common disrupted pathway in depression. The findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex pathophysiology of depression. Further research is warranted to determine the utility of these findings as biomarkers of depression and evaluate any potential role in the pathophysiology of depression and their downstream clinical effects.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2941, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054458

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a very common disease in humans. Here we conduct a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with ~16 million genetic variants in 62,892 T2D cases and 596,424 controls of European ancestry. We identify 139 common and 4 rare variants associated with T2D, 42 of which (39 common and 3 rare variants) are independent of the known variants. Integration of the gene expression data from blood (n = 14,115 and 2765) with the GWAS results identifies 33 putative functional genes for T2D, 3 of which were targeted by approved drugs. A further integration of DNA methylation (n = 1980) and epigenomic annotation data highlight 3 genes (CAMK1D, TP53INP1, and ATP5G1) with plausible regulatory mechanisms, whereby a genetic variant exerts an effect on T2D through epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Our study uncovers additional loci, proposes putative genetic regulatory mechanisms for T2D, and provides evidence of purifying selection for T2D-associated variants.

18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(16): 2927-2939, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860447

RESUMO

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism leading to parent-of-origin silencing of alleles. So far, the precise number of imprinted regions in humans is uncertain. In this study, we leveraged genome-wide DNA methylation in whole blood measured longitudinally at three time points (birth, childhood and adolescence) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data in 740 mother-child duos from the Avon Longitudinal Study of parents and children to identify candidate imprinted loci. We reasoned that cis-meQTLs at genomic regions that were imprinted would show strong evidence of parent-of-origin associations with DNA methylation, enabling the detection of imprinted regions. Using this approach, we identified genome-wide significant cis-meQTLs that exhibited parent-of-origin effects (POEs) at 82 loci, 34 novel and 48 regions previously implicated in imprinting (3.7-10

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2282, 2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891976

RESUMO

Understanding the difference in genetic regulation of gene expression between brain and blood is important for discovering genes for brain-related traits and disorders. Here, we estimate the correlation of genetic effects at the top-associated cis-expression or -DNA methylation (DNAm) quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs or cis-mQTLs) between brain and blood (r b ). Using publicly available data, we find that genetic effects at the top cis-eQTLs or mQTLs are highly correlated between independent brain and blood samples ([Formula: see text] for cis-eQTLs and [Formula: see text] for cis-mQTLs). Using meta-analyzed brain cis-eQTL/mQTL data (n = 526 to 1194), we identify 61 genes and 167 DNAm sites associated with four brain-related phenotypes, most of which are a subset of the discoveries (97 genes and 295 DNAm sites) using data from blood with larger sample sizes (n = 1980 to 14,115). Our results demonstrate the gain of power in gene discovery for brain-related phenotypes using blood cis-eQTL/mQTL data with large sample sizes.

20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 99, 2018 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777097

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a public health priority for the 21st century. Risk reduction currently revolves around lifestyle changes with much research trying to elucidate the biological underpinnings. We show that self-report of parental history of Alzheimer's dementia for case ascertainment in a genome-wide association study of 314,278 participants from UK Biobank (27,696 maternal cases, 14,338 paternal cases) is a valid proxy for an AD genetic study. After meta-analysing with published consortium data (n = 74,046 with 25,580 cases across the discovery and replication analyses), three new AD-associated loci (P < 5 × 10-8) are identified. These contain genes relevant for AD and neurodegeneration: ADAM10, BCKDK/KAT8 and ACE. Novel gene-based loci include drug targets such as VKORC1 (warfarin dose). We report evidence that the association of SNPs in the TOMM40 gene with AD is potentially mediated by both gene expression and DNA methylation in the prefrontal cortex. However, it is likely that multiple variants are affecting the trait and gene methylation/expression. Our discovered loci may help to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying AD and, as they contain genes that are drug targets for other diseases and disorders, warrant further exploration for potential precision medicine applications.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA